|2014 military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant|
|Part of the Global War on Terrorism, Iraqi Civil War, and Syrian Civil War|
Top: Two U.S. Air Force F-15E Strike Eagle aircraft flying over northern Iraq. Left: F-22 Raptor refueling before a strike in Syria. Right: Peshmerga special forces gathered near Syria. Bottom: An American F/A-18C Hornet aboard the USS George H.W. Bush prior to the launch of operations over Iraq.
Iraqi Kurdistan (by US & allies, Iran and foreign Kurds)
Local forces in Syria:
Opposed by ISIL, US-led Coalitions, and others
|Commanders and leaders|
|Okasha al-Baghdadi†(Senior ISIL Leader)|
Islamic Republic of Iran:
|Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant: 31,500 troops|
|Casualties and losses|
Amidst increasing advances by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (abbreviated ISIL, ISIS, and also called "Islamic State") militants in June and July 2014, many states began to intervene in the ongoing civil wars in Syria and Iraq. Rapid territorial gains from ISIL military operations in Iraq and Syria in the first half of 2014 combined with internationally condemned brutality, reported human rights abuses, and fear of further spillovers of the Syrian Civil War caused many countries to consider interventions. With different agendas and political considerations in a complex situation, countries have approached intervening in the two civil war conflicts in different ways, and to different degrees.
- 1 American-led intervention in Iraq
- 2 Iranian airstrikes and ground operations
- 3 Other interventions across the conflict zone
- 4 American-led military intervention in Syria
- 5 Other foreign interventions in Syria
- 6 ISIL forces
- 7 Blowback in Turkey and Western Europe
- 8 See also
- 9 References
American-led intervention in Iraq[edit | edit source]
Starting in August 2014, the United States assembled a coalition of partner countries to combat ISIL. Various countries contributed aircraft, military aid to local ground forces, military advisors to train local forces in-country, and bases for operations and training of local ground forces. In addition to military efforts, many countries mounted a considerable humanitarian effort to assist ethnic minorities in northern Iraq who are under the threat of genocide or had fled from ISIL in Iraqi Kurdistan and other areas.
In August, speaking about US involvement in Iraq, President Barack Obama said "this is going to be a long-term project". The military effort subsequently expanded to protect Iraqi infrastructure and provide air cover to Iraqi troops. Since the commencement and expansion of American airstrikes against the Islamic State, Kurdish and Iraqi forces have been able to reverse significant extremist advances and retake control of the Mosul Dam, the largest dam in Iraq. In late August, when asked by reporters about his plans regarding military options in response to gains made by ISIS, President Obama replied “we don’t have a strategy yet”. President Obama announced on 10 September 2014 that he would begin to pursue airstrikes in Syria with or without congressional approval; he also announced that the number of airstrikes in Iraq would increase.
Humanitarian efforts[edit | edit source]
The US, the UK, and Australia, supported by international partners, launched a large humanitarian effort to support refugees stranded in northern Iraq. This included air-dropping tens of thousands of meals and thousands of gallons of drinking water to Yazidi refugees stranded in the Sinjar mountains and threatened by advancing ISIL forces, from 7 August through 14 in what was later described as "the first mass air delivery of humanitarian cargo since the outbreak of violence in East Timor in 1999."
American airstrikes[edit | edit source]
In the summer of 2014 U.S. forces started undertaking reconnaissance missions over northern Iraq. On 7 August, President Obama gave a live address describing the worsening conditions in Iraq and that the plight of the Yazidis particular had convinced him that U.S. military action was necessary to protect American lives, protect minority groups in Iraq, and to stop a possible ISIL advance on Erbil, the capital of the Kurdish Autonomous Region. On 8 August the United States started to bomb ISIL targets in Iraq. By 10 August, assisted by these air attacks, Kurdish forces claimed to have recaptured the towns of Mahmour and Gweyr from Islamic State control. Additional Iraqi airstrikes conducted in Sinjar claim to have killed 45 ISIS militants and injured an additional 60 militants. The Pentagon characterized airstrikes as stopgap military actions that would not be able to significantly disrupt Islamic State activities. On 14 August, U.S air-strikes and Kurdish ground forces had broken the ISIL siege of Mount Sinjar, allowing thousands of Yazidi refugees to escape.
The U.S. announced a shift in focus to arming the Kurds and reversing ISIL gains. On 16 August, U.S. air power began a close air campaign aimed at supporting the advance of Kurdish fighters moving toward the Mosul Dam. Kurdish sources commented is was the largest American air effort yet seen in the war. On 8 September, the Iraqi army with close air support from U.S. retoke the key Haditha dam and recapture the town of Barwana killing 15 ISIL fighters. ISIL responded with the public execution of David Haines.
By the end of September 2014, the United States had conducted 240 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, as well as 1,300 tanker refueling missions, totaling 3,800 sorties by all types of aircraft. A tactical arrangement with Kurdish and Iraqi forces and drone video is being used to coordinate close air support without needing U.S. troops in ground combat.
American ground forces[edit | edit source]
In July, Obama announced that owing to the continuing violence in Iraq and the growing influence of non-state actors such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the United States would be elevating its security commitment in the region. Approximately 800 U.S. troops secured American installations like the Embassy in Baghdad and the Consulate in Erbil as well as taking control of strategic locations like the Baghdad airport in cooperation with Iraqi troops.
U.S. forces also undertook a mission to "assess and to advise [Iraqi security forces] as they confront [ISIL] and the complex security situation on the ground.” Reports from these American units about the capabilities of the Iraqi military have been consistently grim, viewing them as "compromised" by sectarian interests.
On 13 August, the U.S. deployed another 130 military advisers to Northern Iraq and up to 20 U.S. Marines and special forces servicemen landed on Mount Sinjar from V-22 aircraft to coordinate the evacuation of Yazidi refugees joining British SAS already in the area.
On 3 September announced increase of U.S. forces in Iraq to 1,213. On 10 September, Obama gave a speech reiterating that American troops will not fight in combat but about 500 more troops will be sent to Iraq to help train Iraqi forces.
Nameless intervention[edit | edit source]
Unlike their coalition partners, and unlike previous America combat operations, no name has been given to the 2014 conflict against ISIS by the American government. The decision to keep the conflict nameless has drawn considerable media criticism. American Servicemen remain ineligible for Campaign medals and other service decorations due to the continuing ambiguous nature of the American Intervention.
Australian airstrikes[edit | edit source]
Prime Minister Tony Abbott and the Australian cabinet approved on 3 October for RAAF Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet fighter bombers to begin airstrikes against Islamic State militants. Abbott said "It is in our national interest that we do so, it is in the interests of civilisation that we do so. It is in everyone’s best interests that the murderous rage of the ISIL death cult be checked and rolled back and that’s what we’re determined to do." 
On 6 October Air Chief Marshall Mark Binskin announced two Super Hornets had conducted armed combat missions over Iraq although no armaments were expended. An Australian Air task Group KC-30A and an E-7A Wedgetail Airborne Early Warning and Control aircraft have also been flying in support to fighter bombers belonging to coalition forces. The KC-30A performs airborne refueling for coalition aircraft. Binskin said "One of our Super Hornet packages on the first night … had an identified target which it was tracking and that particular target moved into an urban area where the risks of conducting a strike on that target increased to a point where it exceeded our expectations of collateral damage, so they discontinued the attack at that point." 
On 9 October Prime Minister Tony Abbott confirmed that RAAF Super Hornets had been involved in a "strike missions on an ISIL position in Iraq”. The aircraft dropped two bombs onto what was described by the Defence Force to be an "ISIL facility"
British airstrikes[edit | edit source]
On 26 September, the House of Commons approved by 524–43 British airstrikes in Iraq. Hours later, six Tornado GR4 strike aircraft of No. 2 Squadron RAF stationed at RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus were prepared for their first armed sorties over Iraq. The operation was given the code name "Operation Shader" by the Royal Air Force. Although the UK Parliament has only backed airstrikes in Iraq, Prime Minister David Cameron has insisted that there is also a "strong case" for airstrikes in Syria and British operations may extend to the country if a "humanitarian catastrophe" unfolds. He went on to state that any extension of airstrikes from Iraq into Syria would not require another House of Commons vote.
On 3 October, during a surprise visit to RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus, Prime Minister David Cameron announced that two additional Tornado GR4 strike aircraft were to arrive at the airbase to help support operations over Iraq. By 6 October, both aircraft had arrived at the airbase bringing the total number of deployed Tornado GR4's to eight.
French airstrikes[edit | edit source]
On 19 September, the French air force used its Rafale jets to conduct airstrikes on ISIS targets in Mosul. The airstrikes were approved by French President François Hollande, which indicated that France was committed to fighting ISIS using air power alongside America. Hollande mentioned that no ground troops would be used in the conflict.
Military aid[edit | edit source]
On 5 August 2014, Zalmay Khalilzad, the former U.S. ambassador to Iraq and the U.N., wrote in the Washington Post that the United States is involved in "the direct supply of munitions to the Kurds and, with Baghdad's agreement, the shipment of some Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program weapons to the Kurds." The United States moved from indirectly supplying Kurdistan with small arms through the CIA to directly giving them weapons such as man-portable anti-tank systems.
In a coordinated effort lead by the United States, many allied countries including NATO members and Middle Eastern partners have supplied or plan to supply Iraqi and/or Kurdish forces with heavy military equipment, small arms, ammunition, non-lethal military gear, and training support.
Iranian airstrikes and ground operations[edit | edit source]
In June 2014, Iran committed approximately 500 soldiers of the elite Qods Force to Iraq to help shore-up that nation's government in the face of ISIL advances. Qods Force personnel were deployed to Samarra, Baghdad, Karbala, and the abandoned U.S. military post formerly known as Camp Speicher. On 25 July, Qods Force soldier Shojaat Alamdari was killed in Samarra while operating as a forward air controller in action against ISIL. Reports have indicated that former Qods Force commander Qassem Suleimani is acting as the Iraqi government's "chief tactician" during the anti-ISIS operations. Seven Su-27 aircraft and some drones were sent by Iran, where they operated against ISIL with bi-national Iranian/Iraqi crews.
Other interventions across the conflict zone[edit | edit source]
Iraqi Kurdistan and Syrian Kurdistan have de facto governments autonomous from the national government with their own armies while in Iran and Turkey the Kurds maintain rebel armies. These various Kurdish forces have been crossing into Syria and Iraq to fight ISIL with local Kurds. The US-led coalition is not known to be coordinating directly with the intervening Iranian or Turkish Kurds, but is coordinating with the Iraqi and Syrian Kurds.
American-led military intervention in Syria[edit | edit source]
Hostage rescue attempt[edit | edit source]
On 4 July, the U.S. bombed the "Osama bin Laden" ISIS military base in the village of Uqayrishah, Syria. Two dozen American Delta Force commandos then touched down in an effort to rescue hostages including James Foley. In a series of videos Foley, Steven Joel Sotloff, and several more hostages were murdered.
Aerial surveillance[edit | edit source]
Arming rebels[edit | edit source]
United States[edit | edit source]
At the direction of President Obama, the American Central Intelligence Agency played an active role since the early stages of the Syrian Civil War. The U.S. originally supplied the moderate rebels of the Free Syrian Army with non-lethal aid but soon escalated to providing training, cash and intelligence to selected rebel commanders.
On 17 September, the House of Representatives voted on authorize spending to train and arm moderate Syrian rebels.
Saudi Arabia[edit | edit source]
According to the United States Department of Defense, Saudi Arabia has proposed that they would provide training to Syrian rebels so they could return to Syria and battle ISIL.
Multi-national airstrikes[edit | edit source]
Starting 23 September, the U.S. Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates began airstrikes against ISIL targets in Syria with fighters, bombers, and sea-based Tomahawk cruise missiles. which continue. Additionally, on the first night only US forces launched eight cruise missile strikes against al Qaeda affiliated Khorasan.
Other foreign interventions in Syria[edit | edit source]
The Syrian Civil War functions as a proxy war and has had many foreign interventions supporting various sides in the conflict. There have also been actions taken by all adjoining nations impacted by spillover. Significant humanitarian aid has been provided to conflict victims.
ISIL forces[edit | edit source]
Equipment[edit | edit source]
Conflict Armament Research, a private arms-tracking organization, has concluded that ISIL military forces are using ammunition of United States and Chinese manufacture. According to CAR, these are most likely munitions transferred by the U.S. and Chinese governments to regional actors for use against ISIL troops which are being captured as local forces disintegrate. A U.S. Department of Defense Inspector-General report concluded that the U.S. had lost track of nearly 250,000 small arms that were provided to the security forces of Afghanistan; some of this quantity may have made its way into ISIS hands. In addition to small arms and ammunition, heavy equipment is frequently or often of American manufacture. Over a six-week period in late summer and early fall, the U.S. Air Force destroyed at least three dozen U.S.-made Humvees being operated by ISIL, which were originally donated by the U.S. to the Iraqi army.
Forces[edit | edit source]
Blowback in Turkey and Western Europe[edit | edit source]
In early October 2014, as the town of Kobanê on the border with Turkey began to fall to ISIL troops, thousands of Kurds and others began to hold protests throughout Turkey and Western Europe, causing at least 14 deaths and injuring scores of others. The Parliament of the Netherlands was briefly occupied as was a floor of the European one.
See also[edit | edit source]
- 2014 American-led intervention in Iraq
- 2014 Iranian-led intervention in Iraq
- American-led intervention in Syria
- Arab Winter
- Assyrian exodus from Iraq
- Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War
- Iraqi insurgency (2011–present)
- Northern Iraq offensive (August 2014)
- Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014)
- Persecution of Yazidis by ISIL
- Spillover of the Syrian Civil War
- Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (August 2014–present)
- Turkish involvement in the 2014 military intervention against ISIS
References[edit | edit source]
- "Australia says it is deploying warplanes to join Iraq campaign". The Daily Telegraph. Yahoo. 22 September 2014. http://news.yahoo.com/australia-says-deploying-warplanes-join-iraq-campaign-171750273.html. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Battling Dutch, Belgium prepare to send forces". MSN. http://arabia.msn.com/news/middle-east/4185906/battling-dutch-belgium-prepare-send-f/. .
- "Canada to join anti-Islamic State air strikes". BBC. 3 October 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-29483160. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- "Denmark, Isis". 9 September 2014. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/26/denmark-isis_n_5887230.html. .
- "Sweden rejects calls for military support to Iraq". The Local. 18 August 2014. http://www.thelocal.se/20140815/sweden-rejects-military-support-to-iraq. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Islamic State: France ready to launch Iraq air strikes". BBC. 18 September 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-29255711. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "France bombs Isis depot in Iraq". The Guardian. 21 September 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/19/france-bombs-isis-depot-iraq-islamic-state. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Germany to start airlifting aid to Iraq". DW. http://www.dw.de/germany-to-start-airlifting-aid-to-iraq/a-17855325. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Germany offers military aid against IS group". Al Jazeera English. 31 August 2014. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2014/08/germans-offers-military-aid-against-group-2014831195411992577.html. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "Dutch send fighter jets to strike Iraq". Yahoo. http://news.yahoo.com/dutch-send-fighter-jets-strike-iraq-175537161.html. .
- "Britain ready to supply Kurds with arms". Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2014/08/15/uk-iraq-security-britain-idUKKBN0GF0L120140815. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "RAF jets sent on Iraqi combat mission". 27 September 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-29393379. .
- "US, Arab allies launch first wave of strikes in Syria". Fox News. 22 September 2014. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2014/09/22/us-launches-first-wave-bombing-strikes-over-syria/. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Italy Send Aid to Iraq". RIA. 15 August 2014. http://en.ria.ru/world/20140815/192022683/Italy-to-Send-Humanitarian-Aid-to-Iraq-on-Saturday.html.
- "Renzi arrives in Baghdad for meetings with Iraq leaders". Gazzetta del Sud. http://www.gazzettadelsud.it/news/english/104884/Renzi-arrives-in-Baghdad-for-meetings-with-Iraq-leaders.html. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Greece Brings War Against the Islamic State". Greek Reporter. 25 September 2014. http://greece.greekreporter.com/2014/09/25/greece-brings-war-against-the-islamic-state/.
- "Wary Spain Remains Reluctant Partner in anti-IS Coalition". 24 September 2014. http://rudaw.net/english/world/240920141. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Nissenbaum, Dion (14 August 2014). "US Military Shifts to Helping Kurds Fight Back". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/articles/u-s-military-shifts-to-helping-kurds-fight-back-1408063147. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Weaver, Matthew (14 August 2014). "Iraq crisis: EU backs plans by member states to arm Kurd fighters". The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/middle-east-live/live/2014/aug/15/iraq-crisis-britain-ready-to-arm-kurds-as-eu-meets-live-updates#block-53ee11b7e4b06c461acbb568. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Likmeta, Besar (27 August 2014). "Albania Starts Shifting Weapons to Iraqi Kurds". Balkan Insight. http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/albania-starts-delivery-of-weapons-to-iraqi-kurds.
- "До 2020 година 1.8 млрд. лв. ще бъдат вложени в армията" (in bg). 1.8 bln. lv will be invested in the military by 2020. Dir. 20 September 2014. http://dnes.dir.bg/news/armia-%D0%92elizar-%D0%A8alamanov-17428509. Retrieved 20 September 2014. "Shalamanov does not consider the conflict in Ukraine to be the only short-term threat for Bulgarian national security, which is why our country is sending armaments to the opponents of Islamic State… According to him, the events in northern Iraq and Syria represent a growing risk that threatents our national interests."
- "Hrvatska u borbi protiv islamista: Na zahtjev SAD-a šaljemo oružje za iračku vojsku" (in hr). 21 August 2014. http://www.jutarnji.hr/hrvatska-u-borbi-protiv-islamista-na-zahtjev-sad-a-saljemo-oruzje-za-iracku-vojsku/1214692/. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Slovakia Launches Aid for Displaced Civilians in Northern Iraq". Emerging Europe. The Wall Street Journal. 14 August 2014. http://blogs.wsj.com/emergingeurope/2014/08/14/slovakia-launches-aid-for-displaced-civilians-in-northern-iraq/. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Norway Pledges Super Hercules Aircraft for Iraq Aid Effort". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/articles/norway-pledges-super-hercules-aircraft-for-iraq-aid-effort-1408125804. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- "Polish Aid For Refugees from Nineveh in Iraq". MSZ. http://www.msz.gov.pl/en/news/polish_aid_for_refugees_from_nineveh_in_iraq.
- "Tehran's Boots on the Ground". Foreign Policy. 9 September 2014. http://complex.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2014/09/10/tehrans_boots_on_the_ground_iraq_syria_islamic_state_isis_iran. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- "US and Iraqis Try to Fragment Extremist Group". The New York Times. 12 July 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/13/world/middleeast/us-and-iraqis-try-to-fragment-extremist-group-.html. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- Van Heuvelen, Ben. "Amid turmoil, Iraq's Kurdish region is laying foundation for independent state". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/amid-turmoil-iraqs-kurdish-region-is-laying-foundation-for-independent-state/2014/06/12/c1f22d7c-f26a-11e3-bf76-447a5df6411f_story.html. Retrieved 13 June 2014. "Kurdistan's military forces… have taken over many of the northernmost positions abandoned by the national army, significantly expanding the zone of Kurdish control… ‘In most places, we aren't bothering them [ISIS], and they aren’t bothering us – or the civilians,’ said Lt. Gen. Shaukur Zibari, a pesh merga commander."
- Hassan (17 June 2014). "More Than ISIS, Iraq's Sunni Insurgency". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. http://carnegieendowment.org/sada/2014/06/17/more-than-isis-iraq-s-sunni-insurgency/hdvi. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "IŞİD ve El Nusra'nın birleştiği iddia edildi" (in tr). Star Gazete. http://haber.stargazete.com/dunya/isidde-sok-gelisme/haber-901304. .
- "Obama vs ISIS: This time it's personal". The Daily Beast. 22 August 2014. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/08/21/obama-readies-for-war-on-isis.html. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "US weighs direct military action against ISIS in Syria". The New York Times. 22 August 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/23/world/middleeast/obama-adviser-says-military-action-possible-against-isis.html. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "French hostage beheading: France to boost Syria rebels". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-29360788. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- In the House of Commons debate, Nick Clegg took the position of the foreign secretary. Liberal Democrats supported the motion as part of the coalition government with the Conservative's in alliance with other parties. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmhansrd/cm140926/debtext/140926-0003.htm#14092616000927
- Grubb, Ben (4 October 2014). "The man calling Australia's shots in the new Iraq war". SMH.com.au. Fairfax Media. http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/the-man-calling-australias-shots-in-the-new-iraq-war-20141004-10qbff.html. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "France strikes Islamic State group’s depot in Iraq". Go. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/france-strikes-islamic-state-groups-depot-iraq-25616007. .
- al-Obaidi, Hassan (8 September 2014). "Iraqi airstrike kills key ISIL leader". Al Shorfa. http://mawtani.al-shorfa.com/en_GB/articles/iii/features/2014/09/08/feature-01. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "3 ISIL leaders killed in Iraqi airstrike north of Mosul". Al Shorfa. 11 September 2014. http://al-shorfa.com/en_GB/articles/meii/newsbriefs/2014/09/11/newsbrief-04. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Crowley, Michael (18 August 2014). "Obama la Mission Creep in Iraq". Time. http://time.com/3137009/obamas-iraq-isis-mission-creep/.
- Welch, William M (3 September 2014). "US sending 350 more troops to Iraq". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2014/09/02/more-military-to-iraq/14995793/.
- Lamothe, Dan (19 July 2014). "US companies pulling contractors from Iraqi bases as security crumbles". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2014/06/12/u-s-companies-pulling-contractors-from-iraqi-bases-as-security-crumbles/. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Nissenbaum, Dion (3 February 2014). "Role of US Contractors Grows as Iraq Fights Insurgents". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304851104579361170141705420. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "US airstrikes in Syria". Go. http://abcnews.go.com/International/us-airstrikes-syria/story?id=25686031. .
- "Raptors, bombers & drones: How US-led ISIS strikes caused carnage in Syria". RT. http://rt.com/news/190188-video-airstrikes-syria-islamicstate/. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Rush, James (6 October 2014). "Isis air strikes: US brings in Apache helicopters as British jets target militants in Iraq". Independent.co.uk. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-air-strikes-british-jets-carry-out-latest-attack-on-militants-in-iraq-9777284.html. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- Cooper, Hayden (5 October 2014). "Australians back air strikes against Isis in Iraq by three to one, poll shows". TheGuardian.com. http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2014/oct/05/australians-back-air-strikes-isis-iraq-three-to-one-poll. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "Australia says ready to strike ISIL in Iraq". AlJazeera.com. 3 October 2014. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/10/australia-says-ready-strike-isil-iraq-201410344429911502.html. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Bree, Max (9 October 2014). "Largest group in decades". Air Force. Australian Department of Defence. p. 3. http://airforcenews.realviewdigital.com/#folio=2. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- McGuirk, Rod (3 October 2014). "Australia says it will launch airstrikes in Iraq". NavyTimes.com. http://www.navytimes.com/article/20141003/NEWS08/310030044/Australia-says-will-launch-airstrikes-Iraq. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- Radulova, Lillian (1 September 2014). "Australian military transport plane 'shot at' by Islamic State fighters in northern Iraq while delivering aid". DailyMail.co.uk. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2739817/Australian-transport-plane-SHOT-AT-Islamic-State-fighters-northern-Iraq-delivering-aid.html. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "Dutch Parliament commits soldiers, F-16s to fight ISIS in Iraq". NL Times. http://www.nltimes.nl/2014/09/24/parliament-commits-troops-isis-fight/. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Dánsko vyšle sedm stíhaček proti Islámskému státu v Iráku" (in cs). Český noviny. http://www.ceskenoviny.cz/svet/zpravy/dansko-vysle-sedm-stihacek-proti-islamskemu-statu-v-iraku/1127716. .
- "House approves combat mission against ISIS". ctvnews.ca. 7 October 2014. http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/house-approves-combat-mission-against-isis-1.2042926. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "ISIS in Iraq: Canada to send special ops soldiers as advisers". cbc.ca. 4 September 2014. http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/isis-in-iraq-canada-to-send-special-ops-soldiers-as-advisers-1.2755841. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "MPs vote to join U.S.-led bombing campaign against ISIL". canada.com. 7 October 2014. http://www.canada.com/vote+join+bombing+campaign+against+ISIL/10271461/story.html. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Canadian transport planes join military effort in Iraq". thestar.com. 15 August 2014. http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2014/08/15/canadian_transport_planes_joining_military_effort_in_iraq.html. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Germany Sending 40 Soldiers to Iraqi Kurdistan". Naharnet. 13 September 2014. http://www.naharnet.com/stories/en/147365-germany-sending-40-soldiers-to-iraqi-kurdistan.
- "Two more UK Tornados to join fight against Islamic State". BBC.com. 2 October 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-29469520. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "ISIS, Inc. – Jihadists attract investors, fighters with annual reports & glossy PR". RT. http://rt.com/news/166920-isis-iraq-offensive-report/. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- Beauchamp, Zack (23 September 2014). "Iran is fighting on the Iraqi government’s side". Vox. http://www.vox.com/cards/things-about-isis-you-need-to-know/iran-intervenes-iraq. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- Nadimi, Farzim (10 September 2014). "Iran Is Expanding Its Military Role In Iraq In A Bunch Of Ways". Businessinsider.com. http://www.businessinsider.com/what-we-know-about-irans-expanding-military-role-in-iraq-2014-9. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "CIA: Islamic State group has up to 31,500 fighters". http://bigstory.ap.org/article/cia-islamic-state-group-has-31500-fighters/.
- "Marine is first U.S. death in operations against Islamic State". Ca.News.Yahoo.com. 3 October 2014. https://ca.news.yahoo.com/marine-first-u-death-operations-against-islamic-state-205137743.html. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Sherlock, Ruth. "The failed US mission to try and rescue James Foley from Islamic State terrorists". Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/11049814/The-failed-US-mission-to-try-and-rescue-James-Foley-from-Islamic-State-terrorists.html. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "Islamic State’s execution videos are sly propaganda written in blood". Al Jazeera America. 3 September 2014. http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/9/2/sotloff-executionvideospropaganda.html. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "Isil using anti aircraft batteries captured in Iraq". 12 September 2014. http://www.worldtribune.com/2014/09/12/isil-using-anti-aircaft-batteries-captured-iraq/. .
- "IS beheads French hostage in video". Sky. http://news.sky.com/story/1341548/is-beheads-french-hostage-in-video-reports. .
- "David Haines's 'evil murder' condemned by PM". BBC News. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-29195872. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Amir Vahdat (25 June 2014). "3 Iranian troops killed in attack near Iraq border". Navy Times. http://www.navytimes.com/article/20140625/NEWS08/306250077/3-Iranian-troops-killed-attack-near-Iraq-border.
- "Here's A Rundown of US Strikes on ISIS So Far". The Business Insider. 10 September 2014. http://www.businessinsider.com/us-action-against-isis-breakdown-2014-9. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Lister, Charles (7 August 2014). "Not Just Iraq: The Islamic State Is Also on the March in Syria". http://www.huffingtonpost.com/charles-lister/not-just-iraq-the-islamic_b_5658048.html. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "US airstrikes on militants in Iraq". 10 August 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/world/middleeast/us-airstrikes-on-militants-in-iraq.html. .
- "Isis, Iraq, Syria: Barack Obama strategy". http://time.com/3211132/isis-iraq-syria-barack-obama-strategy/. .
- "Obama outlines plan to target IS fighters". Al Jazeera English. 11 September 2014. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/09/obama-strike-wherever-it-exists-2014910223935601193.html. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- "JTF633 supports Herc mercy dash". Department of Defence. 22 August 2014. http://news.defence.gov.au/stories/2014/08/jtf633-supports-herc-mercy-dash/. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Australia steps up assistance to Iraqi people". Department of Defence. 31 August 2014. http://news.defence.gov.au/2014/08/31/australia-steps-up-assistance-to-iraqi-people/. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Obama Authorizes Air Strikes in Iraq – ABC News". ABC News. 7 August 2014. http://abcnews.go.com/International/us-begins-humanitarian-airdrops-iraq/story?id=24884633. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "News Article: U.S. Conducts Another Humanitarian Airdrop in Iraq". U.S. Department of Defense. 8 August 2014. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=122886. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Airstrikes kill ISIS fighters in Iraq, officials say". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/09/world/meast/iraq-crisis/. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "U.S. Secretly Flying Drones Over Iraq". WSJ. 12 June 2014. http://online.wsj.com/articles/u-s-secretly-flying-unmanned-drones-over-iraq-1402605640. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "U.S. has armed drones over Baghdad, official says". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2014/06/27/world/meast/iraq-crisis/. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Armed U.S. aircraft now flying over Iraq: defense officials". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/06/27/us-iraq-security-usa-flights-idUSKBN0F22DR20140627. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Statement by the President". The White House. 7 August 2014. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/08/07/statement-president. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "U.S. warplanes, drones strike ISIS in Iraq, again". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/08/world/iraq-options/index.html?hpt=hp_t1. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Kurdish forces claim to recapture 2 Iraqi towns from IS with US air support (+ video)". Christian Science Monitor. 10 August 2014. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0810/Kurdish-forces-claim-to-recapture-2-Iraqi-towns-from-IS-with-US-air-support-video. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Iraq: Troops swell in Baghdad amid humanitarian chaos". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/10/world/meast/iraq-crisis/index.html?hpt=hp_t2. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Harper, Jon (11 August 2014). "General: Iraq airstrikes have limited, 'temporary effect'". Stars and Stripes. http://www.stripes.com/news/middle-east/general-iraq-airstrikes-have-limited-temporary-effect-1.297794. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Militants’ Siege on Mountain in Iraq Is Over, Pentagon Says
- Bill Roggio (18 August 2014). "US airpower supports Peshmerga, Iraqi forces to retake Mosul Dam". The Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/08/us_airpower_supports.php. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Iraq crisis: EU condemns 'atrocities' by IS militants". BBC. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28800854. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Iraq crisis: US strikes aid Kurdish bid to retake dam". BBC. 16 August 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28820509. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Iraq crisis: Mosul dam recaptured from militants – Obama". BBC. 18 August 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28833519. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- John Beck (8 September 2014). "Iraqi Forces Have Pushed Back Islamic State Fighters From the Haditha Dam". Vice News. https://news.vice.com/article/iraqi-forces-have-pushed-back-islamic-state-fighters-from-the-haditha-dam. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Airstrike Agreement Keeps US Air Controllers Away From Combat – Military.com, 29 September 2014
- Youssef, Nancy A. (30 June 2014). "WASHINGTON: 480 U.S. troops now in Baghdad as officials move to secure access to airport | Iraq". McClatchy DC. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2014/06/30/231985/480-us-troops-now-in-baghdad-as.html. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Baghdad airport 'seized by US troops'". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-175189/Baghdad-airport-seized-US-troops.html. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Jacob Siegel. "Will U.S. Troops Stand By While ISIS Starves Thousands?". The Daily Beast. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/08/07/will-u-s-troops-stand-by-while-isis-starves-thousands.html. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Cox, Carmen (15 July 2014). "Report: Iraqi Army Infiltrated with Extremists from Both Sides". ABC News Radio Online. http://abcnewsradioonline.com/world-news/report-iraqi-army-infiltrated-with-extremists-from-both-side.html. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Pentagon report warns of security risks for US advisers in Iraq". The Hill. 14 July 2014. http://thehill.com/policy/defense/212135-pentagon-report-warns-of-security-risks-for-us-advisers-in-iraq. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "US troops land on Iraq's Mt Sinjar to plan for Yazidi evacuation". The Guardian. 13 August 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/13/us-ground-troops-direct-role-evacuate-yazidis-iraq. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Obama to send approximately 350 additional military personnel to Iraq". 3 September 2014. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2014/09/03/obama-to-send-approximately-350-additional-military-personnel-to-iraq/. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "Iraq conflict: Australian Super Hornet drops two bombs on Islamic State targets in Iraq". 8 October 2014. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-10-09/australian-super-hornet-drops-two-bombs-on-is-targets/5800764. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- Robinson, Nick (26 September 2014). "MPs support UK air strikes against IS in Iraq". The Telegraph. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-29385123. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Islamic State air strikes: RAF to launch Operation Shader – BBC News, 26 September 2014.
- Swinford, Steven (26 September 2014). "David Cameron says there is 'strong case' for air strikes in Syria". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/11123679/David-Cameron-says-there-is-strong-case-for-air-strikes-in-Syria.html. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "RAF Tornado jets fly ready for attack role over Iraq". https://www.gov.uk/government/news/raf-tornado-jets-fly-ready-for-attack-role-over-iraq. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- "RAF Tornados bomb militants near Ramadi". Telegraph. 10 June 2014. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/11143343/RAF-Tornados-bomb-militants-near-Ramadi.html. Retrieved 10 July 2014. "Defence planners are also considering sending RAF Reaper drones to the region to spy on Isil militants, once the aircraft have finished watching over the withdrawal of British troops from Afghanistan. If the plan is given the go-ahead, the aircraft could be in place around the end of the year, joining American drones already flying over Isil territory."
- Ian. S (19 September 2014). "France plans further air strikes against IS: President". Mathrubhumi. http://www.mathrubhumi.com/english/news/latest-news/france-plans-further-air-strikes-against-is-president-152050.html. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Khalilzad, Zalmay. "To fight the Islamic State, Kurdish and Iraqi forces need expedited aid". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/zalmay-khalilzad-to-fight-the-islamic-state-kurdish-and-iraqi-forces-need-expedited-aid/2014/08/05/746d8680-1c24-11e4-ae54-0cfe1f974f8a_story.html. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Cloud, David; Bennet, Brian (11 August 2014). "U.S., allies rush heavy weapons to Kurds to fight militants in Iraq". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/world/middleeast/la-fg-us-iraq-weapons-20140811-story.html#page=1. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "James Foley: US Military Launched Secret Rescue Operation in Syria for Journalist, Other Americans – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/james-foley-us-military-launched-secret-rescue-operation/story?id=25060796. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "U.S. Attempted And Failed To Rescue American Hostages In Syria". Huffingtonpost.com. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/20/us-hostages-syria_n_5696419.html. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Goldman, Adam. "U.S. staged secret operation into Syria in failed bid to rescue Americans". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-weighs-response-to-apparent-execution-of-american-by-islamic-state/2014/08/20/e33558a8-287d-11e4-8593-da634b334390_story.html. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "ISIS beheading U.S. journalist James Foley, posts video - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. http://edition.cnn.com/2014/08/19/world/meast/isis-james-foley/index.html. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- Tim Walker (19 March 2014). "James Foley 'beheaded': Isis video shows militant with British accent 'execute US journalist' – as hunt begins for killer – Middle East – World". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/british-islamic-state-jihadist-beheads-american-journalist-james-foley-in-chilling-video-9679827.html. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "U.S. Lays Groundwork for Syria Strike". WSJ. 26 August 2014. http://online.wsj.com/articles/u-s-military-prepares-for-surveillance-flights-over-syria-1409005925. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- ABC News. "Politics". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory/ap-source-obama-backs-surveillance-syria-25122308. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Bowman, Tom; Fordham, Alice (23 April 2014). "CIA Is Quietly Ramping Up Aid To Syrian Rebels, Sources Say". BBC News. http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/04/23/306233248/cia-is-quietly-ramping-up-aid-to-syrian-rebels-sources-say. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Spencer, Richard (17 February 2014). "US-backed head of Free Syria Army voted out". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/10644538/US-backed-head-of-Free-Syria-Army-voted-out.html. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Youssef, Nancy A. (26 May 2014). "Syrian Rebels Describe U.S.-Backed Training in Qatar". PBS – Frontline. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/foreign-affairs-defense/syria-arming-the-rebels/syrian-rebels-describe-u-s-backed-training-in-qatar/. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "House Grudgingly Approves Arms for Syrian Rebels". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory/wary-lawmakers-ready-arms-syrian-rebels-25557894. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Marshall Jr., Tyrone C.. "Spokesman: Airstrikes Only Part of the Strategy Against ISIL". http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=123370. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "US airstrikes hit ISIS inside Syria for first time". CNN. 22 September 2014. http://www.cnn.com/2014/09/22/world/meast/u-s-airstrikes-isis-syria/. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- US, Arab allies launch first strikes on fighters in Syria
- Chivers, C.J. (5 October 2014). "ISIS’ Ammunition Is Shown to Have Origins in U.S. and China". http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/06/world/isis-ammunition-is-shown-to-have-origins-in-us-and-china.html?ref=world&_r=0. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- Bender, Bryan (24 September 2014). "Stolen US-made equipment a key focus in ISIS fight". http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/06/world/isis-ammunition-is-shown-to-have-origins-in-us-and-china.html?ref=world&_r=0. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- Dilanian, Ken (21 September 2014). "CIA: Islamic State group has up to 31,500 fighters". http://bigstory.ap.org/article/cia-islamic-state-group-has-31500-fighters. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|