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1979
Information
Country Soviet Union
Test site Atyrau, Kazakhstan; Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan; Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan; Donetsk, Ukraine; Khanty-Mansi, Russia; Krasnoyarsk, Russia; NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia; Sakha, Russia; Sary-Uzen/Murzhik, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan
Period 1979
Number of tests 31
Test type underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 150 kilotonnes of TNT (630 TJ)
Navigation
Previous test series 1978 Soviet nuclear tests
Next test series 1980 Soviet nuclear tests

The Soviet Union's 1979 nuclear test series[1] was a group of 31 nuclear tests conducted in 1979. These tests [note 1] followed the 1978 Soviet nuclear tests series and preceded the 1980 Soviet nuclear tests series.

Soviet Union's 1979 series tests and detonations
Name [note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 3][2] Location [note 4] Elevation + height [note 5] Delivery, [note 6]
Purpose [note 7]
Device [note 8] Yield [note 9] Fallout [note 10] References Notes
512 Galit A2.6 (Halite) 10 January 1979 08:00:00.0 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-II-7 47°54′32″N 47°54′43″E / 47.909°N 47.912°E / 47.909; 47.912 (512 Galit A2.6 (Halite)) - 600 m (2,000 ft) underground shaft,
cavity excavation
500 t [1][3][4][5][6] Create reservoirs for gas storage. A fizzle.
513 Galit A8 (Halite) - 1 17 January 1979 07:59:58.5 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-VIII 47°55′07″N 48°07′26″E / 47.91873°N 48.12376°E / 47.91873; 48.12376 (513 Galit A8 (Halite) - 1) - 1,000 m (3,300 ft) underground shaft,
cavity excavation
12 kt Venting detected [1][4][5][6][7] Create reservoirs for gas storage.
513 Galit A8 (Halite) - 2 17 January 1979 07:59:58.5 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-VIII 47°55′07″N 48°07′26″E / 47.91873°N 48.12376°E / 47.91873; 48.12376 (513 Galit A8 (Halite) - 2) + underground shaft,
cavity excavation
56 kt Venting detected [1][3][5][6][7] Create reservoirs for gas storage.
514 1 February 1979 04:13:00.17 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1006 50°05′09″N 78°51′05″E / 50.08586°N 78.85137°E / 50.08586; 78.85137 (514) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
18 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
515 - 1 16 February 1979 04:04:00.5 ALMT (6 hrs)
Sary-Uzen/Murzhik, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 109 49°57′56″N 77°40′15″E / 49.96553°N 77.67082°E / 49.96553; 77.67082 (515 - 1) 460 m (1,510 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
23 kt [1][4][5][6][8]
515 - 2 16 February 1979 04:04:01 ALMT (6 hrs)
Sary-Uzen/Murzhik, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 2803 49°57′56″N 77°40′15″E / 49.96553°N 77.67082°E / 49.96553; 77.67082 (515 - 2) 460 m (1,510 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][9]
516 23 March 1979 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 115p 49°48′42″N 78°09′34″E / 49.81173°N 78.15933°E / 49.81173; 78.15933 (516) 602 m (1,975 ft) + underground tunnel,
safety experiment
1000 kg [1][3][5][6][7]
517 10 April 1979 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 115p 49°48′41″N 78°09′45″E / 49.81131°N 78.16243°E / 49.81131; 78.16243 (517) 602 m (1,975 ft) + underground tunnel,
safety experiment
1000 kg [1][3][5][6][7]
518 - 1 6 May 1979 03:17:00.07 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 701p 49°45′51″N 77°59′57″E / 49.7643°N 77.9993°E / 49.7643; 77.9993 (518 - 1) 704 m (2,310 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
15 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
518 - 2 6 May 1979 03:17:00.1 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 701p 49°45′51″N 77°59′57″E / 49.7643°N 77.9993°E / 49.7643; 77.9993 (518 - 2) 704 m (2,310 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][7]
519 - 1 31 May 1979 05:55:00.05 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 141 49°49′04″N 78°04′03″E / 49.81765°N 78.06755°E / 49.81765; 78.06755 (519 - 1) 745 m (2,444 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
17 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
519 - 2 31 May 1979 05:55:00.1 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 141 49°49′04″N 78°04′03″E / 49.81765°N 78.06755°E / 49.81765; 78.06755 (519 - 2) 745 m (2,444 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][7]
519 - 3 31 May 1979 05:55:00.1 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 141 49°49′04″N 78°04′03″E / 49.81765°N 78.06755°E / 49.81765; 78.06755 (519 - 3) 745 m (2,444 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][7]
519 - 4 31 May 1979 05:55:00 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 136p 49°49′36″N 78°04′07″E / 49.82679°N 78.06854°E / 49.82679; 78.06854 (519 - 4) 638 m (2,093 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][7]
520 12 June 1979 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 115-ppp 49°48′39″N 78°09′54″E / 49.81091°N 78.16508°E / 49.81091; 78.16508 (520) 602 m (1,975 ft) + underground tunnel,
safety experiment
1000 kg [1][3][5][6][7]
521 23 June 1979 02:57:00.11 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1223 49°54′58″N 78°50′40″E / 49.91608°N 78.84455°E / 49.91608; 78.84455 (521) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
149 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
522 - 1 7 July 1979 03:46:59.87 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1225 50°02′24″N 78°59′22″E / 50.04°N 78.98957°E / 50.04; 78.98957 (522 - 1) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
97 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
522 - 2 7 July 1979 03:46:59.9 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1225 50°02′24″N 78°59′22″E / 50.04°N 78.98957°E / 50.04; 78.98957 (522 - 2) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][5][6][7][10]
523 Galit A11 (Halite) - 1 14 July 1979 04:59:58.0 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-XI 47°52′55″N 48°07′12″E / 47.88195°N 48.12012°E / 47.88195; 48.12012 (523 Galit A11 (Halite) - 1) - 980 m (3,220 ft) underground shaft,
cavity excavation
7 kt [1][3][4][5][6] Create reservoirs for gas storage.
523 Galit A11 (Halite) - 2 14 July 1979 04:59:58.0 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-XI 47°52′55″N 48°07′12″E / 47.88195°N 48.12012°E / 47.88195; 48.12012 (523 Galit A11 (Halite) - 2) + underground shaft,
cavity excavation
7 kt [1][3][5][6][9] Create reservoirs for gas storage.
523 Galit A11 (Halite) - 3 14 July 1979 04:59:58.0 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-XI 47°52′55″N 48°07′12″E / 47.88195°N 48.12012°E / 47.88195; 48.12012 (523 Galit A11 (Halite) - 3) + underground shaft,
cavity excavation
7 kt [1][3][5][6][9] Create reservoirs for gas storage.
524 18 July 1979 03:17:04.92 ALMT (6 hrs)
Sary-Uzen/Murzhik, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 2613 49°55′14″N 77°48′48″E / 49.92057°N 77.81339°E / 49.92057; 77.81339 (524) 460 m (1,510 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
12 kt [1][5][6][7][8]
525 18 July 1979 03:17:04.9 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 195p 49°46′45″N 78°06′10″E / 49.7791°N 78.1027°E / 49.7791; 78.1027 (525) 600 m (2,000 ft) + underground tunnel,
fundamental science
14 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
526 - 1 4 August 1979 03:56:59.67 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1085 49°54′17″N 78°53′11″E / 49.90467°N 78.88634°E / 49.90467; 78.88634 (526 - 1) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
150 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
526 - 2 4 August 1979 03:56:59.7 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1085 49°54′17″N 78°53′11″E / 49.90467°N 78.88634°E / 49.90467; 78.88634 (526 - 2) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][5][6][7][10]
527 Kimberlit 4 (Kimberlite) 12 August 1979 18:00:00.2 YAKT (9 hrs)
Sakha, Russia: KM-4 61°48′11″N 122°25′48″E / 61.803°N 122.43°E / 61.803; 122.43 (527 Kimberlit 4 (Kimberlite)) - 980 m (3,220 ft) underground shaft,
seismic sounding
8.5 kt [1][3][4][5][6] Seismic probing program.
528 - 1 18 August 1979 02:51:59.71 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1226 49°56′55″N 78°55′07″E / 49.9485°N 78.9185°E / 49.9485; 78.9185 (528 - 1) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
150 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
528 - 2 18 August 1979 02:51:59.7 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1226 49°56′55″N 78°55′07″E / 49.9485°N 78.9185°E / 49.9485; 78.9185 (528 - 2) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][5][6][7][10]
529 Kimberlit 3 (Kimberlite) 6 September 1979 18:00:00.3 KRAT (7 hrs)
Krasnoyarsk, Russia: KM-3 64°06′36″N 99°33′43″E / 64.11°N 99.562°E / 64.11; 99.562 (529 Kimberlit 3 (Kimberlite)) - 600 m (2,000 ft) underground shaft,
seismic sounding
8.5 kt [1][3][4][5][6] Seismic probing program. 35 km SW Tura, Krasnoyarsk.
530 Klivazh (Cleavage) 16 September 1979 09:00:00.0 MSK (3 hrs)
Donetsk, Ukraine: Yunkom Mine 48°12′48″N 38°16′54″E / 48.21336°N 38.28162°E / 48.21336; 38.28162 (530 Klivazh (Cleavage)) - 900 m (3,000 ft) underground tunnel,
industrial
300 t [1][3][5][6][9]
531 - 1 24 September 1979 03:29:58.75 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-32 73°20′35″N 54°40′19″E / 73.343°N 54.672°E / 73.343; 54.672 (531 - 1) 100 m (330 ft) - 500 m (1,600 ft) underground tunnel,
weapons development
130 kt Venting detected on site, 170 Ci (6,300 GBq) [1][4][5][6][8]
531 - 2 24 September 1979 03:29:58.8 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-32 73°20′35″N 54°40′19″E / 73.343°N 54.672°E / 73.343; 54.672 (531 - 2) 100 m (330 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][9]
531 - 3 24 September 1979 03:29:58.8 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-32 73°20′35″N 54°40′19″E / 73.343°N 54.672°E / 73.343; 54.672 (531 - 3) 100 m (330 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][9]
532 27 September 1979 04:13:00.0 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 175p 49°45′00″N 78°02′24″E / 49.75°N 78.0399°E / 49.75; 78.0399 (532) 682 m (2,238 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapon effect
1.6 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
533 Kimberlit 1 (Kimberlite) 4 October 1979 16:00:00.0 SVET (5 hrs)
Khanty-Mansi, Russia: KM-1 60°40′30″N 71°27′18″E / 60.675°N 71.455°E / 60.675; 71.455 (533 Kimberlit 1 (Kimberlite)) - 840 m (2,760 ft) underground shaft,
seismic sounding
22 kt [1][3][4][5][6] Seismic probing program. 120 km SW Mirnyi.
534 Sheksna (Neva) 7 October 1979 21:00:00.2 YAKT (9 hrs)
Sakha, Russia: 47 61°51′00″N 113°06′00″E / 61.85°N 113.1°E / 61.85; 113.1 (534 Sheksna (Neva)) - 1,550 m (5,090 ft) underground shaft,
oil stimulation
15 kt [1][3][4][5][6] Oil recovery intensification.
535 - 1 18 October 1979 04:17:00.11 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 128 49°49′12″N 78°06′01″E / 49.82°N 78.1003°E / 49.82; 78.1003 (535 - 1) 659 m (2,162 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
15 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
535 - 2 18 October 1979 04:17:00.1 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 128 49°49′12″N 78°06′01″E / 49.82°N 78.1003°E / 49.82; 78.1003 (535 - 2) 659 m (2,162 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][7]
536 - 1 18 October 1979 07:09:58.75 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-20 73°18′58″N 54°48′58″E / 73.316°N 54.816°E / 73.316; 54.816 (536 - 1) 100 m (330 ft) - 500 m (1,600 ft) underground tunnel,
weapons development
150 kt Venting detected on site, 40 Ci (1,500 GBq) [1][4][5][6][8]
536 - 2 18 October 1979 07:09:58.8 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-20 73°18′58″N 54°48′58″E / 73.316°N 54.816°E / 73.316; 54.816 (536 - 2) 100 m (330 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][9]
536 - 3 18 October 1979 07:09:58.8 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-20 73°18′58″N 54°48′58″E / 73.316°N 54.816°E / 73.316; 54.816 (536 - 3) 100 m (330 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][9]
536 - 4 18 October 1979 07:09:58.8 MSK (3 hrs)
NZ Area B, Matochkin Shar, Novaya Zemlya, Russia: A-20 73°18′58″N 54°48′58″E / 73.316°N 54.816°E / 73.316; 54.816 (536 - 4) 100 m (330 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][3][5][6][9]
537 Galit A10 (Halite) - 1 24 October 1979 05:59:59.0 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-X 47°51′09″N 48°08′36″E / 47.85243°N 48.14327°E / 47.85243; 48.14327 (537 Galit A10 (Halite) - 1) - 850 m (2,790 ft) underground shaft,
cavity excavation
3 kt [1][3][4][5][6] Create reservoirs for gas storage.
537 Galit A10 (Halite) - 2 24 October 1979 05:59:59.0 SHET (5 hrs)
Atyrau, Kazakhstan: A-X 47°51′09″N 48°08′36″E / 47.85243°N 48.14327°E / 47.85243; 48.14327 (537 Galit A10 (Halite) - 2) + underground shaft,
cavity excavation
30 kt [1][3][5][6][9]
538 - 1 28 October 1979 03:16:59.55 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1224 49°59′51″N 78°59′40″E / 49.99759°N 78.9945°E / 49.99759; 78.9945 (538 - 1) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
120 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
538 - 2 28 October 1979 03:16:59.6 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1224 49°59′51″N 78°59′40″E / 49.99759°N 78.9945°E / 49.99759; 78.9945 (538 - 2) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][5][6][7][10]
539 30 November 1979 04:53:00.58 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 192p 49°46′46″N 78°05′43″E / 49.7794°N 78.0953°E / 49.7794; 78.0953 (539) 635 m (2,083 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
1.6 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
540 - 1 2 December 1979 04:37:00.06 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1309 49°54′37″N 78°47′04″E / 49.91024°N 78.78456°E / 49.91024; 78.78456 (540 - 1) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
93 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
540 - 2 2 December 1979 04:37:00.1 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 1309 49°54′37″N 78°47′04″E / 49.91024°N 78.78456°E / 49.91024; 78.78456 (540 - 2) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
fundamental science
unknown yield [1][5][6][7][10]
541 21 December 1979 04:42:00.09 ALMT (6 hrs)
Degelen, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: 802p 49°47′45″N 78°07′23″E / 49.7957°N 78.123°E / 49.7957; 78.123 (541) 727 m (2,385 ft) + underground tunnel,
weapons development
3.6 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
542 - 1 23 December 1979 04:56:59.9 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: Glubokaya-1 49°56′00″N 78°45′04″E / 49.93336°N 78.75111°E / 49.93336; 78.75111 (542 - 1) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
137 kt [1][4][5][6][7]
542 - 2 23 December 1979 04:56:59.9 ALMT (6 hrs)
Balapan, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: Glubokaya-1 49°56′00″N 78°45′04″E / 49.93336°N 78.75111°E / 49.93336; 78.75111 (542 - 2) 330 m (1,080 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield [1][5][6][7][10]
  1. A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length". Mikhailov, V. N., Editor in Chief. "Catalog of World Wide Nuclear Testing". Begell-Atom, LLC. http://www.iss-atom.ru/ksenia/catal_nt/1.htm. 
  2. The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  4. Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  10. Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.

References[]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000). CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3). SMDC Monitoring Research. 
  2. "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. http://www.ietf.org/timezones/. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 Nuclear explosions in the USSR: The North Test Site reference material, version 4. IAEA Dept. of Nuclear Safety and Security. December 1, 2004. http://www-ns.iaea.org/downloads/rw/waste-safety/north-test-site-final.pdf. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 Cochran, Thomas B.; Arkin, William M.; Norris, Robert S.; Sands, Jeffrey I.. Nuclear Weapons Databook Vol. IV: Soviet Nuclear Weapons. New York, NY: Harper and Row. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5.35 5.36 5.37 5.38 5.39 5.40 5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48 5.49 5.50 5.51 Podvig, Pavel, ed (2001). Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=CPRVbYDc-7kC&lpg=PA453&ots=vJQN2EUtRk&f=false. Retrieved January 9, 2014. 
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