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.41 Action Express
A .41AE cartridge next to a 9x19mm Luger cartrdge for size comparison.
Type Handgun
Place of origin United States, Israel
Production history
Designer Evan Whildin
Designed 1986
Manufacturer Action Arms
Case type Rebated rim, straight wall
Bullet diameter .410 in (10.4 mm)
Neck diameter .434 in (11.0 mm)
Base diameter .435 in (11.0 mm)
Rim diameter .394 in (10.0 mm)
Rim thickness .045 in (1.1 mm)
Case length .866 in (22.0 mm)
Overall length 1.17 in (30 mm)
Case capacity 21.60 gr H2O (1.400 cm3)
Rifling twist 1 in 14.2 in (360 mm)
Primer type Small pistol
Maximum pressure 32,600 psi (225 MPa)
Ballistic performance
Bullet weight/type Velocity Energy
170 gr (11 g) JHC 940 ft/s (290 m/s) 334 ft·lbf (453 J)
180 gr (12 g) HP 890 ft/s (270 m/s) 317 ft·lbf (430 J)
210 gr (14 g) XTP 797 ft/s (243 m/s) 296 ft·lbf (401 J)
Source(s): Hodgdon [1]

The .41 Action Express is a pistol cartridge developed in the 1980s to reproduce the performance of the .41 Magnum police load (which is a weaker than standard load) in semi-automatic pistols.[2]


The .41 Action Express was designed by Evan Whildin, vice president of Action Arms, in 1986.[3] It was based on the .41 Magnum case, cut down to fit in a 9mmP frame, and using a rebated rim. The .41 AE was thought to be a very attractive concept, as the rebated rim allows a simple change of barrel, mainspring, and magazine to convert many 9mm guns to .41 AE.

The powerful 10mm Auto cartridge, which had been suffering from poor acceptance from its start in the early 1980s, was eventually accepted by the FBI in a reduced power, subsonic loading. Smith & Wesson then decided the 10mm Auto was too much cartridge for the reduced power loading, and that the .45 ACP sized guns that chambered it were too heavy and bulky; out of this came the .40 S&W, a shortened 10mm Auto case, designed to fit in a 9mm-sized gun, with a reduced pressure loading that allowed a lighter, easier to shoot gun. Because most ammunition manufacturers backed the .40 S&W, there was little use for the very similar .41 AE, so production of both firearms and ammunition was soon phased out.


The .41 AE can be ballistically similar to the .40 S&W, to the point that many reloading manuals suggest using .40 S&W load data in the .41 AE. Original IMI factory cartridges are much higher powered, pushing a 170 gr (11.02 g) bullet at 1215 ft/s. The .41 AE uses 0.410-inch (10.4 mm) bullets, whereas the .40 S&W uses 0.400-inch (10.2 mm) bullets. However, as it lacks the backing of ammunition manufacturers in making .410 caliber bullets suited to semiautomatic pistols, the .41 AE has not achieved widespread popularity.[4] [5]

Usage in firearms[]

There have been many firearms chambered for this cartridge. The potential for success for the 41 AE was sound, and for this reason, many major manufacturers offered firearms chambered at the factory for this round. Additionally, aftermarket conversion kits were available as well. With the ease of application in virtually any firearm chambered in 9mm, a large variety of models saw at least some .41 AE use.

Factory chambered[]

  • Uzi Carbines and pistols
  • Jericho 941
  • Baby Eagle (the later name for the Magnum Research imported Jericho pistol)
  • TZ-75
  • Taurus PT92
  • Beretta Cougar

Aftermarket conversion[]


In 1988, IMI also developed a 9 mm Action Express, which was a .41 AE necked down to 9 mm. It offered a much larger case capacity than the standard 9 mm case, allowing velocities that matched that of the .357 Magnum when loaded with light bullets. This move anticipated the parallel development of the .357 SIG from the .40 S&W in 1994.


  1. ".41 Action Express (Pistol) data" from Hodgdon
  2. Barnes, Frank C. (2006) [1965]. Skinner, Stan. ed. Cartridges of the World (11th Edition ed.). Iola, WI, USA: Gun Digest Books. pp. 330, 338. ISBN 0-89689-297-2. 
  3. Reload Bench
  4. "SAAMI Pressures". Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-29. 
  5. ".40 Smith & Wesson/.41 AE". Archived from the original on 2005-12-06. Retrieved 2007-11-29. 

External links[]

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