|2nd Simko Shikak Revolt|
|Part of Rebellions in Iranian Kurdistan and Kurdish separatism in Iran|
|Commanders and leaders|
In 1919 Simko Shikak has started his first and foreign-backed revolt against Iranian government. His expeditions resulted with regional plunder and massacres of Assyrians, Alevis and even Kurdish tribes. After three years of revolt he was defeated, but in 1924 Reza Khan pardoned him and he returned to Iran from exile. When Reza Khan had become Reza Shah in 1925, Simko pledged eternal loyalty to him and Iranian state. However, next year Simko alied himself with Haji Agha of Herki and tribal chiefs of Begzadeh, regained control of his tribe and begun another rebellion.
Short military confrontation has started in Salmas (a.k.a. Dilman or Shahpur) where rebels started encircling the city. Shortly after, Iranian forces were dispatched from Urmia, Sharafkhaneh and Khoy, engaged rebels and defeated them. During engagement half of Simko's Shikak troops defected to the tribe’s previous leader and Simko himself fled to Mandatory Iraq.
In 1926, another unrelated Kurdish tribal revolt occurred in Kurdistan Province. Kurdish insurgency and seasonal migrations in late 1920's, along with long-running tensions between Tehran and Ankara, resulted in border clashes and even military penetrations in both Iranian and Turkish territory. In 1930, the commander of Iranian Army General Hassan Muqaddam sent a letter to Simko, who was residing in the village of Barzan, and invited him for a meeting in the town of Oshnaviyeh. After consulting with his friends, Simko along with Khorshid Agha Harki went to Oshnaviyeh and were invited to the house of local army commander, Colonel Norouzi and were told to wait for the Iranian general. Colonel Norouzi convinced Simko to go to the outskirts of the town to welcome the general's arrival. However, this was a trap and Simko was ambushed and killed on the evening of June 30, 1930.
Simko's revolts are considered as attempt by a powerful tribal chief to establish his personal authority vis-à-vis the central government throughout the region. Although elements of Kurdish nationalism were present in this movement, historians agree these were hardly articulate enough to justify a claim that recognition of Kurdish identity was a major issue in Simko's movement. It lacked any kind of administrative organization and Simko was primary interesting in plunder. Government forces and non-Kurds were not the only ones to suffer in the attacks, the Kurdish population was also robbed and assaulted. Simko's men do not appear to have felt any sense of unity or solidarity with fellow Kurds. On other hand, Reza Shah's military victory over Simko and Turkic tribal leaders initiaded with repressive era toward non-Iranian minorities.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Bruinessen, Martin (2006). "Chapter 5: A Kurdish warlord on the Turkish-Persian frontier in the early Twentieth century: Isma'il Aqa Simko". In Atabaki, Touraj. Iran and the First World War: Battleground of the Great Powers. Library of modern Middle East studies, 43. London; New York: I.B. Tauris. p. 21. ISBN 9781860649646. OCLC 56455579. http://www.academia.edu/3555229/A_Kurdish_Warlord_on_the_Turkish-Persian_Frontier_in_the_Early_Twentieth_Century_Ismail_Agha_Simko.
- ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 See:
* Entessar, Nader (2010). Kurdish Politics in the Middle East. Lanham: Lexington Books. p. 17. ISBN 9780739140390. OCLC 430736528.
* Kreyenbroek, Philip G.; Sperl, Stefan (1992). The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. London; New York: Routledge. pp. 138–139. ISBN 9780415072656. OCLC 24247652.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Smith, Benjamin (2009). "Land and Rebellion: Kurdish Separatism in Comparative Perspective". Working paper. p. 11. http://government.arts.cornell.edu/assets/psac/sp09/Smith_Kurdish_Separatism_Feb09_PSAC.pdf.
- ↑ Arfa, Hassan (1966). The Kurds: An Historical and Political Study. London: Oxford University Press. p. 64. OCLC 463216238.
- ↑ Schofield, Richard N. (15 December 1989). Boundaries v. With Turkey. New York: Columbia University. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/boundaries-v.
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