The regiment was formed in the Royal Corps of Transport in 1967 from two territorial divisional transport regiments, with two transport squadrons. A third squadron was added in 1969, by redesignating a company of 4th Battalion, The Welch Regiment, and was retitled with a Yeomanry lineage in 1987.
The regiment was transferred into the Royal Logistics Corps in 1993, and an ambulance squadron formed from two companies of the Royal Regiment of Wales. In 1999 the regiment was redesignated 157th (Wales and Midlands) Logistic Support Regiment and reorganised, losing the ambulance squadron but gaining a Combat Supply Squadron.
In 2006 the regiment was redesignated back to 157th (Wales and Midlands) Transport Regiment, and the squadrons were again reshuffled; it emerged with 249 HQ Squadron, plus 223, 224 (Pembroke Yeomanry) and 580 Transport Squadrons, which now form the current establishment of the Welsh Transport Regiment.
- 249 HQ Squadron (from 1967)
- 123 Combat Supply Squadron (From 1999)
- 223 (South Wales) Transport Squadron (From 1967)
- 224 (Pembroke Yeomanry) Transport Squadron (From 1967)
- 237 (Midlands) Transport Squadron (1967-2006)
- 580 Ambulance Squadron (1993-1999)
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