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Years in aviation: 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
Centuries: 19th century · 20th century · 21st century
Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s
Years: 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1936:

EventsEdit

JanuaryEdit

FebruaryEdit

  • British Marine Aircraft Ltd. is established at Hamble, Hampshire to produce Sikorsky S-42-A flying boats under licence in the United Kingdom but nothing comes of it. The company subsequently will become Folland Aircraft Limited.[6]
  • February 15 – Italian aircraft based at nearby Mek'ele, Ethiopia, maintain at least 12 aircraft over the battlefied all day during the Battle of Amba Aradam against Ethiopian troops. It is a forerunner of the World War II "cab rank" technique of keeping airborne aircraft continually on call over a battlefield to bomb enemy positions when needed.[7][8]
  • February 16–19 – On February 16, Marshal Pietro Badoglio orders Italian ground forces not to pursue Ethiopian forces after they begin to retreat from Amba Aradam and assigns the task of exploitation of Italy's victory to the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica), a novel task for an air force. Italian aircraft drop 40 tons (36,288 kg) of bombs on retreating Ethiopian forces over the last four days of the battle with devastating effect, and on February 19 a strafing aircraft mortally wounds the Ethiopian military leader Ras Mulugeta Yeggazu, who dies eight days later.[9]
  • February 27 – During the Second Battle of Tembien, Italian aircraft drop 200 tons (181,439 kg) of high-explosive bombs on forming-up areas for Ethiopian troops and kill many Ethiopians fleeing the battlefield as they ford the Takkaze River.[10]

MarchEdit

AprilEdit

  • The German Luftwaffe staff holds a war game which finds that German air rearmament thus far has been inadequate and that the Luftwaffe is inferior to the French Air Force.[14]
  • April 4 – Italian aircraft drop mustard gas and 73 tons (66.2 tonnes/metric tons) of high-explosive bombs on a force of 20,000 Ethiopian troops retreating across the plain of Lake Ashangi, killing thousands.[15]
  • April 19 – Italian aircraft bomb Ethiopian forces attacking Italian troops at Birkut.[16]

MayEdit

  • May 5 – The Second Italo-Abyssinian War ends in an Italian conquest of Ethiopia as Italian forces enter Addis Ababa.[17] Facing no opposition, the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) has played a decisive role in Italy's victory in the eight-month war, but has engaged in a brutal campaign – in which Benito Mussolini's sons Vittorio and Bruno and son-in-law Count Ciano voluntarily participate – of indiscriminate terror bombing and widespread use of mustard gas.[18]

JuneEdit

JulyEdit

  • July 14 – The British Royal Air Force is re-organised on functional grounds and RAF Fighter Command, RAF Bomber Command, RAF Coastal Command, and RAF Training Command are established.
  • July 17 – The Spanish Civil War breaks out, and the Republican (loyalist) and Nationalist (rebel) factions seize portions of the Spanish Air Force and of the aviation force of the Spanish Republican Navy. The Republicans end up with about 200 serviceable aircraft – including all the fighters – and 150 pilots, which form the basis of their Spanish Republican Air Force, while the Nationalists control less than 100 serviceable aircraft and 90 pilots, which form the basis for their National Aviation.[22]
  • July 20 – One of the four leaders of the Nationalist uprising in Spain, General José Sanjurjo y Sacanell, dies in the crash on takeoff at Estoril, Portugal,[23] of a light plane piloted by Juan Antonio Ansaldo while attempting to fly to Spain. He had insisted on overloading the plane with baggage so as to have the proper clothes to wear and on flying with Ansaldo instead of in a larger plane in order to make the flight with a "daring aviator." Ansaldo survives.
  • July 29 – Germany and Italy become the first countries to provide aircraft for service in the Spanish Civil War, when 10 German Junkers Ju 52 transports land in Spanish Morocco for service with the Nationalist faction and nine Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 bombers arrive in Spain for Nationalist service; three other SM.81s crash during the flight to Spain.[24]
  • July 29-August 5 – Ten, later increased to twenty, German Junkers Ju 52s ferry 1,500 Spanish Nationalist troops from Spanish Morocco to Spain in the world's first major military airlift.[25]
  • July 31 – The Jersey Airways Saro A.19 Cloud amphibian airliner Cloud of Iona (tail number G-ABXW) disappears during a stormy evening on a flight from Guernsey to Jersey in the Channel Islands with the loss of all eight people on board. An investigation determines that the plane had lost engine power, landed on the sea, and been swamped by waves.
  • July 31-August 8 – France becomes the first country to supply aircraft to the Republican faction in Spain, delivering 70 planes, including Bloch MB.200s, Potez 54s, and Dewoitine D.371s.[26]

AugustEdit

  • Germany begins sending four transport flights to Spain per week to support the Spanish Nationalist faction, It will continue to do so for over two years.[22]
  • August 1 – Ten more German Junkers Ju 52 transports and six Heinkel He 51 fighters arrive at Cadiz for service with the Spanish Nationalist faction.[27]
  • 4 August – A demonstration of gliding at the 1936 Summer Olympics takes place at Berlin-Staaken airfield. Fourteen pilots from seven countries take part.[28][29]
  • August 5 – Five Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 bombers are among aircraft covering a convoy of merchant ships carrying 3,000 Nationalist soldiers and their equipment from Spanish Morocco to Spain.[25]
  • August 6 – German Junkers Ju 52 transports begin a schedule of airlifting 500 Nationalist troops a day from Spanish Morocco to Spain. Nationalist leader Francisco Franco himself makes the flight on August 6.[30]
  • August 9 – Six aircraft support a Republican seizure of Ibiza.[31]
  • August 10 – A Nationalist ground column under Colonel Juan Yagüe y Blanco captures Mérida, Spain, after advancing 200 miles (322 km) in less than a week. Nine German Junkers Ju 52s and eight Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.81s have given the column local air superiority, while a civilian aeroclub from Seville has provided aerial reconnaissance and in one instance forced Republican militiamen to abandon their positions by dropping melons on them.[32]
  • August 13 – A Nationalist air raid off Málaga damages the Republican battleship Jaime I.[23]
  • August 16 – Seaplanes from Barcelona support a Republican landing on Majorca. In reaction, three Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 bombers, three Italian Fiat CR.32 fighters, and various Spanish Nationalist aircraft are sent to be based on the island. The presence of the CR.32s precludes any further Republican air attacks on Majorca.[33]
  • August 23 – Nationalist aircraft bomb the airport at Getafe, Spain.[34]
  • August 25 – Nationalist aircraft bomb Cuatro Vientos Airport in Madrid, Spain.[34]
  • August 27–29 – German Junkers Ju 52s supporting the Nationalists bomb Madrid. They damage the Ministry of War on August 29. It is the first terror bombing of a large city since World War I.[34]

SeptemberEdit

  • September 3 – Nationalist aircraft on Majorca support a Nationalist counteroffensive against Republican invaders, demoralizing them and sparking a precipitous Republican retreat from the island, which will become an important Nationalist base for the remainder of the Spanish Civil War.[35]
  • September 4–5 – English-born aviatrix Beryl Markham makes the first east-to-west solo transatlantic flight by a woman, in her Percival Vega Gull The Messenger, from Abingdon-on-Thames in England to Baleine Cove on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, Canada (where she is forced to crash land).
  • September 5 – The Bendix Trophy race from Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, New York, to Mines Field in Los Angeles, California, takes place, with nine men and six women competing. The team of Louise Thaden and Blanche Noyes wins in a Beechcraft C-17 Staggerwing, Laura Ingalls places second flying a Lockheed Orion 9D Special, and the team of Amelia Earhart and Helen Richey finishes fifth in a Lockheed 10E Electra. Joe Jacobson's Northrop Gamma 2A catches fire and crashes near Stafford, Kansas, but he parachites to safety.[36]
  • September 6 – Italian aircraft arriving in Majorca establish a Nationalist bombing capability against Republican Spain.[23]
  • September 11 – Tupolev TB-3-4AM-34FRN with A. B. Yumashev of the Soviet Union at the controls sets a payload-to-altitude record of 5,000 kg (11,023 lb) to 8,116 meters (26,627 feet).
  • September 16 – Tupolev TB-3-4AM-34FRN with A. B. Yumashev at the controls sets a payload-to-altitude record of 10,000 kg (22,046 lb) to 6,605 meters (21,670 feet).
  • September 20 – Tupolev TB-3-4AM-34FRN with A. B. Yumashev at the controls set a payload-to-altitude record of 12,000 kg (26,455 lb) to 2,700 meters (8,858 feet).
  • September 28 – Flying the Bristol Type 138A, Royal Air Force Squadron Leader F. R. D. Swain takes off from Farnborough, England, and sets a Fédération Aéronautique Internationale-homologated world altitude record of 15,230 meters (49,967 feet). He lands at Netheravon.[37]
  • September 30 – The German airlift of Spanish Nationalist troops from Spanish Morocco to Spain ends after 677 flights carrying 12,000 men in August and September. The airlift will be one of the most decisive factors in the eventual Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War.[25]

OctoberEdit

  • October 1 – C. W. A. Scott and Giles Guthrie win the Schlesinger Race from England to Johannesburg, South Africa, flying Vega Gull G-AEKE landing at Rand Airport on 1 October 1936. The aircraft had left Portsmouth 52 hours 56 minutes 48 seconds earlier. Out of the original 14 entries to the race Scott and Guthrie were the only ones to finish, winning the 10,000 pounds prize money.
  • October 12 – Nationalist aircraft sink the Republican submarine B-5 off the coast of Spain near Málaga.[23]
  • October 21 – Pan American World Airways initiates the first transpacific airline service for paying passengers with six-day-a-week passenger service between San Francisco, California, and Manila in the Philippine Islands via Honolulu, Hawaii.[38][39]
  • October 25 – The United States Navy's first aircraft carrier, USS Langley (CV-1), is decommissioned for conversion into a seaplane tender, redesignated AV-3.[40]
  • October 28 – Tupolev TB-3-4AM-34FRN with A. B. Yumashev of the Soviet Union at the controls sets a payload-to-altitude record of 5,000 kg (11,023 lb) to 8,980 meters (29,462 feet).
  • October 29 – Soviet aircraft appear in combat for the first time in Spanish Civil War as Alcantarilla-based Tupolev SB-2 bombers with Soviet pilots and Spanish bombardiers and gunners bomb Seville in support of Republican forces. On the same day, Nationalist forces begin a heavy bombing campaign against Madrid.[41]

NovemberEdit

  • November 3 – New Soviet Polikarpov I-15 and I-16 fighters fly their first missions of the Spanish Civil War, supporting Republican forces. Their superior performance will allow the Republican side to gain air superiority over Nationalist forces.[42]
  • November 4 – Soviet fighters see combat for the first time in the Spanish Civil War, dispersing a squadron of Italian Fiat CR.32 fighters escorting German Junkers Ju 52s over Madrid.[23][43]
  • November 6 – The German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion, a force of about 100 aircraft, begins to depart Germany for Seville, Spain, to support Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War.[44][45]
  • November 8–23 – Soviet aircraft play an important role in the Republican defense of Madrid.[23]
  • November 15–17 – The German Condor Legion sees its first action of the Spanish Civil War, supporting Nationalist forces fighting to take Madrid.[23]
  • November 19–22 – Curious to see the reaction of a civilian population to an attempt to systematically destroy its city by bombing, officers of the German Condor Legion supporting Francisco Franco's desire to bomb Madrid into surrendering oversee a bombing campaign by German Junker Ju 52s and Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.81s that kills 150 people in the city. It is the heaviest bombing ever carried out against a city up to that time.[46]
  • November 28 – Thus far in the Spanish Civil War, Italy has sent about 24 Fiat CR.32 fighters, 19 Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 bombers, and some IMAM Ro.37 reconnaissance aircraft to support the Nationalists.[47]

DecemberEdit

First flightsEdit

JanuaryEdit

FebruaryEdit

MarchEdit

MayEdit

JuneEdit

JulyEdit

SeptemberEdit

OctoberEdit

DecemberEdit

Entered serviceEdit

JanuaryEdit

MarchEdit

JulyEdit

AugustEdit

OctoberEdit

NovemberEdit

RetirementsEdit

DecemberEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Crosby, Francis, The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World: An Illustrated History of the World's Greatest Military Aircraft, From the Pioneering Days of Air Fighting in World War I Through the Jet Fighters and Stealth Bombers of the Present Day, London: Hermes House, 2006, ISBN 9781846810008, p. 267.
  2. Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7858-1418-3, p. 44.
  3. Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 48.
  4. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 76.
  5. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 77.
  6. Fagan, Dave. 'Hamble' Aviation in Hampshire UK 1900 to 2000 Retrieved May 20, 2005
  7. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 81.
  8. flightglobal.com Close Air Support in Burma
  9. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, pp. 82-83.
  10. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 84.
  11. Phythyon, John R., Jr., Great War at Sea: Zeppelins, Virginia Beach, Virginia: Avalanche Press, Inc., 2007, p. 47.
  12. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 91.
  13. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, pp. 97-99.
  14. Murray, Williamson, Strategy for Defeat: The Luftwaffe 1933-1945, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, 1983, no ISBN number, p. 15.
  15. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 105.
  16. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 120.
  17. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 128.
  18. Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 65.
  19. A Chronological History of Coast Guard Aviation The Early Years (1915-1938)
  20. U.S. Coast Guard Cutter History: Campbell WPG/WAGC/WHEC-32 ex-George W. Campbell
  21. Guttman, Robert, "Heinkel's Jet Test-Bed," Aviation History, March 2012, p. 14.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, pp. 330-331.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 The Main Events of the Spanish Civil War
  24. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, pp. 363-364.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 370.
  26. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 364.
  27. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, pp. 357-358.
  28. Biography of Lajos Rotter "Biography of Lajos Rotter". http://gliders-fega.freeweb.hu/Rotter.htm Biography of Lajos Rotter. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  29. Welch, Ann (1980). The Story of Gliding (2nd ed.). John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-3659-6. 
  30. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, pp. 370-371.
  31. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 381.
  32. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, pp. 371, 373.
  33. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, pp. 382-383.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 386.
  35. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 383.
  36. Lynch, Adam, "Hometown Heroine," Aviation History, March 2012, pp. 56-57.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 198.
  38. Aviation Hawaii: 1930-1939 Chronology of Aviation in Hawaii
  39. 39.0 39.1 Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 34.
  40. Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 124.
  41. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 468, 470.
  42. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 471.
  43. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, pp. 470-471.
  44. Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 50.
  45. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 469.
  46. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 486.
  47. Thomas, Hugh, The Spanish Civil War, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN 0-671-75876-4, p. 568.
  48. Chesneau, Roger, ed., Conway's all the World's Fighting Ships 1922-1946, New York: Mayflower Books, 1980, ISBN 0-8317-0303-2, p. 226.
  49. Potter, E. B., Sea Power: A Naval History, Second edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1981, ISBN 0-87021-607-4, p. 235.
  50. Guttman, Robert, "Heinkel's Jet Test-Bed," Aviation History, March 2012.
  51. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 399.
  52. Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 150.
  53. Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p 358.
  54. Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, pp. 301, 568.
  55. Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 204-205.
  56. Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, pp. 198, 566.
  57. Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 156.
  58. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 59.
  59. Swanborough, Gordon, and Peter M. Bowers, United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911, London: Putnam, 1976, ISBN 0-370-10054-9, p. 199.
  60. Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, pp. 220, 222.
  61. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 80.
  62. Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 63.

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