|123d Fighter Squadron|
Emblem of the 123d Fighter Squadron
|Branch||Air National Guard|
|Role||Fighter (Air Defense)|
|Part of||Oregon Air National Guard|
The squadron is a descendant organization of the 123d Observation Squadron formed on 30 July 1940. It was activated on 18 April 1941. The squadron is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II.
Oregon National GuardEdit
Allocated to the Oregon National Guard in 1940, activated on 18 April 1941 at Portland Municipal Airport. The newly formed unit began operations with two officers, 108 enlisted men and two aircraft, a North American BC-1A (like the AT-6) and a Douglas O-46A. The squadron flew observation missions primarily along the Pacific Coast and occasionally made mail flights.
World War IIEdit
Ordered to active service in September 1941 as part of the pre-World War II buildup of the United States Army Air Corps and assigned to the 70th Observation Group, Fourth Air Force. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, flew anti-submarine patrols along the Pacific Coast from airfields in Oregon and Washington, later becoming part of the air defense forces of Southern California. This included one of the first missions flown from a U.S. base on 7 December 1941. Flew anti-submarine patrols until mid-1943 when the mission was turned over to the United States Navy.
Reassigned to Third Air Force, sent first to Texas then to Oklahoma being trained for combat reconnaissance and aerial photography to support Army ground forces. Was deployed to Fourteenth Air Force in China as part of the China Burma India Theater, engaged in unarmed observation flights over Japanese-held territory supporting Chinese Nationalist forces. Flew B-25 Mitchells, A-20 Havocs and DB-7 Boston Havocs originally built for the RAF. Flew from rough and remote airfields in China throughout the rest of the War, later flying unarmed high-speed long-range P-38 Lightnings and F-5 Reconnaissance Lightnings. The squadron received credit for participation in seven campaigns in World War II. Not all 123d personnel served with the 35th PRS, as some were diverted to other units as early as 1942 and served elsewhere in the Pacific and in Europe. As part of the large drawdown of forces after the war, the 35th PRS inactivated on November 7, 1945 at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey.
Oregon Air National GuardEdit
The wartime squadron, designated the 35th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron was reactivated and re-designated as the 123d Fighter Squadron, and was allotted to the Oregon Air National Guard, on 24 May 1946. It was organized at Portland Municipal Airport, Oregon and was extended federal recognition on 26 June 1946 by the National Guard Bureau. The 123d Fighter Squadron was bestowed the history, honors, and colors of the 35th PRS. The 123d FS was assigned to the 142d Fighter Group at Portland Municipal Airport. Thus the 142d FG began fighter operations for the first time in the North American F-51D Mustang with 75 officers and 800 enlisted men. The unit was allocated to the Air Defense Command, with a mission of the air defense of the State of Oregon.
Korean War activationEdit
Was federalized and placed on active duty, 10 February 1951 as a result of the Korean War. Was assigned to the 325th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, and remained at Portland Municipal Airport as part of the ADC Western Air Defense Force. Performed air interception training missions with the F-51s. Was reassigned to the 4704th Defense Wing in February 1952, being re-equipped with F-86F Sabre daylight interceptors, being joined by the active-duty 357th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron.
Released from active duty and returned to control of the State of Oregon, 1 November 1952.
Re-formed as part of the 142d Fighter-Interceptor Group, retaining F-86F Sabres. It resumed its peacetime mission of the air defense of Oregon. Was upgraded by ADC in 1955 to the dedicated F-94A Starfire all-weather interceptor. With this new aircraft, the mission of the 123d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron changed from day interceptor to day and night all-weather interceptor. In 1957 the 123d again upgraded to the improved F-89J Scorpion then in 1966 to the supersonic F-102A Delta Dagger. In the summer of 1958, the 142d implemented the ADC Runway Alert Program, in which interceptors of the 123d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron were committed to a five-minute runway alert 24/7/365. The runway alert continues to this day. In 1972 it received the Mach-2 F-101B Voodoo. As an example of the unit's readiness and capability, in 1976, the unit won top honors at a pair of Aerospace Defense Command (ADC) competitions, the Weapons Loading Competition and the famous William Tell Air Defense Competition. In William Tell 1976, the 142nd garnered first place in the F-101 category and Lt. Col. Don Tonole and Maj. Brad Newell captured the overall "Top Gun" title flying the McDonnell F-101B Voodoo.
After the inactivation of Aerospace Defense Command in 1979 and the reassignment to Tactical Air Command (ADTAC), the 123d began receiving F-4C Phantom II aircraft used in the interceptor mission beginning in 1981. Success came again at William Tell 1984 when the unit placed first in the F-4 category flying the McDonnell-Douglas F-4C Phantom II and beat many of its F-15 Eagle and F-106 Delta Dart rivals in the overall competition. Majors Ron Moore and Bill Dejager were the overall F-4 "Top Guns" of the competition. In 1985, as part of the retirement of the F-4C from the inventory, the Oregon Air National Guard began to receive F-15A Eagles from active-duty units receiving the upgraded F-15C. Since the end of the Cold War, the 142d has served as the principal air defense unit of the Pacific Northwest. In 1992, as part of a large USAF reorganization, both the group and squadron were re-designated yet again as the 142d Fighter Group and the 123d Fighter Squadron, respectively. In 1995 the group was elevated to wing status, beginning its current designation as the 142d Fighter Wing. The wing participated in a wide variety of expeditionary and humanitarian assistance missions in the turbulent post-Cold War environment while providing air defense of the Pacific Northwest. These included major deployments to Turkey in 1998 for Operation Northern Watch and to Saudi Arabia in 2000 for Operation Southern Watch, patrolling the no-fly zones then in place over Iraq. The wing deployed aircraft to Panama in 1998 in support of counter=drug missions, helping stem the flow of the drug trade by air. Wing personnel deployed on various other missions, sending medical troops to Belize, civil engineers to Macedonia, and to such places around the globe as Curaçao, Denmark, Germany, Guam, Kuwait, Spain and the United Kingdom.
Global War on TerrorismEdit
On 11 September 2001, the wing was one of the first units to respond to the dastardly terrorist attacks on the east coast with increased air defense to enhance security on the west coast, and subsequently participated in Operation Noble Eagle, the national military response to homeland defense. In the 50th Year of William Tell Anniversary Competition held in 2004, the 142d Fighter Wing was rated first in Maintenance, Element Attack and Gun categories. These William Tell successes demonstrate Oregon's long history of excellent performance and readiness to accomplish the real world mission. In 2004, unit personnel provided humanitarian aid in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the 2007 floods in Vernonia, Oregon. The wing also supported ongoing contingency operations in Southwest Asia, including Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, such as in the 2004 deployment of medical personnel to Qatar and the 2009 deployment of Security Forces Squadron personnel to Iraq.
In 2005, the early 1970s F-15A model were retired and the squadron received its current aircraft, the F-15C Eagle. With more than 1,000 officers and airmen, the 142d Fighter Wing guards the Pacific Northwest skies from northern California to the Canadian border, on 24-hour Air Sovereignty Alert as part of Air Combat Command and the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). The wing also stands ready to participate in state and federal contingency missions as required. In August 2010, two F-15 Eagles from this wing were dispatched in response to an airspace violation while the President visited Seattle, Washington. The jets produced two sonic booms over the Seattle skyline, the civilian Cessna 182 left restricted airspace before the jets arrived.
- Designated 123d Observation Squadron, and allotted to Oregon National Guard, on 30 July 1940
- Activated on 18 April 1941
- Ordered to active service on 15 September 1941
- Redesignated: 123d Observation Squadron (Light) on 13 January 1942
- Redesignated: 123d Observation Squadron on 4 July 1942
- Redesignated: 123d Reconnaissance Squadron (Bombardment) on 2 April 1943
- Redesignated: 35th Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron on 11 August 1943
- Inactivated on 7 November 1945
- Redesignated 123d Fighter Squadron and allotted to Oregon ANG 24 May 1946
- Extended federal recognition on 26 June 1946
- Federalized and placed on active duty, 10 February 1951
- Released from active duty and returned to Oregon state control, 1 November 1952
- Re-designated: 123d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, 1 November 1952
- Re-designated: 123d Fighter Squadron 31 March 1992.
- Oregon National Guard, 18 April 1941
- 70th Observation (later Reconnaissance) Group, 15 September 1941
- 77th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, 11 August 1943
- Attached to 70th Tactical Reconnaissance Group to 31 October 1943
- III Reconnaissance (later Tactical Air) Command, 30 November 1943
- AAF, India-Burma Sector, 5 May 1944
- Fourteenth Air Force, c. September 1944
- Tenth Air Force, 1 August 1945
- Fourteenth Air Force, 25 August – 7 November 1945
- Oregon Air National Guard, 24 May 1946
- 142d Fighter Group, 30 August 1946
- 325th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, 10 February 1951
- 4704th Air Defense Wing, 6 February 1952
- 142d Fighter-Interceptor Group 1 November 1952
- 142d Fighter Group 16 March 1992
- 142d Operations Group, 1 October 1995 – Present
- A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 - 1980, by Lloyd H. Cornett and Mildred W. Johnson, Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado
- Maurer, Maurer. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force: World War II. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1982.
- World Airpower Journal. (1992). US Air Force Air Power Directory. Aerospace Publishing: London, UK. ISBN 1-880588-01-3
- Rogers, B. (2006). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. ISBN 1-85780-197-0
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