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1st Arkansas Cavalry Regiment (Confederate)
Flag of Arkansas.svg
Arkansas state flag
Active December 30, 1863–May 26, 1865
Disbanded May 26, 1865
Country Confederate States of America
Allegiance Dixie CSA
Branch Cavalry
Size Regiment
Engagements

American Civil War

The Crawford's 1st Arkansas Cavalry Regiment (1863–1865) was a Confederate Army cavalry regiment during the American Civil War. Officially designated by the State Military Board as the 10th Regiment Arkansas Cavalry, it was almost never referred to as such during the Civil War. It was generally referred to in contemporary documents as Crawford’s 1st Arkansas Cavalry. The Compiled Service Records of the men are archived under 1st (Crawford’s) Arkansas Cavalry, Rolls 1 and 2.[1]

Organization[edit | edit source]

The unit was enrolled in Confederate Service on December 30, 1863 at Camden, Arkansas. The unit was composed of volunteer companies from the following Southern Arkansas counties:[1]

  • Company A – was organized at Camden, Arkansas, on January 12, 1863, by Captain John Wesley Walker. The company was composed primarily of men from Ouachita county, and operated as an independent cavalry company throughout 1863. On December 30, 1863, upon the organization of Crawford’s Regiment, the company was assigned as Company A, and Captain Walker was elected major. He was succeeded as captain by John C. Peoples. One muster roll for Company A survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, when the company was stationed at Cut Off, Drew county, Arkansas.[2]
  • Company B – was organized at Benton, Arkansas, on March 26, 1863, by Captain Mark S. Miller. The company was composed primarily of men from Saline county, and operated as an independent cavalry company throughout 1863. As such Major General James F. Fagan utilized it as his personal escort and body guard. At the battle of Helena the company operated as Fagan's brigade advance until reaching the felled trees near Battery D. It was then sent with Colonel Brooks' regiment to the far right of the Confederate assault. After the fall of Little Rock and on the retreat, Miller's company was placed in a small brigade under command of Colonel Robert C. Newton and utilized as rear guard at Benton.[3] Undoubtedly the company was utilized here due to the trooper's knowledge of Saline County terrain and geography. A number of soldiers in the unit were listed as deserters during the retreat when in reality they were temporarily absent without leave in order to deal with families in the path of the Union advance out of Little Rock. One muster roll for Company B survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, and bears the following notation: “This Company since its organization has been scouting almost all the time, part of the time in the mountains after Jayhawkers. Has had several skirmishes with the Jayhawkers and Robbers without the loss of a man. Had an engagement with the Federals near Princeton, Ark. on the 8th of Dec. 1863 in which we lost 1 Officer and twelve men captured and were forced to retreat on account of superior numbers against us.”[4]
  • Company C – was organized at Lewisville, Arkansas, on July 7, 1863, by Captain Richard B. Ford. The company was composed primarily of men from Lafayette county, and operated as an independent cavalry company throughout 1863. One muster roll for Company C survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, when the company was stationed at Monticello, Drew county, Arkansas.[5]
  • Company D – was organized at Camden, Arkansas, on September 26, 1863, by Captain Holly Brooks Wilkinson. The company was composed primarily of men from Ouachita county, and initially operated as an independent cavalry company. One muster roll for Company D survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, when the company was stationed at Monticello, Drew county, Arkansas.[6]
  • Company E – was organized at Magnolia, Arkansas, on September 19, 1863, by Captain Dawson Lee Killgore. The company was composed primarily of men from Columbia county, and initially operated as an independent cavalry company. On December 30, 1863, upon the organization of Crawford’s Regiment, Captain Killgore was elected lieutenant-colonel. He was succeeded as captain by John C. Henderson. One muster roll for Company E survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, when the company was stationed at Cut Off, Drew county, Arkansas.[7]
  • Company F – was organized at El Dorado, Arkansas, on October 6, 1863, by Captain John D. Holloway. The company was composed primarily of men from Union county, and initially operated as an independent cavalry company. One muster roll for Company F survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, when the company was stationed at Cut Off, Drew county, Arkansas.[8]
  • Company G – was organized in Saline county, Arkansas, on December 9, 1863, by Captain Isaac Harrison. The company was composed primarily of men from Saline county, and initially operated as an independent cavalry company. One muster roll for Company G survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, when the company was stationed at Cut Off, Drew county, Arkansas.[9]
  • Company H – was organized in Clark county, Arkansas, on December 24, 1863, by Captain H. W. McMillan. The company was composed primarily of men from Clark county. One muster roll for Company H survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, when the company was stationed at Monticello, Drew county, Arkansas.[10]
  • Company I – was organized in Union county, Arkansas, on December 5, 1863, by Captain Lewis H. Sheppard. The company was composed primarily of men from Union county. One muster roll for Company I survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, when the company was stationed at Cut Off, Drew county, Arkansas.[11]
  • Company K – Company K was organized at Arkadelphia, Arkansas, on December 15, 1863, by Captain John D. McCabe. The company was composed primarily of men from Clark county. One muster roll for Company K survives. It covers the period January 1 to February 29, 1864, when the company was stationed at Monticello, Drew county, Arkansas.[12]

Later, two additional companies were attached to the regiment, but no muster rolls for these companies have been located.[1]

  • Company L — organized in Lafayette county.
  • Company M — company was organized in Prairie county.

The Field Officers were:[13]

  • Colonel William A. Crawford.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Dawson Lee Killgore.
  • Major John Wesley Walker.
  • Surgeon William Thompson.

Battles[edit | edit source]

Crawford’s Cavalry was assigned to Fagan’s Cavalry Division of the Trans-Mississippi Army, brigaded with Wright’s cavalry regiment and Poe’s and McMurtrey’s cavalry battalions. It was active in the battles associated with the Camden Expedition in the Spring of 1864, and was heavily engaged in the many battles of Price’s Missouri Campaign in the Fall of 1864. The following notation appeared on the Field and Staff muster roll for the period ended February 29, 1864, stationed at Cut Off, Drew county, Arkansas:[1]

“This Regiment was organized at Camden, Arks, on the 30th day of Dec. 1863, in the vicinity of which place Reg. Hd. Qrs. remained until the 13th of Jan., when the Regiment marched to the Arkansas River, a distance of 120 miles (190 km) from Camden, under orders from Gen’l Fagan & brought from Ark. River droves of beeves and fat hogs to Monticello, at which place the Regiment arrived about the 25th of Jan. 1864. The beeves & hogs were drove to Camden for the Army by details from this Reg. The Regiment removed the latter part of Jan. to Warren, Arks, 18 miles (29 km) west of Monticello, remained there 6 days, whence back to Monticello, thence on the 16th Feb. moved in direction of Gains Landing on Miss. River. The Reg. on account of the wretched condition of the Cut Off & bad roads proceeded only 15 miles (24 km) in that direction. Col. Crawford however with 100 of the Reg. proceeded to the Miss. River near Luna Landing & there partially succeeded in driving out part of the Federal Marines on the 22d Feb., drove them back precipitately & killed one man & horse dead on the field & wounded 8 or 10 other Federals badly, without any injury on his part whatever & rejoined the Reg. near Monticello on the 24th Feb. where the Reg. arrived 3 days before. The Reg. remained there until the 27th Feb. when it removed here some 15 miles nearly east of Monticello where the Reg. & its Hd. Qrs. are now roughly bivouacked but faring pretty well not withstanding".[1]

The Crawford's 1st Arkansas Cavalry was involved in the following engagements:[14]

Surrender[edit | edit source]

Crawford’s Cavalry was included in the general surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Army on May 26, 1865[1]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10cavhis.html
  2. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company A", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcoa.html
  3. United States. War Dept.. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 22, Part 1, Reports, pgs 428, 430, and 540; http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moawar&cc=moawar&idno=waro0032&node=waro0032%3A8&view=image&seq=560&size=100
  4. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company B", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcob.html
  5. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company C", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcoc.html
  6. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company D", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcod.html
  7. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company E", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcoe.html
  8. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company F", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcof.html
  9. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company G", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcog.html
  10. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company H", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcoh.html
  11. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company I", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcoi.html
  12. Howerton, Bryan R.; "Crawford’s 1st/10th Arkansas Cavalry, CSA, Company A", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 29 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10thcok.html
  13. National Park Service, Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, Confederate Arkansas Troops, 1st Regiment, Arkansas Cavalry (Crawford's), Accessed 29 November 2011
  14. Sikakis, Stewart, Compendium of the Confederate Armies, Florida and Arkansas, Facts on File, Inc., 1992, ISBN 0-8160-2288-7, page 118.

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Crawford, Sybil F. “Science Takes a Look: William A. Crawford’s Burial Vault.” The Saline 20 (April 2005): 19–32.
  • Rushing, Anthony C. "Rackensacker Raiders: Crawford's First Arkansas Cavalry." Civil War Regiments, I (1991): 44-69.
  • Williams, Charles G., ed. “A Saline Guard: The Civil War Letters of Col. William Ayers Crawford, C.S.A., 1861–1865.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 31 (Winter 1972): 328–355.
  • Williams, Charles G., ed. “A Saline Guard: The Civil War Letters of Col. William Ayers Crawford, C.S.A., 1861–1865, Part II.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 32 (Spring 1973): 71–93.

External links


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