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19th Arkansas Infantry (Confederate)
Flag of Arkansas.svg
Arkansas state flag
Active April 2, 1862–May 26, 1865
Disbanded May 26, 1865
Country Confederate States of America
Allegiance Dixie CSA
Branch Infantry
Size Regiment
Engagements

American Civil War

Arkansas Confederate Infantry Regiments
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19th Arkansas Infantry Regiment (Dawson's) 19th Arkansas Infantry Regiment (Hardy's)

The 19th (Dockery's) Arkansas Infantry (1862–1865) was a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War. There were two other Arkansas units which were designated as the 19th Arkansas. Dawson's 19th Arkansas Infantry was organized at Nashville, Arkansas, on November 21, 1861. Hardy's Arkansas Infantry Regiment, which is also occasionally referred to as the 19th Arkansas was organized in 1863 from those parts of Dawson's 19th Infantry Regiment, the 24th Arkansas Infantry Regiment and Crawford's Arkansas Infantry Battalion, which escaped capture at the Battle of Arkansas Post.

Organization[edit | edit source]

Dockery's 19th Arkansas Regiment was organized on April 2, 1862, at DeValls Bluff, with Col. Hamilton P. Smead in command.[2] The regimental quartermaster was Capt. Thomas P. Dockery, future brigadier-general. The regiment comprised ten companies from Columbia, Hot Spring, Lafayette, Ouachita and Union counties. The unit was composed of volunteer companies from the following counties:

  • Company A – commanded by Captain Jame G. Johson, and organized in Lewisbury, Arkansas on February 25, 1862;[3]
  • Company B – commanded by Captain Dave Dixon and organized in Columbia County, Arkansas on February 26, 1862;[4]
  • Company C – commanded by Captain Wiley H. Buffington and organized in Columbia County, Arkansas on February 27, 1862;[5]
  • Company D/E – the "Mountain Minute Men" – commanded by Captain R. S. Clayton and organized in Hot Springs County, Arkansas on March 1, 1862;[6][Note 1]
  • Company F – commanded by Captain W. C. Langford, and organized at El Dorado, Arkansas on March 1, 1862;[8]
  • Company G – commanded by Captain John A. Meek, and organized in Union County, Arkansas on March 1, 1862;[9]
  • Company H – commanded by Captain John Cook, and organized at Caney, Arkansas on March 3, 1862;[10]

    Colonel Tom P. Dockery

  • Company I – commanded by Captain B. R. Mathews, and organized in Union County, Arkansas on March 3, 1862;[11] and
  • Company K – commanded by Captain H. K. Perry, and organized in Columbia County, Arkansas on March 8, 1862.[12]

Battles[edit | edit source]

Soon after being organized, the regiment was ordered to Mississippi, along with the rest of General Earl Van Dorn's Army of the West.[13] The unit boarded a steamer and moved down White River, out at its mouth, then up the Mississippi River and landed at Memphis, Tennessee. The Confederate commander at Memphis reported on April 7 that Colonel Smead's command with a total of 762 soldiers (of which 560 were fit for duty) was present but armed with double barrel shotguns and inferior rifles.[14] The unit was assigned to the Brigadier General Albert Rust's brigade. The regiment was immediately ordered to move via paddle steamer to Fort Pillow, approximately 50 miles (80 km) north of Memphis, along with the remainder of Rust's Brigade.[15] At Fort Pillow, during a bombardment by Union gunboats, the regiment saw their first enemy fire.[16]

The unit remained at Fort Pillow for about two weeks.[14] The unit experienced few casualties in the bombardment of Fort Pillow, but many of the soldiers became sick, and several died due to the very muddy conditions and poor water supply at the fort.[16] The unit left Fort Pillow on April 26 moved back to Memphis and then on to Camp Churchill Clark, near Corinth, Mississippi.[14]

In early May 1862 the Confederate Army underwent an army-wide reorganization due to the passage of the Conscription Act by the Confederate Congress in April 1862.[17] All twelve-month regiments had to re-muster and enlist for two additional years or the duration of the war; a new election of officers was ordered; and men who were exempted from service by age or other reasons under the Conscription Act were allowed to take a discharge and go home. Officers who did not choose to stand for re-election were also offered a discharge. The reorganization was accomplished among all the Arkansas regiments in and around Corinth, Mississippi, following the Battle of Shiloh. After settling in at Camp Churchill Clark, near Corinth, Mississippi, the 19th Arkansas was reorganized for the war and new officers were elected. All of the original field officers were thrown out in the election of May 12, 1862, and in their place the men elected Colonel Thomas P. Dockery, Lieutenant Colonel William H. Dismukes, and Major Horatio G. P. Williams. On June 2, 1862, the two Hot Spring County companies were consolidated. Company D (from Rockport) was merged into Company E (from Hot Springs).[2]

During the Iuka-Corinth Campaign, the 20th Arkansas was assigned to Brigadier General William L. Cabell's brigade of Brigadier General Dabney H. Maury's Division of Major General Sterling Price's 1st Corps the Confederate (Army of the West). The unit participated in the Battle of Corinth and the Battle of Hatchie's Bridge, and reported 129 casualties.[18]

The regiment was assigned to Brigadier General Martin E. Green's brigade of Major General John S. Bowen's Division, of Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton's Army of Mississippi for the Vicksburg Campaign. When General Green was killed on June 27, 1863, Colonel Dockery was placed in command of Second Brigade, Bowen's Division, and so actual field command of the 19th Arkansas Regiment devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Dismukes, who led the regiment through the terrible battles that preceded the Siege of Vicksburg. The 19th Arkansas fought at Battle of Port Gibson, Battle of Champion's Hill,[19] and the Battle of Big Black River Bridge,[18] where Lieutenant-Colonel Dismukes was mortally wounded and most of the regiment was captured.[20] Major Horatio Gates Perry Williamson was promoted to lieutenant-colonel after Dismukes' death, and the uncaptured remnant of the 19th Arkansas fell back to Vicksburg, where it endured the forty day siege.[2]

This regiment surrendered with the Army of Mississippi at Vicksburg, Mississippi, July 4, 1863.[18] General U. S. Grant initially demanded the conditional surrender of the Vicksburg garrison, but faced with the necessity of feeding 30,000 starving Confederates and having the idea that these soldiers might do more harm to the Confederate cause by being released to return home rather than being exchanged as whole units, he relented and allowed for the immediate parole of the unit. According to the Confederate War Department, Union leader encouraged the surrendered confederates to simply return home, rather than being officially paroled and exchanged. The able bodied Confederate soldiers who were released on parole walked out of Vicksburg (they were not allowed to proceed in any military formations) on July 11, 1863. Paroling of these able bodied men was completed in their respective regimental camps inside Vicksburg prior to July 11. The soldiers of the 15th Northwest Arkansas were paroled on July 8 and 9, 1863. Those who were wounded or sick in the various hospitals in Vicksburg were paroled, and were released as soon as they could leave on their own. July 15/16 is the most common date of these Vicksburg hospital paroles. Some of the most seriously wounded and sick were sent by steamship down the Mississippi River and over to Mobile, Alabama, where they were delivered on parole to Confederate authorities.[21]

Confederate commanders designated Enterprise, Mississippi, as the rendezvous point (parole camp) for the Vicksburg parolees to report to after they got clear of the last Federal control point at Big Black Bridge. Most of the Arkansas units appeared to have bypassed the established parole camps, and possibly with the support or at least by the compliancy of their Union captors, simply crossed the river and returned home. Because so many of the Vicksburg parolees, especially from Arkansas, simply went home, Major General Pemberton requested Confederate President Davis to grant the men a thirty to sixty day furlough.[22] The furloughs were not strictly adhered to so long as the soldier eventually showed up at a parole camp to be declared exchanged and returned to duty. Those who went directly home were treated as if they had been home on furlough if they eventually reported into one of these two parole centers. The exchange declaration reports issued by Colonel Robert Ould in Richmond for various units in the Vicksburg and Port Hudson surrenders began in September 1863 based upon men who actually reported into one of the two parole camps.[21] Pemberton eventually coordinated with the Confederate War Department and Confederate General Kirby Smith, commanding the Department of the Trans-Mississippi to have the Arkansas Vicksburg parolee's rendezvous point established at Camden, Arkansas.[23]

The regiment was exchanged back in Arkansas and, when Colonel Dockery was appointed brigadier-general, Lieutenant-Colonel Williamson was promoted to colonel and placed in command of the regiment. After being exchanged, the regiment was reorganized and mounted. It was placed in Dockery's and Roane's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department, and saw action during the Camden Expedition[24] at the Battles of Prairie D'Ane,[25] Marks' Mills,[26] and Jenkins Ferry.[18][27] The 19th Arkansas was then consolidated with other depleted Arkansas regiments to form the 3rd Consolidated Arkansas Infantry. The consolidated regiment was assigned along with the 1st and 2nd Arkansas Consolidated Infantry Regiments to the 2nd (McNair’s) Arkansas Brigade, 1st (Churchill’s) Arkansas Division, 2nd Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department, from September 1864 to May 1865.[28][29]

Surrender[edit | edit source]

The 3rd Arkansas Consolidated Infantry Regiment was stationed at Marshall, Texas, when the war ended,[2] and was officially surrendered with the Department of the Trans-Mississippi by Major General E. Kirby Smith on May 26, 1865.[2]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Footnotes
  1. This company was originally organized on December 25, 1861, as a volunteer company in the 47th Regiment, Arkansas State Militia.[7]
Citations
  1. Boney, James L. "Battle at Mt. Elba", Cleveland County, Arkansas, ArGenWeb Project, Accessed 26 March 2012, http://www.argenweb.net/cleveland/battle-at-mt.-elba.htm
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Howerton, Bryan, "19th Arkansas Regiment, No. 2", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 26 July 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=14811
  3. Gerdes, Edward G., "19TH(DOCKERY'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Company A", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 27 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/dockerya.html
  4. Gerdes, Edward G., "19TH(DOCKERY'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Company B", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 27 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/dockeryb.html
  5. Gerdes, Edward G., "19TH(DOCKERY'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Company C", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 27 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/dockeryc.html
  6. Gerdes, Edward G., "19TH(DOCKERY'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Company D&E", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 27 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/dockerye.html
  7. Kie Oldham Papers, Arkansas History Commission, One Capitol Mall, Little Rock Arkansas, Box 2, Items 91a
  8. Gerdes, Edward G., "19TH(DOCKERY'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Company F", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 27 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/dockeryf.html
  9. Gerdes, Edward G., "19TH(DOCKERY'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Company G", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 27 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/dockeryg.html
  10. Gerdes, Edward G., "19TH(DOCKERY'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Company H", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 27 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/dockeryh.html
  11. Gerdes, Edward G., "19TH(DOCKERY'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Company I", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 27 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/dockeryi.html
  12. Gerdes, Edward G., "19TH(DOCKERY'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Company K", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 27 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/dockeryk.html
  13. United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 10, In Two Parts. Part 2, Correspondence, etc., Book, 1884; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154614/m1/462/?q=Arkansas Corinth Battery : accessed June 15, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Odom, Danny "Re: 17th Arkansas Regiment, No. 2", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 9 June 2012, Accessed 11 June 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=26502
  15. United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 10, In Two Parts. Part 2, Correspondence, etc., Book, 1884; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154614/m1/415/?q=Army of the West Memphis : accessed June 14, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Elihu C. Beckham, "A GOOD STORY, Where I was And What I saw During the Late War By Elihu C. Bechkam, Sergeant Co. “K”, 21st Ark.", The Izard County Historian, October 1977, Volume 8, Number 4. Accessed 6 June 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/goodstor.html
  17. UPTON, EMORY, Bvt. Maj. Gen., United States Army; "THE MILITARY POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES" WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1912, Page 471, Congressional edition, Volume 6164, Google Books, Accessed 4 November 2011, http://books.google.com/books?id=2-tGAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA471&lpg=PA471&dq=Confederate+conscription+law+reorganization+regiment&source=bl&ots=7ptDBF0n2D&sig=-K_6PQoHglmh_SOzuobv_JyNWUw&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Confederate%20conscription%20law%20reorganization%20regiment&f=false
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 National Park Service, Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, Confederate Arkansas Troops, 19th Regiment (Dockery's), Arkansas Infantry. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  19. "Vivid Experiences at Champion Hill, Miss." Private A. H. Reynolds, Camden, Arkansas, 19th Arkansas Infantry, from the Confederate Veteran, January 1910, Accessed 5 July 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=19th_Arkansas_Infantry_Regiment_(Dockery%27s)&action=edit&section=2
  20. United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 24, In Three Parts. Part 2, Reports., Book, 1889; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154603/m1/420/?q=Tappan's Brigade Arkansas 1863 : accessed June 29, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas
  21. 21.0 21.1 Simmons, Hugh "Re: 46th AL Co. C -- questions re: Demopolis/Vicks", Alabama in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 17 April 2004, Accessed 4 June 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/alcwmb/arch_config.pl?noframes;read=13786
  22. Martin. George, "Re: Paroled", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 14 July 2009, Accessed 11 June 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=20381
  23. Howerton, Bryan R. "Re: Paroled", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 14 July 2009, Accessed 11 June 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=20383
  24. Odom, Danny, "Question for Danny", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 15 March 2012, Accessed 26 March 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=25887
  25. "Confederate Memorial, Old Washington, Hempstead County, Arkansas", Civil War Buff, The Civil War in Arkansas, Accessed 26 March 2012, http://www.civilwarbuff.org/Places/Hempstead/ConfederateMarker.htm
  26. Taylor, Doyle. "Killed in the Battle of Mark’s Mill" Arkansas Civil War Page, Accessed 26 March 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/MarksMill.html
  27. "Order of Battle " Red River Campaign, Camden Expedition, Jenkins Ferry, Civil War Landscapes Association, Accessed 26 March 2012, http://civilwarlandscapes.org/cwla/states/ar/jf/intro/oobf.htm
  28. Howerton, Bryan, "1st, 2nd & 3rd Consolidated Arkansas Infantry Regiments", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 26 July 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=24472
  29. Sikakis, Stewart, Compendium of the Confederate Armies, Florida and Arkansas, Facts on File, Inc., 1992, ISBN 978-0-8160-2288-5, page 118.

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