Gun politics have only become a notable issue in Australia since the 1980s. Low levels of violent crime through much of the 20th century kept levels of public concern about firearms low. In the last two decades of the century, following several high profile multiple murders and a media campaign, the Australian government co-ordinated more restrictive firearms legislation with all state governments.
Australian firearm lawsEdit
State laws govern the possession and use of firearms in Australia. These laws were largely aligned under the 1996 National Firearms Agreement (NFA). Anyone wishing to possess or use a firearm must have a Firearms Licence and, with some exceptions, be over the age of 18. Owners must have secure storage for their firearms.
Each firearm in Australia must be registered to the owner by serial number. Some states allow an owner to store or borrow another person's registered firearm of the same category.
Firearms in Australia are grouped into Categories determined by the National Firearm Agreement with different levels of control. The categories are:
- Category A: Rimfire rifles (not semi-automatic), shotguns (not pump-action or semi-automatic), air rifles, and paintball markers. A "Genuine Reason" must be provided for a Category A firearm.
- Category B: Centrefire rifles (not semi-automatic), muzzleloading firearms made after 1 January 1901. Apart from a "Genuine Reason", a "Genuine Need" must be demonstrated, including why a Category A firearm would not be suitable.
- Category C: Semi-automatic rimfire rifles holding 10 or fewer rounds and pump-action or semi-automatic shotguns holding 5 or fewer rounds. Category C firearms are strongly restricted: only primary producers, occupational shooters, collectors and some clay target shooters can own functional Category C firearms.
- Category D: Semi-automatic centrefire rifles, pump-action or semi-automatic shotguns holding more than 5 rounds. Functional Category D firearms are restricted to government agencies and a few occupational shooters. Collectors may own deactivated Category D firearms.
- Category H: Handguns including air pistols and deactivated handguns. (Albeit both SA and WA do not require deactivated handguns to be regarded as handguns after the deactivation process has taken place. This situation was the catalyst in QLD for the deactivation and diversion of thousands of handguns to the black-market – the loophole shut since 2001) This class is available to target shooters. To be eligible for a Category H firearm, a target shooter must serve a probationary period of 12 months the first 6 months using club handguns,then in the remainder of the last 6 month probationary licence, an application may be made, permit to acquire. A minimum number of matches yearly to retain each category of handgun and be a financial member of an approved Pistol Club. Source http://www.police.nsw.gov.au/services/firearms
These categories – A,B,C,D and H were those determined by the NFA. The others listed here are determined by the states that have implement them at their own discretion.
- Target shooters are limited to handguns of .38 or 9mm calibre or less and magazines may hold a maximum of 10 rounds. Participants in certain "approved" pistol competitions may acquire handguns up to .45", currently Single Action Shooting and Metallic Silhouette. IPSC shooting is approved for 9mm/.38/.357 sig, handguns that meet the IPSC rules, but larger calibres are not approved for IPSC handgun shooting contests in Australia. source http://www.ipsc.org.au/ . Category H barrels must be at least 100mm (3.94") long for revolvers, and 120mm (4.72") for semi-automatic pistols unless the pistols are clearly ISSF target pistols: magazines are restricted to 10 rounds. Handguns held as part of a collection were exempted from these limits.
- Category R/E: Restricted weapons: machine guns, rocket launchers, assault rifles, flame-throwers, anti-tank guns, Howitzers, artillery, etc. can be owned by collectors in some states provided that these weapons have been rendered permanently inoperable. They are subject to the same storage and licensing requirements as fully functioning firearms.
Certain Antique firearms can in some states be legally held without licences. In other states they are subject to the same requirements as modern firearms.
All single-shot muzzleloading firearms manufactured before 1 January 1901 are considered antique firearms. Four states require licences for antique percussion revolvers and cartridge repeating firearms, but in Queensland and Victoria a person may possess such a firearm without a licence, so long as the firearm is registered (percussion revolvers require a license in Victoria).
Australia has very tight restrictions on items which are far less controlled in comparable societies such as New Zealand. Air pistols, elsewhere unrestricted, are as difficult to get as centrefire and rimfire handguns, and low-powered airguns are as difficult as cartridge arms to license. Airsoft guns are banned in all states and non-firing replicas banned in most. Suppressors (or 'silencers') which are legal in the UK and New Zealand, are extremely restricted in Australia to a few government bodies.
Firearms in Australian historyEdit
Firearms were first introduced to Australia with European settlement. They were used for hunting, protection of persons and crops, in crime and fighting crime, and in many military engagements. From the landing of the First Fleet on 26 January 1788 there was conflict with aborigines over game, access to fenced land, and spearing of livestock. Firearms were used to protect explorers and settlers from Aboriginal attack. A number of punitive raids and massacres of aboriginals were carried out in a series of local conflicts. The history of these conflicts is contentious (see History wars).
From the beginning there were controls on firearms. The firearms issued to convicts (for meat hunting) and settlers (for hunting and protection) were stolen and misused, and this resulted in more controls. In January 1796, David Collins wrote that 'several attempts had been made to ascertain the number of arms in the possession of individuals, as many were feared to be in the hands of those who committed depredations; the crown recalled between two and three hundred stands of arms, but not 50 stands were accounted for'.
Australian colonists also used firearms in conflict with bushrangers; in duels, the last in 1854; in armed rebellions, such as the Castle Hill convict rebellion in 1804 and the 1854 Eureka Stockade. The Eureka Stockade in 1854 arose as a result of Government and police abuses against gold miners. A large force of police and soldiers assaulted a stockade set up by miners. Six soldiers and twenty-two miners were killed.
From the 1850s to the 1950s, Australians developed a strong volunteer tradition in preparing defence against possible invaders, and sent volunteer expeditionary forces to most British wars. From this arose an enthusiastic civil marksmanship movement, a form of military reserve supported under the Defence Act until as late as 1996. The movement exists to this day in the fullbore Rifle Clubs affiliated with the State and National Rifle Associations of Australia. The highest trophy shows the significance of this sport to the nation: the Queen's Prize.
Federation and the rise of regulation in the 20th centuryEdit
Gun laws were the responsibility of each colony and, since Federation in 1901, of each state. The Commonwealth does not have constitutional authority over firearms, but it controls customs and military matters, and the external affairs power can be used to enforce internal control over matters agreed in external treaties.
During the 1920s Australia, Canada and Great Britain became concerned about the rise of communism after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, and imposed restrictions on handguns. The murders of three policemen in Western Australia and the rise of organised crime in Sydney and Melbourne, with a number of lurid underworld murders were also a factor. These restrictions have increased over the succeeding decades. In New South Wales, handguns were effectively banned after World War II but the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games sparked a new interest in the sport of pistol shooting and laws were changed to allow the sport to develop.
Rifles and shotguns were less restricted than handguns. State gun laws varied widely. Western Australia and the Northern Territory had severe restrictions even on sporting rifles and shotguns, but in Queensland and Tasmania they could be bought without restrictions.
Fully automatic arms were banned on the Australian mainland from the 1930s, but remained legal in Tasmania until 1996.
In the 1940s and 1950s, Cold War concerns about ex-military rifles falling into the hands of communist radicals led New South Wales to place restrictions on the legal ownership of rifles of a military calibre (see: .303/25) while members of rifle clubs and military rifle clubs could own ex-military rifles. In the 1970s these restrictions were relaxed in New South Wales and military style rifles (both bolt-action and semi-automatic) once again became widely available, except in Western Australia and the Northern Territory.
By the beginning of the 1980s, the relative popularity of shooting and the prevalence of firearms in the community began to fall as social attitudes changed and urbanisation increased. The rise of new values including feminism, environmental awareness and media reports of American gun violence created an awareness of gun control as a potential issue. The 1981 publication of Richard Harding's book "Firearms and Violence in Australian Life" and conferences in several cities involved academics, criminologists, police representatives and gun control activists. As in other countries, public concern over violence and its possible links to media violence also gave rise to a general increase in support for gun control and increased media involvement in the issue. Gun control activism in Australia became organised with the formation in 1981 of the "Committee to Control Gun Misuse" in Victoria, later to become Gun Control Australia.
1984–1996 multiple killingsEdit
From 1984 to 1996, multiple killings aroused public concern. The 1984 Milperra massacre was a major incident in a series of conflicts between various 'outlaw motorcycle gangs'. In 1987, the Hoddle Street massacre and the Queen Street massacre took place in Melbourne. In response, several states required the registration of all guns, and restricted the availability of self-loading rifles and shotguns. In the Strathfield massacre in New South Wales, 1991, two were killed with a knife, and five more with a firearm. Tasmania passed a law in 1991 for firearm purchasers to obtain a licence, though enforcement was light. Firearm laws in Tasmania and Queensland remained relatively relaxed for longarms.
Shooting massacres in Australia and other English-speaking countries often occurred close together in time. Forensic psychiatrists attribute this to copycat behaviour, which is in many cases triggered by sensational media treatment. Mass murderers study media reports and imitate the actions and equipment that are sensationalised in them.
The Port Arthur massacre and its consequencesEdit
The Port Arthur massacre in 1996 transformed gun control legislation in Australia. Thirty-five people were killed and 23 wounded when a man with a history of violent and erratic behaviour beginning in early childhood opened fire on shop owners and tourists with two military style semi-automatic rifles. Six weeks after the Dunblane massacre in Scotland, this mass killing at the notorious former convict prison at Port Arthur horrified the Australian public and had powerful political consequences.
The Port Arthur perpetrator said he bought his firearms from a gun dealer without holding the required firearms licence.
Prime Minister John Howard immediately took the gun law proposals developed from the report of the 1988 National Committee on Violence and forced the states to adopt them under a National Firearms Agreement. This was necessary because the Australian Constitution does not give the Commonwealth power to enact gun laws. The proposals included a ban on all semi-automatic rifles and all semi-automatic and pump-action shotguns, and a tightly restrictive system of licensing and ownership controls.
Some discussion of measures to allow owners to undertake modifications to reduce the capacity of magazine-fed shotguns ("crimping") occurred, but the government refused to permit this.
Surveys showed up to 85% of Australians supported gun control, but some farmers and sporting shooters strongly opposed the new laws.
The Howard Government planned a series of public meetings to explain the proposed changes. In the first meeting, on the advice of his security team, Howard wore a bullet-resistant vest, which was visible under his jacket. Many shooters were critical of this.
Some shooters applied to join the Liberal Party of Australia in an attempt to influence the government, but the Liberal Party barred them from membership. A court action by 500 shooters seeking admission to membership eventually failed in the Supreme Court of South Australia.
The Australian Constitution prevents the taking of property without just compensation, so the federal government introduced the Medicare Levy Amendment Act 1996 to raise the predicted cost of A$500 million through a one-off increase in the Medicare levy. The gun buy-back scheme started on 1 October 1996 and concluded on 30 September 1997. The buyback purchased and destroyed more than 631,000 firearms, mostly semi-auto .22 rimfires, semi-automatic shotguns and pump-action shotguns. Only Victoria provided a breakdown of types destroyed, and in that state less than 3% were military style semi-automatic rifles.
Monash University shootingsEdit
In 2002, an international student killed two fellow students at Monash University in Victoria with pistols he had acquired as a member of a shooting club. The gunman, Huan Yun Xiang, was acquitted of crimes related to the shootings due to mental impairment but ordered to be detained in Thomas Embling Hospital, a high-security hospital for up to 25 years.
As in 1996, the federal government urged state governments to review handgun laws, and amended legislation was adopted in all states and territories. Changes included a 10-round magazine capacity limit, a calibre limit of not more than .38 inches (9.65 mm), a barrel length limit of not less than 120 mm (4.72 inches) for semi-automatic pistols and 100 mm (3.94 inches) for revolvers, and even stricter probation and attendance requirements for sporting target shooters. Whilst handguns for sporting shooters are nominally restricted to .38 inches as a maximum calibre, it is possible to obtain an endorsement allowing calibres up to .45 inches (11.43 mm) to be used for metallic silhouette or Single Action Shooting matches. These new laws were opposed not only by sporting shooters groups but also by gun control supporters, who saw it as paying for shooters to upgrade to new guns. In the state of Victoria A$21 million compensation was paid for confiscating 18,814 target pistols, and 15,184 replacement pistols were imported.
One government policy was to compensate shooters for giving up the sport. Approximately 25% of pistol shooters took this offer, and relinquished their licences and their right to own pistols for sport for five years; in Victoria it is estimated 1/3 of people surrendering firearms took this option.
Measuring the effects of firearms laws in AustraliaEdit
Historically, Australia has had relatively low levels of violent crime. Overall levels of homicide and suicide have been in decline for several decades, while the proportion of these crimes that involved firearms has consistently declined since the early 1980s. Between 1991 and 2001, the number of firearm-related deaths in Australia declined 47%. According to a 2011 report from the Australian government, "...the number of victims of homicide has been in decline since 1996". There were 354 victims in 1996, but only 260 victims in 2010, a decrease of 27 percent. Also, "The proportion of homicide victims killed by offenders using firearms in 2009–10 represented a decrease of 18 percentage points from the peak of 31 percent in 1995–96 (the year in which the Port Arthur massacre occurred with the death of 35 people, which subsequently led to the introduction of stringent firearms legislation)."
Firearm suicides have fallen from about 22% of all suicides in 1992 to 7% of all suicides in 2005. Immediately following the Buyback there was a fall in firearm suicides which was more than offset by a 10% increase in total suicides in 1997 and 1998. There were concerted efforts in suicide prevention from this time and in subsequent years the total suicide rate resumed its decline.
The number of guns stolen has fallen from an average 4,195 per year from 1994 to 2000 to 1,526 in 2006–2007. Long guns are more often stolen opportunistically in home burglaries, but few homes have handguns and a substantial proportion of stolen handguns are taken from security firms and other businesses; only a tiny proportion, 0.06% of licensed firearms, are stolen in a given year. Only a small proportion of those firearms are recovered. Approximately 3% of these stolen weapons are later connected to an actual crime or found in the possession of a person charged with a serious offence.
Contention over effects of the lawsEdit
In 1997, the Prime Minister appointed the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) to monitor the effects of the gun buyback. The AIC have published a number of papers reporting trends and statistics around gun ownership and gun crime, which they have found to be mostly related to illegally-held firearms.
Some researchers have found a significant change in the rate of firearm suicides after the legislative changes. For example, Ozanne-Smith et al. (2004) in the journal Injury Prevention found a reduction in firearm suicides in Victoria, however this study did not consider non-firearm suicide rates. Others have argued that alternative methods of suicide have been substituted. De Leo, Dwyer, Firman & Neulinger, studied suicide methods in men from 1979 to 1998 and found a rise in hanging suicides that started slightly before the fall in gun suicides. As hanging suicides rose at about the same rate as gun suicides fell, it is possible that there was some substitution of suicide methods. It has been noted that drawing strong conclusions about possible impacts of gun laws on suicides is challenging, because a number of suicide prevention programs were implemented from the mid-1990s onwards, and non-firearm suicides also began falling.
In 2005 the head of the New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, Don Weatherburn, noted that the level of legal gun ownership in New South Wales increased in recent years, and that the 1996 legislation had had little to no effect on violence. Professor Simon Chapman, former co-convenor of the Coalition for Gun Control, complained that his words "will henceforth be cited by every gun-lusting lobby group throughout the world in their perverse efforts to stall reforms that could save thousands of lives". Weatherburn responded, "The fact is that the introduction of those laws did not result in any acceleration of the downward trend in gun homicide. They may have reduced the risk of mass shootings but we cannot be sure because no one has done the rigorous statistical work required to verify this possibility. It is always unpleasant to acknowledge facts that are inconsistent with your own point of view. But I thought that was what distinguished science from popular prejudice."
In 2006, the lack of a measurable effect from the 1996 firearms legislation was reported in the British Journal of Criminology. Using ARIMA analysis, Dr Jeanine Baker (a former state president of the Sporting Shooters' Association of Australia(SA)) and Dr Samara McPhedran (Women in Shooting and Hunting) found no evidence for an impact of the laws on homicide.
Weatherburn described the Baker & McPhedran article as "reputable" and "well-conducted" and stated that the available data are insufficient to draw stronger conclusions. Weatherburn noted the importance of actively policing illegal firearm trafficking and argued that there was little evidence that the new laws had helped in this regard.
A study co-authored by Simon Chapman found declines in firearm‐related deaths before the law reforms accelerated after the reforms for total firearm deaths (p=0.04), firearm suicides (p=0.007) and firearm homicides (p=0.15), but not for the smallest category of unintentional firearm deaths, which increased.
Subsequently, a study by McPhedran and Baker compared the incidence of mass shootings in Australian and New Zealand. Data were standardised to a rate per 100,000 people, to control for differences in population size between the countries and mass shootings before and after 1996/1997 were compared between countries. That study found that in the period 1980–1996, both countries experienced mass shootings. The rate did not differ significantly between countries. Since 1996/1997, neither country has experienced a mass shooting event despite the continued availability of semi-automatic longarms in New Zealand. The authors conclude that "the hypothesis that Australia's prohibition of certain types of firearms explains the absence of mass shootings in that country since 1996 does not appear to be supported... if civilian access to certain types of firearms explained the occurrence of mass shootings in Australia (and conversely, if prohibiting such firearms explains the absence of mass shootings), then New Zealand (a country that still allows the ownership of such firearms) would have continued to experience mass shooting events."
In 2009 a paper from the Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention at Griffith University concluded:
The implemented restrictions may not be responsible for the observed reductions in firearms suicide. Data suggest that a change in social and cultural attitudes could have contributed to the shift in method preference.
A 2010 study on the effects of the firearm buybacks by Wang-Sheng Lee and Sandy Suardi of The Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research at the University of Melbourne studied the data and concluded, "Despite the fact that several researchers using the same data have examined the impact of the NFA on firearm deaths, a consensus does not appear to have been reached. In this paper, we re-analyze the same data on firearm deaths used in previous research, using tests for unknown structural breaks as a means to identifying impacts of the NFA. The results of these tests suggest that the NFA did not have any large effects on reducing firearm homicide or suicide rates."
A 2010 study claimed, on the basis of modelled statistical estimates, that the gun buyback scheme cut firearm suicides by 74%.The study, by Christine Neill and Andrew Leigh, found no evidence of substitution of method of suicide in any state. The estimated effect on firearm homicides was of similar magnitude but less precise.
In 2010, a consortium of researchers concluded that Australia's gun laws were a high cost intervention with ecological evidence only for a possible role in firearm suicide reduction, and noted that firearm suicide reductions could not be attributed unequivocally to the legislation; on this basis, they included the gun buyback and associated legislative changes in their list of "not cost-effective preventive interventions".
Most recently, McPhedran and Baker found that there was little evidence for any impacts of the gun laws on firearm suicide among people under 35 years of age, and suggest that the significant financial expenditure associated with Australia's firearms method restriction measures may not have had any impact on youth suicide.
A recent report by the Australian Crime Commission said a conservative estimate was that there were 250,000 longarms and 10,000 handguns in the nation's illicit firearms market. The number of guns imported to Australia legally has also risen, including a 24 per cent increase during the past six years in the number of registered handguns in NSW, some of them diverted to the black market via theft or corrupt dealers and owners.
Statements by organisationsEdit
The American National Rifle Association claimed in 2000 that violent crimes had increased in Australia since the introduction of new laws. The federal Attorney General Daryl Williams accused the NRA of falsifying government statistics and urged the NRA to "remove any reference to Australia" from its website.
CLASS (The Coalition of Law Abiding Sporting Shooters) in 2003 stated that no benefit-cost analysis of the buyback had been carried out and that scientific debate was politicised and ignored benefits of shooting and costs forced on legitimate owners.
Responding to Neill and Leigh, The Sporting Shooters Association of Australia replied  that suicide by firearm has been decreasing steadily since the mid-1980s, but suicide by other methods such as hanging has not followed the same trend; that important assumptions of the work were not mentioned in media reports; that 93% of people replaced their seized firearms with at least one, if not more, to replace their loss; and recommended the work of Lee and Suardi, who reviewed almost 90 years of ABS data when making their conclusions, while Leigh and Neill chose to analyse only two five-year periods on either side of the 1996 buy-back.
Major players in gun politics in AustraliaEdit
State governments and state policeEdit
Firearms laws are the responsibility of state governments, and usually these Governments act on the recommendations of their Police services in firearms matters. Before 1996, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia all had different laws, in Queensland New South Wales and Tasmania long guns were not registered; owners of firearms were required to be licenced from 1988, and licences were only introduced for long guns in Tasmania in 1991. Western Australia and the Northern Territory had tight restrictions, especially on centrefire semi-automatic firearms.
Since 1996 all States subscribe to the National Firearms Agreement (NFA). The NFA was instituted through the Australian Police Ministers Council (APMC) with the cooperation of all states.
Until 1996, the federal government had little role in firearms law. Following the Port Arthur massacre, the Howard Government (1996–2007), with strong media and public support, introduced uniform gun laws with the cooperation of all the states, brought about through threats to Commonwealth funding arrangements. The then Prime Minister John Howard frequently referred to the USA to explain his opposition to civilian firearms ownership and use in Australia, stating that he did not want Australia to go "down the American path". In one interview on Sydney radio station 2GB he said, "We will find any means we can to further restrict them because I hate guns... ordinary citizens should not have weapons. We do not want the American disease imported into Australia." John Howard had earlier expressed a desire to introduce restrictive gun laws when he was Opposition Leader during a 1995 interview with Australian political journalist Laurie Oakes. In his autobiography Lazarus Rising: A Personal and Political Autobiography, Howard expressed his support for the anti-gun cause and his desire to introduce restrictive gun laws long before he became Prime Minister. In a television interview shortly before the 10th anniversary of the Port Arthur massacre, he reaffirmed his stance: "I did not want Australia to go down the American path. There are some things about America I admire and there are some things I don't. And one of the things I don't admire about America is their... slavish love of guns. They're evil". During the same television interview, Howard also stated that he saw the outpouring of grief in the aftermath of the Port Arthur massacre as "an opportunity to grab the moment and think about a fundamental change to gun laws in this country".
The prime minister had strong public support in the immediate aftermath of the Port Arthur massacre, especially from those people who regularly voted against the Liberal Party.The gun laws have been a source of friction between the National Party and the Liberal Party, who together formed the coalition federal government from 1996 to 2007. The National Party had strong support from rural voters, some of whom were opposed to the federal government's moves towards gun control. The 1996 National Firearms Agreement has been blamed for the defeat of the National Party in the 1998 Queensland elections and generating much of the support for the 1997 rise of the One Nation Party.
From the November 2007 federal election to September 2013, the Australian Labor Party was in government, from 2010 in formal partnership with the Australian Greens Party. Labor policy continued to support the National Firearms Agreement (NFA). With the return of the Coalition to power under Tony Abbott at the 2013 election, no change to the NFA is likely.
The federal government continues to be involved in adding or adjusting restrictions via the Attorney General's Department, using the customs power and consultation with states. Examples include proposed importation bans on calibres used for long range sniping such as the .50 BMG, .416 Barrett and .338 Lapua Magnum; large capacity magazines; stocks and parts for various categories of firearms; and controls affecting participants in international competitions. A Firearms and Weapons Policy Working Group (FWPWG) operates across government bodies and input of major stakeholder groups is enabled at national level via the Commonwealth Firearms Advisory Council (CFAC) and occasional public consultation on proposed changes.
Gun control organisationsEdit
The NCGC had a high profile in the public debate up to and immediately after the Port Arthur Massacre. Rebecca Peters, Roland Browne, Simon Chapman and Reverend Tim Costello appeared in media reports and authored articles to support their aims. In the aftermath of Port Arthur a number of public health bodies added their support to the NCGC.
In 1996 the NCGC received the Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission's Community Human Rights award.
In 2003 Samantha Lee as chair of the NCGC was financed by a Churchill Fellowship to publish a paper arguing that current handgun legislation is too loose, that police officers who are shooters have a conflict of interest, and that licensed private firearm ownership per se presents a threat to women and children. In a late 2005 press release, Roland Browne as co-chair of the NCGC, advocated further restrictions on handguns.
Gun Control Australia has published a number of booklets, maintains a website, and occasionally is quoted in the media.
In July 2012, GCA announced a merger with the National Coalition for Gun Control, and that Samantha Lee of NSW and Roland Browne of Tasmania would join President John Crook and Vice-President Rhonda Collins as spokespersons.
Shooting clubs have existed in Australia since the mid-19th century. They are mainly concerned with protecting the viability of hunting, collecting and target shooting sports, rather than keeping firearms for self-defence as in the USA. Australian shooters regard their sport as under permanent threat from increasingly restrictive legislation. They argue that they have been made scapegoats by politicians, the media, and anti-gun activists for the acts of criminals who generally use illegal firearms. Their researchers have found scant evidence that increasing restrictions have improved public safety, despite the high costs and severe regulatory barriers imposed on shooters in Australia.
The largest organisation of firearms owners is the Sporting Shooters Association of Australia, with 150,000 members (2013 figures). SSAA state branches are responsible for lobbying on local issues, while SSAA National addresses Federal legislation and international issues. SSAA National has non-government organisation (NGO) status at the United Nations and is a founding member of The World Forum on the Future of Sport Shooting Activities (WFSA), which also has NGO status. SSAA National have a number of people working in research and lobbying roles. In 2008, they appointed journalist and media manager Tim Bannister as Federal Parliamentary lobbyist.
For handguns, the major organisation in Australia is Pistol Australia, affiliated through the National Shooting Federation AISL to the ISSF, IMSSU (Handgun Metallic Silhouette) and WA1500 International organisations. Other than Single Action Shooting all Category H (handgun) permits are dependant on these international affiliations. In 2002 Pistol Australia won exemptions for handgun calibre restrictions above 9.65mm calibre for its Handgun Metallic Silhouette and SSAA won exemptions for handgun calibre restrictions for its Single Action Shooting competitions.
There are several other national bodies, such as Field and Game Australia, the National Rifle Association of Australia and Target Rifle Australia which with their state counterparts concentrate on a range of sporting and political issues ranging from Olympic type competition through to conservation activities.
The Combined Firearms Council of Victoria was created in late 2002 and has been very active in the debate in Victoria. The CFCV ran advertisements in the 2002 Victorian State Election. The CFCV made voting recommendations at the 2002 and 2006 Victorian state elections, supporting specific candidates rather than political parties. Four of the six ALP MPs elevated to the front bench after the 2002 Victorian election were supported by the CFCV. A Firearms Consultative Committee, established in 2005 in Victoria, led to several changes to firearms legislation that benefited handgun users and gun collectors.
The Shooters and Fishers Party is a political party in New South Wales that "is the voice of hunters, shooters, fishers, rural and regional Australia and independent thinking Australians everywhere. Advocating for the politically incorrect, a voice of reason, science and conservation". Its founder, John Tingle, served as an elected member of the upper house of New South Wales parliament, the Legislative Council, from 1995 until he retired in late 2006. The party currently holds two seats in the NSW Legislative Council. In 2013 a Western Australian branch was formed and stood candidates in the state elections, winning a seat in the WA Legislative Council. The Shooters & Fishers Party stood Senate candidates in all states in the 2010 and 2013 Federal elections.
The One Nation Party in 1997–98 briefly gained national prominence and had strong support from shooters. A number of minor political parties such as Liberal Democratic Party of Australia, Outdoor Recreation Party, Country Alliance and the newly established Katter's Australian Party have pro-shooter/pro-firearm platforms. Some minor parties have gained momentum from the deep resentment held by many farmers and shooters.
In September 2008 then Senator Bob Brown questioned the need for 300,000 hand guns in Australia suggesting it was time for a dramatic reduction in numbers saying "There is no reason for so many hundreds of thousands of handguns, including effectively hand machine guns, to be available in Australia.".
- ↑ At August 2007, 765,000 Australians or 5.2% of Australian adults "Licensees and Registered Firearms in Australia(SSAA report)". Archived from the original on 26 August 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060826025032/http://www.ssaa.org.au/newssaa/political+archive/graphs/LicenseesRegisteredFirearms.jpg. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
- ↑ "SSAA – National Firearms Licensing Guide". Sporting Shooters' Association of Australia. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080719103132/http://www.ssaa.org.au/newssaa/securitylegislation/lawindex.htm. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- ↑ Christopher Halls 1974, Guns in Australia, Paul Hamlyn Pty Ltd Dee Why NSW
- ↑ National Rifle Association of Australia
- ↑ Cramer, Clayton & Olson, Joseph (October 2008). "Gun Control: Political Fears Trump Crime Control.". Maine Law Review. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1083528. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- ↑ ABC Radio National, "The history of gangs and gang violence in Australia",  broadcast 8 July 2007
- ↑ Harding, Richard 1981 "Firearms and Violence in Australian Life" University of Western Australia Press ISBN=0-85564-190-8
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Mullen, Paul quoted in Hannon K 1997, "Copycats to Blame for Massacres Says Expert", Courier Mail, 4/3/1997
- ↑ Cantor, Mullen and Alpers, 2000 Mass homicide: the civil massacre. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 28:1:55–63.
- ↑ Phillips, D. P. 1980. Airplane accidents, murder, and the mass media: Towards a theory of imitation and suggestion" Social Forces 58, 1001–1024.
- ↑ Cialdini, Robert 2001. Influence: Science and Practice 4th Ed. Allyn and Bacon, pp. 121–130.
- ↑ Cramer, C 1993. Ethical problems of mass murder coverage in the mass media. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9.
- ↑ Born or Bred? Martin Bryant: The making of a mass murderer. R. Wainwright and P. Totaro. Fairfax: Sydney.
- ↑ "A Transcript of the Police Interview With Martin Bryant". Love for Life. http://loveforlife.com.au/content/07/10/30/transcript-police-interview-martin-bryant.
- ↑ http://aic.gov.au/publications/proceedings/12/chappell.pdf
- ↑ Guerrera, Orietta (28 April 2006). "Anger lingers among those who lost their firearms". The Age. Melbourne. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/anger-lingers-among-those-who-lost-their-firearms/2006/04/27/1145861489398.html.
- ↑ Nicholson (17 June 1996). "'E's carrying on like some kind of Nazi". The Australian.
- ↑ Dore, Christopher (6–27 May 1997). "The Smoking Guns Buyback". The Weekend Australian.
- ↑ Reardon, Dave (10 June 1996). "Progun Liberals Recruit for Party". The West Australian.
- ↑ Atkins, Dennis (26 June 1996). "Libs on Alert for Pro-Gun Infiltration". The Brisbane Courier Mail.
- ↑ "Shooter Rejected". Border Mail – Albury. 22 February 1997.
- ↑ http://www.anao.gov.au/uploads/documents/1997-98_Audit_Report_25.pdf
- ↑ "Monash gunman not guilty". June 18, 2004. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/06/17/1087245037927.html.
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 Hudson, Phillip (1 February 2004). "State's gun owners reap $21m". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/01/31/1075340889254.html.
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- ↑ Mouzos, Jenny (2002). Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 230: Firearms theft in Australia. Australian Institute of Criminology. ISBN 0-642-24265-8. ISSN 0817-8542. http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/tandi230.html.
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- ↑ Lee, Wang-Sheng; & Suardi, Sandy (2010). "The Australian Firearms Buyback and Its Effect on Gun Deaths". pp. 65–79.
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- ↑ Vos, T; Carter, R., Barendregt, J., Mihalopoulos, C., Veerman, J.L., Magnus, A., Cobiac, L., Bertram, M.Y., & Wallace, A.L. (2010). Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Prevention (ACE–Prevention): Final Report.. http://www.sph.uq.edu.au/docs/BODCE/ACE-P/ACE-Prevention_final_report.pdf.
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- ↑ year=2013 |http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/idiot-factor-drives-gun-crime-20130122-2d5bk.html#ixzz2Ip6zUifn
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- ↑ Trouble in Paradise, SSAA presentation at Goroka Gun Summit, 2005
- ↑ The impact of gun-control laws called into question, SSAA media release, November 2004
- ↑ http://www.ssaa.org.au/press-releases/2010-08-31_prevention-not-gun-buy-backs-key-to-suicide-reduction.html
- ↑ Los Angeles Times Special Report Australia's Answer to Carnage: a Strict Law, Jeff Brazil and Steve Berry, 27 August 1997.
- ↑ Radio 3AW John Howard radio interview, 20 March 1998.
- ↑ John Howard's address to the Council of Small Business Organisations of Australia, Canberra, 28 May 2002.
- ↑ Interview with Philip Clark, Radio 2GB, 17 April 2002
- ↑ http://www.ssaa.org.au/research/1995/1995-06-04_john-howard-gun-control-comment.html
- ↑ National Nine News John Howard interview, 1 March 2006.
- ↑ Interview with Lisa Millar, ABC Radio, 24 August 2005
- ↑ SSAA National (November 2007). "Australian Labor Party statement". http://www.ssaa.org.au/capital-news/2007/2007-11_asj-australian-labor-party-statement.html.
- ↑ SSAA National (August 2010). "Australian Labor Party statement". http://www.ssaa.org.au/capital-news/2010/2010-08-05_australian-labor-party-election-statement.html.
- ↑ Hudson, Phillip (25 October 2002). "Handgun curbs on the way". Melbourne: The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/10/24/1035416935873.html.
- ↑ Peters, Rebecca (28 April 2006). "Nations disarm as laws tighten (opinion)". The Australian. http://theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,18950038-7583,00.html. [dead link]
- ↑ Lee, Samantha (2003). "Handguns: Laws, Violence and Crime in Australia". Churchill Fellowship Research Paper. Archived from the original on 2005-06-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20050620063440/http://churchilltrust.com.au/Fellows%20Reports/Lee%20Samantha%202003.pdf.
- ↑ Liverani, Mary Rose (July 2005). "Maintaining a watching brief on gun control – Activist adds law studies to her arsenal". http://www.lawsociety.com.au/JournalSearch/JournalArticle.aspx?ArticleId=45506.
- ↑ Coorey, Phillip (27 April 2006). "Howard's sights set on reducing gun ownership". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/howard-aims-to-reduce-gun-ownership/2006/04/26/1145861419468.html.
- ↑ Interview with Barney Porter, ABC radio, 27 April 2006
- ↑ "SSAA Research Archive". http://www.ssaa.org.au/research-archive.html. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- ↑ "Ten years after the National Firearms Agreement of 1996 Australian Shooter". June 2006. http://www.ssaa.org.au/research/2006/2006-06_ten-years-after-national-firearms-agreement.html. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- ↑ SSAA National (October 2013). "SSAA National membership figures". http://www.ssaa.org.au/about-us.html. |accessdate=12 October 2013
- ↑ SSAA National (June 2008). "Capital News". http://www.ssaa.org.au/capital-news.html.
- ↑ Shooters Party website. Accessed 12 October 2013.
- ↑  Accessed 12 October 2013
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- ↑ "Australian Electoral Commission Senate Results". http://results.aec.gov.au/15508/Website/SenateDownloadsMenu-15508-csv.htm. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- ↑ "Issues: Firearm Policy". http://www.ausparty.org.au/issues.html. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- ↑ Reynolds, Christopher. "Issue Management and the Australian Gun Debate: A review of the media salience and issue management following the Tasmanian massacre of 1996". http://www.global-logic.net/issue.htm. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
- ↑ Australian Green press release (26 April 2002). "Port Arthur handgun deal remembered". http://archive.leerhiannon.org.au/news/port-arthur-handgun-deal-remembered. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- ↑ AAP (24 September 2008). "No 'guns in the glovebox: Greens". http://www.watoday.com.au/world/no-guns-in-the-glovebox-greens-20080924-4n7j.html. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Australian Institute of Criminology report, 1999 Firearm-related violence: the impact of the Nationwide Agreement on Firearms
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