278,232 Pages

2016 Aleppo summer campaign
Part of the Battle of Aleppo and the Syrian Civil War
Aleppo Summer Campaign 2016.png
Map of Northern Syria during the offensive, with the area shown within the Aleppo City map marked by the box.
Date 25 June 2016[1] – 11 September 2016
(2 months, 2 weeks and 3 days)
Location Aleppo, Syria
Result Major Syrian Army and allies victory
  • Army captures Castello road, besieging rebel-held areas of Aleppo[2][3][4]
  • Army captures the al-Layramoun,[5] Bani Zeid[6] and Ashrafiyah districts,[7] and advances in the al-Khalidiyah district
  • Rebel counter-offensive opens a new unsecured corridor via the Ramouseh district,[8][9][10] which is later recaptured by the Army, with rebel-held eastern Aleppo once again besieged[11][12]
Syrian Arab Republic


Emblem of Liwa Al-Quds.svg Liwa al-Quds[16]
Ba'ath Brigades[17]
Liwa Fatemiyoun[13]
23x15px Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba[18]
Syrian Resistance[19]
Supported by:
 Russia[16] (Airstrikes)

Syrian Democratic Forces (27–30 July;[21] 12–17 August[22])

Fatah Halab
Army of Conquest[23]

Ansar al-Islam[26]
Supported by:
Turkey Turkey[28]

Commanders and leaders
Fahd Jassem al-Freij[29]
(Minister of Defense)
Maj. Gen. Suheil Al Hassan[30]
(Tiger Forces chief commander)
Maj. Gen. Adib Mohammed[31]
(Head of Aleppo security committee, replaced)
Maj. Gen. Zaid Saleh[31]
(Replacement head of Aleppo security committee)
Maj. Gen. Adib Salameh[32]
(Head of Aleppo Air Force Intelligence Directorate branch)
Brig. Gen. Deeb Bazi[33][34]
(Airforce Technical Base commander)
Brig. Gen. Asif Kheir Bek (DOW)[35]
(Artillery School commander)
Gen. Yasir Muhsin Miya[36]
(Syrian Army commander)
Gen. Muhammad Ali Sharbo[36]
(Syrian Army commander)
Maj. Gen. Mahmoud Hassan (DOW)[37]
(147th Regiment Chief of Staff)
Maj. Duraid Abu ‘Ammar[38]
(Tiger Forces commander)
Suleiman al-Shwakh[39]
(Desert Commandos commander)
Mudar Makhlouf[19]
(Military Security Shield Forces commander)
Maj. Gen. Qasem Soleimani[38][40]
(Quds Force chief commander)
Gen. Dariush Darsti[41]
(IRGC commander)
Maj. Abolghassem Zahiri (WIA)[13]
(102nd Imam Hossein Battalion commander)
Ahmad Gholami[15]
(Iranian paramilitary commander)
Haj Sameer Ali Awada[42]
(Hezbollah top commander, alleged)
Hassan Mousa Abdul Nabi[43]
(Hezbollah commander)
Ali Muhammad Mustafa Khalil[44]
(Imam Hujja Regiment commander)

Zoran Birhat[45]
(YPJ senior commander)
Sharvan Efrin[45]
(YPG commander)
Unknown YPG commander[46]

Maj. Yasser Abd al-Rahim[47]
(official leader of Fatah Halab)
Ammar Shaaban[48]
(Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zenki top commander)
Col. Mohammad Bakkar[49]
(Sham Legion top commander)
Kamal Ahmad[50]
(8th Brigade commander)
Abdel-Rahman Mansour[51]
(Islamic Safwah Movement commander)
Yusuf Zo'ah[52]
(Army of Mujahideen general commander)
(Army of Mujahideen commander)
Abu Hajer Al-Homsi[53]
(nome de guerre: Abu Omar Saraqib,[54] Army of Conquest commander of Idlib province and Jabhat Fatah chief military commander)[55]
Abdullah al-Muhaysini[56]
(Jabhat Fateh cleric and leader)
Abu Al-Muthanna [50]
("Inghimassiyeen" commander)
Khaled Abu Anas[57]
(Ahrar al-Sham senior commander)
Mustafa Al-Bayyour[58]
(Ahrar al-Sham top commander)
Khattab Abou Ahmad[59]
(Abu Amara Brigades chief commander)
Abu Hamza Al-Shami[60]
(5th Brigade commander)
Saif Allah[61]
(Ahrar al-Sham tank commander)
Ali Hamam[27]
(Ajnad al-Sham top commander)
Wa’el Diyab (WIA)[27]
(Ajnad al-Sham commander)
Abu Leith al-Tunisi[62]
(Ansar al-Islam commander)
Units involved
Syrian Armed Forces

Seal of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution.svg IRGC

Hezbollah units

  • Radwan Forces[66]
  • Syrian Hezbollah groups
    • Imam Mahdi Brigade[67]
    • National Ideological Resistance[44]
    • Imam Hujja Regiment[44]
Fatah Halab

Ahrar al-Sham

al-Nusra Front / Jabhat Fateh al-Sham

Unknown number of soldiers, 100+ tanks, 400+ BMPs[31]
  • 400 Military Security Shield Forces fighters[19]

23x15px c. 2,000 al-Nujaba fighters[18]
Russia 120+ Naval Infantry advisors, several BMPs[20][74]

8,000–10,000+ fighters[31][75]
  • 2,500+ Jabhat Fateh fighters[31]
  • 500 TIP fighters and 60 suicide attackers[25]
Casualties and losses
688 killed (per The Inside Source; since 31 July)[76][77]
625 killed (per SOHR; 31 July – 10 Sep.)[78]
1,051 killed (per The Inside Source; since 31 July)[76][77][79]
948 killed (per SOHR; 31 July – 10 Sep.)[78]
718 civilians killed (31 July – 10 Sep.)[78]

The 2016 Aleppo summer campaign[80] started with a military operation launched on the northern outskirts of Aleppo in late June 2016, by the Syrian Arab Army. The aim of the offensive was to cut the last rebel supply line into Aleppo city.[81][82]

By late July, the military had managed to sever the last rebel supply line coming from the north and completely surround Aleppo. However, within days, the rebels launched a large-scale counter-attack south of Aleppo in an attempt to both open a new supply line into rebel-held parts of the city and cut-off the government-held side. The whole campaign, including both the Army's offensive and subsequent rebel counter-offensive, was seen by both sides as possibly deciding the fate of the entire war.[60][83][84][85][86][87]

The battle was also notable for the large loss of top rebel field commanders, with about three dozen being killed.[27][50][51][53][59][60][88][89][90]

By early September, government troops had cemented their siege of the rebel part of the city.[12]

The campaign[edit | edit source]

Army advances, rebel-held Aleppo surrounded[edit | edit source]

The offensive began on 25 June, with heavy Russian air-strikes[16] and ground bombardment.[81] On 26 June, the military made advances into the Mallah Farms,[91] and by 28 June, they had captured half of the farmlands,[92] including the Al-Asamat and Arab Salum areas.[93] The advances brought the Castello Road within firing range of the military's artillery.[94]

After midnight on 7 July, amid heavy airstrikes, pro-government forces captured the southern part of Mallah and came within one kilometer of the Castello Road.[95] They captured a mosque complex and a hill which overlook the Castello Road,[96][97] thus enabling them to bring the road under artillery fire-control.[98] This effectively cut off the only supply route to the rebel-held part of Aleppo.[95]

Several days later, the Army advanced in the al-Layramoun[99][100] al-Khalidiyah[101] and Bani Zeid districts.[102][103] During this time, government troops captured the Sadkop Gas Factory.[104][105]

By the evening of 13 July, the military secured the whole al-Khalidiyah district and most of the al-Layramoun industrial area, after capturing the last several rebel-held buildings in al-Khalidiyah, as well as al-Layramoun’s gas factory, market and glass factory.[63]

On 17 July, the Army and Hezbollah reached the Castello Road, capturing parts of it and completely cutting it after taking control of Castello Hill. With this advance, the rebel-held part of Aleppo city was fully besieged[2][106][107] and the al-Layramoun roundabout came under artillery fire-control.[108] Meanwhile, the military made more advances in the Bani Zeid and al-Layramoun areas, capturing most of the factories.[109]

Between 23 and 25 July, the Army expanded its control in the al-Layramoun industrial area by capturing the Textile Factory[110] a dozen industrial buildings and two malls.[111] Late on 25 July, the Tiger Forces captured two sites in and near the Castillo Complex, threatening to cut off the rebels remaining at Bani Zeid and al-Layramoun.[112]

On 26 July, government forces captured all of the al-Layramoun District after heavy fighting for the last rebel stronghold there, the Bus Station. After also seizing the Al-Castillo Amusement Park and imposing fire control over Bani Zeid, the remaining rebel forces in Aleppo City were left almost completely besieged.[5][113][114]

On 27 July, rebel forces attacked the Kurdish-held areas of Aleppo, although their attack was repelled.[115] The Kurds then proceeded to advance into the nearby rebel-held Bani Zeid Youth Housing neighborhood[116][117] and captured the whole complex.[21] Later that day, the Army officially declared it had cut off all rebel supply routes into Aleppo.[118] On 28 July, the military captured the Bani Zeid district,[6][117][119] as well as the rebel-held parts of the Ashrafiyah district.[7] The rebels withdrew from Bani Zeid before the main Army assault so to avoid heavy losses.[4] The Army then continued to push its assault towards the Dahret Abdrubbah area.[120]

On 30 July, the Kurdish YPG captured the Shuqayyif Youth Housing area, next to the Castello Road.[121][122]

Rebel counter-offensive, both sides besieged[edit | edit source]

On 31 July, the Army of Conquest launched a counter-offensive both south and north of Aleppo in an attempt to lift the siege on the rebel-held areas of the city. Fierce fighting was reported at the Al-Castillo Highway,[23] while the rebels managed to capture the Al-Hikma school and two hills on the southern outskirts of Aleppo, which constituted an advanced Army defense line.[123] The wide-scale rebel counter-attack reportedly included 8,000–10,000 fighters, 95 tanks, hundreds of rocket launchers and a large number of suicide-bombers.[124][125] By evening, the rebels also took control of Al-‘Amariyah village and reached the nearby 1070 Al-Hamadaniyah Housing Project where fighting continued.[126] During the night, the 1070 Al-Hamadaniyah Housing Project was also taken by the rebels.[127][128]

The next day, the rebels once again advanced and took control of Mushrifah village (also known as Sharfa), that is situated on a hill that overlooks the Al-Assad Military Academy.[129][130]

Over the next several days, back-and-forth fighting took place for control of the 1070 Housing Project neighborhood,[131][132][133][134] Huwayz village,[125][135][136][137][138] Al-‘Amariyah and several hills.[60][85][139][140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147]

On 5 August, a rebel attack on the Military Academy started[148][149] and by the next day the rebels took control of more than half of the Military Academy.[150][151] Shortly after their advances at the Military Academy, rebels both inside and outside Aleppo advanced into the Ramouseh neighborhood, linked up and captured it. With this advance, the rebels managed to cut the government's supply line into the government-held part of west Aleppo[8][9][152] and announced the Army's siege of rebel-held east Aleppo had been broken.[153] However, the new rebel supply line was still under Army artillery fire and being hit by air-strikes,[8][9] making both sides essentially under siege.[8] Since the rebel offensive started, at least 130 civilians had been killed, most by rebel shelling of government-held districts. 500 fighters on both sides also died, mostly rebels.[154] At the end of the day, the rebels were in control of the entire Military Academy base and the Ramouseh district.[155]

Fighting continues, Army retakes territory[edit | edit source]

On 7 August, fighting was still continuing in the Ramouseh district, where it was confirmed the Army was still in control of parts of the area.[156] The government, backed by Russia, launched an intensive air-strike campaign, in which one of the military schools captured by the rebels was reportedly leveled. Meanwhile, the rebels were putting up a "massive" defense to protect the new corridor.[157] The next day, the Ramouseh district was confirmed to be completely under rebel control,[158] while the Army recaptured al-Sanobrat hill.[159]

On 11 August, the rebels attacked the government supply route to Aleppo between Khanasir and Ithriya, capturing Mahmyat Al-Ghazal.[160] However, the Army recaptured the village the following day.[161]

Between 11 and 17 August, the Army launched several counter-attacks, primarily against the 1070 Housing Project.[61][162][163] During the fighting on 11 August 29 government and up to 20 rebel fighters were killed.[164] By 17 August, government forces recaptured about 70 percent of the district.[34][165]

On 17 August, after capturing most of the 1070 Al-Hamdaniyah Housing Project, government forces also stormed the Air Force Technical Base. The former government commander of the base Brig. Gen. Deeb Bazi was killed as he led the assault.[34][165] Back-and-forth fighting at the Academy continued into early September, when on 4 September, pro-government forces finally overwhelmed the rebel defenders and captured the whole complex.[77][166][167] Thus, government troops reestablished the siege of rebel-held areas of Aleppo.[12]

Also during this time, on 21 August, government forces captured Umm Qara hill that overlooks the Khan Touman-Ramouseh Road near Al-Qarassi,[168][169] as well as nearby SyriaTel hill.[169][170] Multiple rebel counter-attacks in an attempt to recapture Umm Qara hill were eventually repelled.[171]

On 5 September, rebel frontlines in southern Aleppo collapsed, with pro-government forces overrunning three villages, three hills, two factories, two storage facilities, an Air Defense Base and a quarry.[172][173][174]

Between 6 and 8 September, the Syrian Army captured the whole Ramouseh district,[175][176][177][178][179] reopening the Ramouseh Road to supply government-held western Aleppo by 9 September.[180]

On 10–11 September, the Syrian Army and its allies continued to advance in the 1070 Al-Hamdaniyah Housing Project and the Al-‘Amariyah District. They also continued to target the Hikmah School.[181][182][183]

On 11 September, airstrikes interrupted Eid al-Adha celebrations in rebel-held areas of Aleppo and Idlib. US and Russian officials negotiated a ceasefire hours prior, which was to go into effect later the following day at sundown.[184]

Aftermath – Ceasefire and government assault on East Aleppo[edit | edit source]

After the implementation of the ceasefire in mid-September, the Syrian Army withdrew its forces from the Castello road to allow UN humanitarian aid into the eastern parts of the city. However, rebel groups outside the city did not allow humanitarian aid convoys into Aleppo.[185] Later, as Russian Marines and Syrian Red Crescent personnel controlling Castello road came under fire by rebel groups, the SAA redeployed its soldiers once again.[186]

On 16 September, the Russian Air Force carried out numerous airstrikes around Aleppo for the first time since the ceasefire had been reached four days earlier.[187] On 19 September, an aid convoy from the United Nations and the Syrian Arab Red Crescent consisting of more than 18 trucks was reportedly hit by air-to-surface missiles as they headed for eastern Aleppo from the town of Urum al-Kubra, killing 12 people and severely injuring several more.[188] At the same time, Russia and Syria restarted heavy bombing raids on rebels in the city.[189]

Early on 21 September, the Syrian Army seized most of Hikma Hill, thus being on the verge of recapturing Al-Hikma school and the 1070 Housing Project.[190][191] However, later in the day, the rebels retook the positions they lost on the hill. Still, the Army managed to capture areas of the Ramouseh district that had been rebel-held since late 2012.[192] Meanwhile, SOHR claimed that 3,000 Russian soldiers had arrived at Aleppo to support new government offensives in the area.[193]

On 22 September, the Syrian Army launched a new offensive into the rebel-held eastern neighborhoods.[194] Government forces also made further progress in southern Aleppo, capturing a few sites.[195][196]

A new rebel attempt to break the siege starting in late October 2016, failed after two weeks of fighting, and consequently all major rebel positions in East Aleppo were overrun by pro-government and Kurdish forces by 13 December 2016.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Fadel, Leith (25 June 2016). "Tiger Forces begin long-awaited northern Aleppo offensive". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/tiger-forces-begin-long-awaited-northern-aleppo-offensive/. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Syrian army seizes only road into rebel-held Aleppo". 17 July 2016. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-aleppo-idUSKCN0ZX09Q. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  3. "اشتباكات في حلب والقصف يجبر الثوار على الانسحاب من طريق الكاستيلو - وكالة مسار برس". 26 July 2016. http://www.masarpress.net/%D8%A7%D8%B4%D8%AA%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%AD%D9%84%D8%A8-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%B5%D9%81-%D9%8A%D8%AC%D8%A8%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89/. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "As 2 more districts fall to regime, noose tightens around east Aleppo’s 300,000 residents". http://syriadirect.org/news/as-2-more-districts-fall-to-regime-noose-tightens-around-east-aleppo%E2%80%99s-300000-residents/. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Fadel, Leith (26 July 2016). "Syrian Army seizes key district in Aleppo City". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-seizes-key-district-aleppo-city/. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Fadel, Leith (28 July 2016). "Syrian Army captures important district in Aleppo City". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-captures-important-district-aleppo-city-2/. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Fadel, Leith (28 July 2016). "Syrian Army takes control of another district in Aleppo City". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-takes-control-another-district-aleppo-city/. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Charkatli, Izat (6 August 2016). "Jihadists advance on Ramousah district, cut supply route". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jihadists-advance-ramousah-district-cut-supply-route/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 user4. "Factions meet the fighters of the besieged eastern neighborhoods of Aleppo and shelling and violent raids on the outskirts of the city". Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20161005053229/http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=49141. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  10. Al-Khalidi, Lisa Barrington and Suleiman. "Jets pound rebels after they break Aleppo siege". http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-mideast-crisis-syria-aleppo-idUKKCN10I0LD. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  11. Fadel, Leith (8 September 2016). "[Map Syrian Army attempts to capture new sites in southern Aleppo"]. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/map-syrian-army-attempts-capture-new-sites-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "IS ousted from Turkey border as Syria army besieges Aleppo". http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/world/syria-army-besieges-aleppo-as-us-russia-talks-stumble/3100204.html. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Amir Toumaj (3 August 2016). "Iranian military involvement in the battle for Aleppo". The Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2016/08/iranian-military-involvement-in-the-battle-for-aleppo.php. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 "Four Iranian officers killed in Aleppo". 3 August 2016. http://en.eldorar.com/node/2889. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Tomson, Chris (31 August 2016). "Iranian commander shot dead during skirmishes with Jihadist rebels in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/iranian-commander-shot-dead-skirmishes-jihadist-rebels-aleppo/. Retrieved 31 August 2016. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 Charkatli, Izat (25 June 2016). "Heavy Russian airstrikes on Aleppo amid preparations for huge ground offensive". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/heavy-russian-airstrikes-aleppo/. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  17. Fadel, Leith (27 June 2016). "Syrian Army advances in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/tiger-forces-advance-northern-aleppo/. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Fadel, Leith (8 August 2016). "Iraqi fighters pour into southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/iraqi-fighters-pour-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (3 September 2016). "Quwat Dir’ Al-Amn Al-Askari: A Latakia Military Intelligence Militia". Syria Comment. http://www.joshualandis.com/blog/quwat-dir-al-amn-al-askari-another-regime-intelligence-militia/. Retrieved 3 September 2016. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Fadel, Leith (29 August 2016). "Russian troops head to Aleppo City". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/russian-troops-head-aleppo-city/. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 "SDF Seize Over The Youth Housing In Aleppo … Russians Commits A Massacre In Sakhour Neighborhood - Qasion News Agency". http://www.qasioun.net/en/news/show/32798/SDF_Seize_Over_The_Youth_Housing_In_Aleppo_%E2%80%A6_Russians_Commits_A_Massacre_In_Sakhour_Neighborhood. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  22. "Clashes continue between Syrian opposition rebels and the Kurds in Aleppo". ARA News. 17 August 2016. http://aranews.net/2016/08/clashes-continue-syrian-opposition-rebels-kurds-aleppo/. Retrieved 17 August 2016. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Fadel, Leith (31 July 2016). "Battle for Aleppo City begins as jihadists storm several areas". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/battle-aleppo-city-begins-jihadists-storm-several-areas/. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  24. "Factions continue their most violent attack ever in the decisive battle at Aleppo and tens of airstrikes target the clashing areas". SOHR. 31 July 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20161220213840/http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=48995. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 "TÜRKİSTAN İSLAM CEMAATİ HALEP OPERASYONU – GANİMETLER VE ÖLDÜRÜLEN ESED MİLİTANLARI". 2 August 2016. http://www.doguturkistanbulteni.com/2016/08/02/turkistan-islam-cemaati-halep-operasyonu-ganimetler-ve-oldurulen-esed-militanlari/. 
  26. 26.00 26.01 26.02 26.03 26.04 26.05 26.06 26.07 26.08 26.09 26.10 26.11 26.12 26.13 Thomas Joscelyn (7 August 2016). "Jihadists and other rebels claim to have broken through siege of Aleppo". The Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2016/08/jihadists-and-other-rebels-claim-to-have-broken-through-siege-of-aleppo.php. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Charkatli, Izat (3 August 2016). "Another rebel group loses important commander in Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/another-rebel-group-loses-important-commander-aleppo/. 
  28. Solomon, Erika (8 August 2016). "Outside help behind rebel advances in Aleppo". https://www.ft.com/content/da076830-5d77-11e6-a72a-bd4bf1198c63. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  29. Charkatli, Izat (9 August 2016). "Video: Syrian Defense Minister inspects Syrian forces in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/video-syrian-defense-minister-inspects-syrian-forces-aleppo/. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  30. Tomson, Chris (30 June 2016). "Islamist rebels walk directly into Tiger Forces trap in northern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/islamist-rebels-walk-directly-tiger-forces-trap-northern-aleppo/. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 Chris Tomson (8 August 2015). "SouthFront: Syrian Army deploys 100 tanks, 400 BMP’s to Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/southfront-syrian-army-deploys-100-tanks-400-bmps-aleppo/. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  32. Szakola, Albin (26 September 2016). "Notorious Aleppo intelligence chief moved from post". NOW.. https://now.mmedia.me/lb/en/NewsReports/567381-notorious-aleppo-intelligence-chief-moved-from-post. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  33. Tomson, Chris (6 August 2016). "Battle for key military base rages in Syria's Aleppo". al Jazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/08/syria-rebels-storm-military-base-break-aleppo-siege-160806050412958.html. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Adra, Zen (17 August 2016). "Field Report: Syrian Army storms Technical Base in southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/field-report-syrian-army-storms-technical-base-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  35. "The continuous clashes at the outskirts of Aleppo city cause casualties, factions advance in the northern countryside at the expense of the "Islamic State"". SOHR. 28 August 2016. http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=49969. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 "Five generals among 72 Syrian regime casualties buried this week: report". NOW.. 9 August 2016. https://now.mmedia.me/lb/en/NewsReports/567262-five-generals-among-72-syrian-regime-casualties-buried-this-week-report. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  37. "The Chief of Staff of a regime forces’ regiment died due to injuries he had during the battles of Faculties and Ramouseh". http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=50697. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 Fadel, Leith (7 September 2016). "Iranian, Syrian commanders meet to discuss upcoming Aleppo offensive". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/iranian-syrian-commanders-meet-discuss-upcoming-aleppo-offensive/. Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (30 August 2016). "Fawj Maghawir al-Badiya: A Military Intelligence Branch Militia". Syrian Comment. http://www.joshualandis.com/blog/fawj-maghawir-al-badiya-military-intelligence-militia/. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  40. "Soleimani’s presence in Aleppo underscores strategy of crushing rebels - The Long War Journal". http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2016/09/soleimanis-presence-in-aleppo-underscores-strategy-of-crushing-rebels.php. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  41. "Three Iranian leaders have been killed in Syria’s battles". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 6 September 2016. http://en.eldorar.com/node/3187. Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  42. Tomson, Chris (10 July 2016). "Prominent Hezbollah commander dies under mysterious circumstances". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/prominent-hezbollah-commander-dies-mysterious-circumstances/. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  43. "The killing of Hassan Mousa Abdul Nabi, a leader in Hezbollah of #Aleppo". El-Dorar Al-Shamia. 8 September 2016. http://en.eldorar.com/node/3200. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (15 August 2016). "Syrian Hezbollah Militias of Nubl and Zahara'". http://www.aymennjawad.org/19110/syrian-hezbollah-militias-of-nubl-and-zahara. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  45. 45.0 45.1 "Syrian Kurdish forces reject regime request to leave positions in Aleppo". ARA News. 1 August 2016. http://www.aranews.net/2016/08/syrian-kurdish-forces-reject-regime-request-leave-positions-aleppo/. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  46. ""YPG" Command Killed in Sheikh Maksoud’s battles of Aleppo". 30 July 2016. http://en.eldorar.com/node/2854. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  47. "After breaking Aleppo siege, Syrian rebels threaten to attack Kurds". ARA News. 10 August 2016. http://aranews.net/2016/08/breaking-aleppo-siege-syrian-rebels-threaten-attack-kurds/. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  48. Al-Mohammad, Alaa (28 July 2016). "Rebel military leader killed in Aleppo clashes". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/rebel-military-leader-killed-aleppo-clashes/. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  49. Charkatli, Izat (10 July 2016). "Prominent rebel commander killed in Mallah battles". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/prominent-rebel-commander-killed-mallah-battles/. Retrieved 10 July 2016. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 50.4 Charkatli, Izat (10 August 2016). "Compilation of high-ranking jihadist commanders killed in past 24 hours". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/compilation-high-ranking-jihadist-commanders-killed-past-24-hours/. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  51. 51.0 51.1 Fadel, Leith (9 July 2016). "Jihadist rebels suffer heavy casualties in failed northern Aleppo offensive". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jihadist-rebels-suffer-heavy-casualties-failed-northern-aleppo-offensive/. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  52. Charkatli, Izat (11 August 2016). "Military Commander of Jaish Al-Mujahideen killed in south Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/military-commander-jaish-al-mujahideen-killed-south-aleppo/. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 Charkatli, Izat (8 September 2016). "Breaking: Airstrike targets Jaish Al-Fateh meeting in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/breaking-airstrike-targets-jaish-al-fateh-meeting-aleppo/. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  54. "Syria conflict: Senior militant leader 'killed' near Aleppo". http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-37314280. 
  55. Charkatli, Izat (9 September 2016). "Nusra Front former commander killed in Syria, fighters say". Middle East Eye. http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/air-strike-kills-syrian-rebel-commander-rebels-1391659731. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  56. "After Muhaysini vowed… tens of strikes accompany the heavy clashes southwest of Aleppo city". SOHR. 3 August 2016. Archived from the original on 7 October 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20161007194528/http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=49067. Retrieved 4 August 2016. 
  57. Fadel, Leith (11 September 2016). "Ahrar Al-Sham admits losing 170 fighters in southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/ahrar-al-sham-admits-losing-170-fighters-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 11 September 2016. 
  58. "High-ranking jihadist commander killed in southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. 29 August 2016. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/high-ranking-jihadist-commander-killed-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 Charkatli, Izat (25 July 2016). "Prominent rebel commander neutralized in Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/prominent-rebel-commander-neutralized-aleppo/. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.3 60.4 Charkatli, Izat (2 August 2016). "Syrian Army, jihadists trade blows in southwest Aleppo – Map Update". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-jihadists-trade-blows-southwest-aleppo-map-update-2/. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  61. 61.0 61.1 Charkatli, Izat (14 August 2016). "Battle of Aleppo: Field Report". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/battle-aleppo-field-report/. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  62. Adra, Zen (20 August 2016). "Top salafist commander killed in southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/top-salafist-commander-killed-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  63. 63.0 63.1 Tomson, Chris (13 July 2016). "Breakthrough in Aleppo as the Syrian Army captures Khalidiyeh district - Map update". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/breakthrough-aleppo-syrian-army-captures-khalidiyeh-district-map-update/. Retrieved 15 July 2016. 
  64. Fadel, Leith (2 September 2016). "Syrian Army, Hezbollah attack strategic military site in southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-hezbollah-attack-strategic-military-site-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 2 September 2016. 
  65. Fadel, Leith (25 August 2016). "[Video Massive Syrian Army reinforcements pour in Aleppo"]. Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/video-massive-syrian-army-reinforcements-pour-aleppo/. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  66. "Hezbollah deploying elite force to Aleppo: Iran media". NOW.. 8 August 2016. https://now.mmedia.me/lb/en/NewsReports/567257-hezbollah-deploying-elite-force-to-aleppo-iran-media. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  67. Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (23 July 2016). "Liwa al-Imam al-Mahdi: A Syrian Hezbollah Formation". http://www.aymennjawad.org/19041/liwa-al-imam-al-mahdi-a-syrian-hezbollah-formation. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  68. "Syria conflict: Rebels 'filmed beheading boy' in Aleppo". BBC. 19 July 2016. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-36835678. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  69. "Assad Seizes Only Road Into Rebel-Held Aleppo As Siege Tightens". 17 July 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/aleppo-castello-road_us_578bab37e4b0867123e1a313. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  70. Fadel, Leith (18 July 2016). "Jihadist rebels mourn the loss of 16 fighters as government forces advance in Aleppo City". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jihadist-rebels-mourn-loss-16-fighters-government-forces-advance-aleppo-city/. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  71. Charkatli, Izat (25 July 2016). "Rebel group on the verge of total collapse in Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/rebel-group-verge-total-collapse-aleppo/. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  72. "Syria war: Aleppo tunnel bomb 'kills 38 government troops' - BBC News" (in en-GB). http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-36868706. 
  73. "The regime forces advance and reinforce the siege of the eastern neighborhoods of Aleppo and more casualties raise the number to 18 in the massacre of al-MashHad neighborhood". SOHR. 26 July 2016. http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=48781. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  74. Fadel, Leith (30 August 2016). "Russian Army convoy arrives in Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/russian-army-convoy-arrives-aleppo/. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  75. Tomson, Chris (2 August 2016). "Islamist group mourns fallen rebel fighters during southern Aleppo offensive". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/islamist-group-mourns-fallen-rebel-fighters-southern-aleppo-offensive/. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  76. 76.0 76.1 "The Inside Source". http://www.insidesourcenews.com/#!Complete-Aleppo-Battle-Report/cjds/57b15db60cf23f8fc3b69d06. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 "BREAKING - Artillery Base in South Aleppo under SAA Control!". The Inside Source. 4 September 2016. http://www.insidesourcenews.com/#!BREAKING-Artillery-Base-in-South-Aleppo-under-SAA-Control/cjds/57c9479dda6989244660cdd2. Retrieved 4 September 2016. 
  78. 78.0 78.1 78.2 "More than 11000 casualties and injuries in the battle of breaking the siege of Aleppo city". SOHR. http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=50493. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  79. "The Inside Source". http://www.insidesourcenews.com/single-post/2016/09/12/Waves-of-Airstrikes-Light-Up-Southern-Aleppo. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  80. "Syrian army presses Aleppo campaign as rebels retrench". 6 September 2016. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-aleppo-idUSKCN11B1QL. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  81. 81.0 81.1 "Syrian army unleashes broad offensive in Aleppo". http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-06/26/c_135467722.htm. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  82. "Syria: Army bid to cut off Aleppo unleashes fierce fighting". https://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/a-4241-Syria-Army-bid-to-cut-off-Aleppo-unleashes-fierce-fighting#.V3WUhut96Uk. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  83. "Battle for Aleppo: A Rebel Breakthrough or Bust". http://www.conflict-news.com/articles/battle-for-aleppo-a-rebel-breakthrough-or-bust. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  84. "Syria war: Rebels vow to intensify offensive in Aleppo". http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/08/syria-war-rebels-vow-intensify-offensive-aleppo-160802152801024.html. 
  85. 85.0 85.1 "Syria regime in Aleppo fightback". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3721346/Syrian-regime-forces-roll-rebel-gains-Aleppo.html. 
  86. "Analysis: Why The Battle For Aleppo Could Change The Direction Of The War In Syria". http://www.rferl.mobi/a/islamic-state-syria-aleppo-siege-change-war/27900375.html. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  87. Lund, Aron. "What the Rebel Loss of Aleppo Will Mean for Syria". http://carnegieendowment.org/2016/07/29/what-rebel-loss-of-aleppo-will-mean-for-syria-pub-64225. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  88. Fadel, Leith (29 July 2016). "Syrian Armed Forces carry out special operation to avenge the beheaded boy in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-armed-forces-carry-special-operation-avenge-beheaded-boy-northern-aleppo/. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  89. Charkatli, Izat (28 August 2016). "More jihadist commanders killed in Aleppo clashes". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jihadist-commanders-killed-aleppo-clashes/. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  90. "Syrian Army, Hezbollah capture several points in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-hezbollah-capture-several-points-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  91. Adra, Zen (26 June 2016). "Field Report: Syrian Army advances in northern Aleppo amid intensifying battles". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/field-report-syrian-army-advances-northern-aleppo-amid-intensifying-battles/. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  92. "Syrian Government Forces Close In On Aleppo". http://www.heart.co.uk/news/uk-world/syrian-government-forces-close-in-on-aleppo/#2FQX2A4IH9zqzwh3.97. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  93. Adra, Zen (26 June 2016). "Aleppo Battle Update: Syrian Army fully recaptures eastern parts of Mallah + [Map"]. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/aleppo-battle-update-syrian-army-fully-recaptures-eastern-parts-mallah-map/. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  94. "US-backed Syrian rebels move toward IS-held town near Iraq". https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/syrian-troops-capture-important-area-near-the-city-of-aleppo/2016/06/28/1109d1fa-3d26-11e6-9e16-4cf01a41decb_story.html. Retrieved 2 July 2016. 
  95. 95.0 95.1 "Syrian army fire cuts only road into rebel-held Aleppo: rebels". Reuters. 7 July 2016. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-aleppo-idUSKCN0ZN0U2. 
  96. "Fierce fighting for key Aleppo road despite Syria truce". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3678994/Fierce-fighting-key-Aleppo-road-despite-Syria-truce.html. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  97. "Syria conflict: Army fire 'cuts key Aleppo road' - BBC News". http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-36735196. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  98. Adra, Zen (7 July 2016). "Aleppo rebels trapped as Syrian Army cuts off main supply route. Map Update". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/breaking-aleppo-rebels-trapped-as-syrian-army-cuts-off-main-supply-route/. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  99. Charkatli, Izat (9 July 2016). "Syrian Army continues advance in Aleppo neighborhoods". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-continues-advance-aleppo-neighborhoods/. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  100. "38 شهيداً معظمهم من الأطفال والمواطنات في القذائف على مدينة حلب وتقدم للنظام في الليرمون وشهداء وجرحى في قصف جوي على المدينة". http://www.syriahr.com/38-%D8%B4%D9%87%D9%8A%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%8B-%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%B8%D9%85%D9%87%D9%85-%D9%85%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B7%D9%81%D8%A7%D9%84-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%81/. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  101. "Syrian Regime Progressing In Khaldya Front … Russians Shelling Aleppo’s Neighborhood - Qasion News Agency". http://www.qasioun.net/en/news/show/31138/Syrian_Regime_Progressing_In_Khaldya_Front_%E2%80%A6_Russians_Shelling_Aleppo%E2%80%99s_Neighborhood. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  102. Fadel, Leith (10 July 2016). "Russian airstrikes propel the Syrian Army inside Aleppo City". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/russian-airstrikes-propel-syrian-army-inside-aleppo-city/. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  103. user3. "اشتباكات عنيفة في أطراف مدينة حلب وشمالها وقصف جوي يستهدف المدينة وريفيها الشمالي والغربي". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/07/13/%d8%a7%d8%b4%d8%aa%d8%a8%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d8%b9%d9%86%d9%8a%d9%81%d8%a9-%d9%81%d9%8a-%d8%a3%d8%b7%d8%b1%d8%a7%d9%81-%d9%85%d8%af%d9%8a%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%ad%d9%84%d8%a8-%d9%88%d8%b4%d9%85%d8%a7/. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  104. Fadel, Leith (11 July 2016). "Syrian Army advances inside key Aleppo district". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-advances-inside-key-aleppo-district/. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  105. "Syria army presses Aleppo offensive despite truce extension". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3686247/Syria-army-presses-Aleppo-offensive-despite-truce-extension.html. Retrieved 15 July 2016. 
  106. "Syrian Troops Besiege Rebel-Held Parts of Aleppo". AP. 17 July 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2016/07/17/world/middleeast/ap-ml-syria.html. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  107. Charkatli, Izat (17 July 2016). "Tiger Forces advance in North Aleppo - Map update". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/tiger-forces-advance-north-aleppo/. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  108. "Syria 24 Media - Timeline - Facebook". https://www.facebook.com/syria24media/posts/1074327982602983. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  109. user6. "اشتباكات عنيفة ومتواصلة بالتزامن مع قصف مكثف في منطقة معامل الليرمون وفي جبهتي الكاستيلو وبني زيد". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/07/17/%d8%a7%d8%b4%d8%aa%d8%a8%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d8%b9%d9%86%d9%8a%d9%81%d8%a9-%d9%88%d9%85%d8%aa%d9%88%d8%a7%d8%b5%d9%84%d8%a9-%d8%a8%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%aa%d8%b2%d8%a7%d9%85%d9%86-%d9%85%d8%b9-%d9%82/. Retrieved 21 July 2016. 
  110. Fadel, Leith (23 July 2016). "Syrian Army advances inside jihadist controlled Aleppo City". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-advances-inside-jihadist-controlled-aleppo-city/. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  111. Fadel, Leith (25 July 2016). "Syrian Army advances in northwest Aleppo as jihadist defenses crumble". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-advances-northwest-aleppo-jihadist-defenses-crumble/. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  112. Charkatli, Izat (25 July 2016). "Tiger Forces continue to advance in north Aleppo, capture points on imperative highway". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/tiger-forces-continue-advance-north-aleppo-capture-points-imperative-highway/. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  113. "Syria regime advances on rebels in Aleppo: monitor - Breitbart". http://www.breitbart.com/news/syria-regime-advances-on-rebels-in-aleppo-monitor/. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  114. Fadel, Leith (26 July 2016). "Syrian Army imposes fire control over rebel stronghold in Aleppo City: map". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-imposes-fire-control-rebel-stronghold-aleppo-city-map/. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  115. Fadel, Leith (27 July 2016). "Kurdish forces beat back jihadist rebels in Aleppo City". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/kurdish-forces-beat-back-jihadist-rebels-aleppo-city/. Retrieved 27 July 2016. 
  116. user4. "قصف مكثف على حي الشيخ مقصود واشتباكات عنيفة في محور السكن الشبابي". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/07/27/%d9%82%d8%b5%d9%81-%d9%85%d9%83%d8%ab%d9%81-%d8%b9%d9%84%d9%89-%d8%ad%d9%8a-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b4%d9%8a%d8%ae-%d9%85%d9%82%d8%b5%d9%88%d8%af-%d9%88%d8%a7%d8%b4%d8%aa%d8%a8%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d8%b9/. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  117. 117.0 117.1 "Syria's powerful Nusra Front says ending link to al Qaeda". https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-aleppo-idUSKCN108167. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  118. "Syrian army says cut off all supply routes into east Aleppo". http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-mideast-crisis-syria-aleppo-idUKKCN1071FO. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  119. "Syrian army captures key rebel stronghold in Aleppo city - Xinhua - English.news.cn". http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-07/28/c_135547190.htm. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  120. Fadel, Leith (28 July 2016). "Latest field map from Aleppo City". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/latest-field-map-aleppo-city/. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  121. "SDF Seize Over The Youth Housing And Siege Aleppo With The Syrian Regime - Qasion News Agency". http://www.qasioun.net/en/news/show/33055/SDF_Seize_Over_The_Youth_Housing_And_Siege_Aleppo_With_The_Syrian_Regime. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  122. [1][2]
  123. Adra, Zen (31 July 2016). "Field Report: Jihadi rebels gain grounds in southern Aleppo [Map + Video"]. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/field-report-jihadi-rebels-gain-grounds-southern-aleppo-map-video/. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  124. "Syrian army, allies counter-attack to regain lost ground in Aleppo". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/reuters/article-3720636/Syrian-army-allies-counter-attack-regain-lost-ground-Aleppo.html. 
  125. 125.0 125.1 Fadel, Leith (3 August 2016). "Syrian Army rolls back jihadist gains in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-rolls-back-jihadist-gains-southern-aleppo/. 
  126. Fadel, Leith (31 July 2016). "Russian Air Force emerges in southern Aleppo to help drive back jihadists". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/russian-air-force-emerges-southern-aleppo-help-drive-back-jihadists/. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  127. "Rebels attempt to break encirclement of Aleppo". http://intelligencefusion.co.uk/2016/07/31/rebels-attempt-to-break-encirclement-of-aleppo/. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  128. Fadel, Leith (1 August 2016). "Jihadist rebels capture key site in Aleppo City". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jihadist-rebels-capture-key-site-aleppo-city/. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  129. Adra, Zen (1 August 2016). "Field Report: Syrian Army loses key hilltop in southern Aleppo amid jihadist advance. Map Update". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/field-report-syrian-army-loses-key-hilltop-southern-aleppo-amid-jihadist-advance-map-update/. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  130. "Al-Fatih Continue Progressing And Seizes Over Sharfa Village Southern Aleppo - Qasion News Agency". http://www.qasioun.net/en/news/show/33268/Al_Fatih_Continue_Progressing_And_Seizes_Over_Sharfa_Village_Southern_Aleppo. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  131. Charkatli, Izat (1 August 2016). "Syrian Army recaptures strategic area in Aleppo: Map Update". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-recaptures-strategic-area-aleppo-map-update/. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  132. "Continued clashes in Aleppo and explosive barrels target areas of Aleppo countryside". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20161220213850/http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=49050. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  133. user4. "قصف جوي يستهدف أحياء بمدينة حلب مع استمرار الاشتباكات في أطرافها الجنوبية الغربية". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/08/02/%d9%82%d8%b5%d9%81-%d8%ac%d9%88%d9%8a-%d9%8a%d8%b3%d8%aa%d9%87%d8%af%d9%81-%d8%a3%d8%ad%d9%8a%d8%a7%d8%a1-%d8%a8%d9%85%d8%af%d9%8a%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%ad%d9%84%d8%a8-%d9%85%d8%b9-%d8%a7%d8%b3%d8%aa%d9%85/. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  134. Fadel, Leith (4 August 2016). "Russian Air Force pounds Aleppo City while the Syrian Army counters Jaysh Al-Fateh". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/russian-air-force-pounds-aleppo-city-syrian-army-counters-jaysh-al-fateh/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  135. "Syrian opposition forces seize over Talet Al-Huwaiz village in the southern countryside of Aleppo - Qasion News Agency". http://www.qasioun.net/en/breakingnews/view/32494/Syrian_opposition_forces_seize_over_Talet_Al_Huwaiz_village_in_the_southern_countryside_of_Aleppo. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  136. user4. "ضربات جوية تستهدف 6 أحياء بمدينة حلب و10 مناطق وبلدات بريفها الغربي تخلف شهداء وجرحى ومعارك متواصلة بعنف في جنوب غرب المدينة". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/08/03/%d8%b6%d8%b1%d8%a8%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d8%ac%d9%88%d9%8a%d8%a9-%d8%aa%d8%b3%d8%aa%d9%87%d8%af%d9%81-6-%d8%a3%d8%ad%d9%8a%d8%a7%d8%a1-%d8%a8%d9%85%d8%af%d9%8a%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%ad%d9%84%d8%a8-%d9%8810-%d9%85/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  137. "Agathocle de Syracuse - Aleppo rebels counter offensive (July 31 – ongoing)". http://www.agathocledesyracuse.com/archives/813. 
  138. user4. "ضربات جوية مكثفة تستهدف مدينة حلب وأطرافها الجنوبية الغربية ومزيد من الخسائر البشرية في سقوط قذائف على أحياء فيها". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/08/03/%d8%b6%d8%b1%d8%a8%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d8%ac%d9%88%d9%8a%d8%a9-%d9%85%d9%83%d8%ab%d9%81%d8%a9-%d8%aa%d8%b3%d8%aa%d9%87%d8%af%d9%81-%d9%85%d8%af%d9%8a%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%ad%d9%84%d8%a8-%d9%88%d8%a3%d8%b7%d8%b1/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  139. "Peto Lucem on Twitter". https://twitter.com/PetoLucem/status/760567562837041152. 
  140. "Alleged chemical attacks are the latest development in Aleppo". http://europe.newsweek.com/aleppo-syria-civil-war-bashar-al-assad-russia-air-strikes-gas-attacks-486710. 
  141. Tomson, Chris (3 August 2016). "Jihadist commanders halt Aleppo offensive to redraw plans". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jihadist-commanders-halt-aleppo-offensive-redraw-plans/. 
  142. "Syrian Opposition Forces Launch "The Martyr Ibrahim Yusuf" Battle … And Seize Over New Positions In Aleppo - Qasion News Agency". http://www.qasioun.net/en/news/show/33546/Syrian_Opposition_Forces_Launch_%E2%80%9CThe_Martyr_Ibrahim_Yusuf%E2%80%9D_Battle_%E2%80%A6_And_Seize_Over_New_Positions_In_Aleppo. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  143. Fadel, Leith (5 August 2016). "Russian airstrikes propel the Syrian Army in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/russian-airstrikes-propel-syrian-army-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  144. Charkatli, Izat (5 August 2016). "Syrian Army reverses rebel gains in southwest Aleppo". https://mobile.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-reverses-rebel-gains-southwest-aleppo/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  145. "Syrian Observatory for Human Rights - Timeline - Facebook". https://www.facebook.com/syriahroe/posts/913506015424404. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  146. user4. "معارك عنيفة يشهدها مخيم حندرات وجنوب غرب مدينة حلب ومزيد من الشهداء في أحياء بالمدينة". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/08/05/%d9%85%d8%b9%d8%a7%d8%b1%d9%83-%d8%b9%d9%86%d9%8a%d9%81%d8%a9-%d9%8a%d8%b4%d9%87%d8%af%d9%87%d8%a7-%d9%85%d8%ae%d9%8a%d9%85-%d8%ad%d9%86%d8%af%d8%b1%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d9%88%d8%ac%d9%86%d9%88%d8%a8-%d8%ba/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  147. user4. "هجوم عنيف للفصائل في مرحلة جديدة من "غزوة إبراهيم اليوسف" وقصف مكثف يرافق المعارك العنيفة بجنوب مدينة حلب". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/08/05/%d9%87%d8%ac%d9%88%d9%85-%d8%b9%d9%86%d9%8a%d9%81-%d9%84%d9%84%d9%81%d8%b5%d8%a7%d8%a6%d9%84-%d9%81%d9%8a-%d9%85%d8%b1%d8%ad%d9%84%d8%a9-%d8%ac%d8%af%d9%8a%d8%af%d8%a9-%d9%85%d9%86-%d8%ba%d8%b2/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  148. "Syrian rebels storm Aleppo artillery base, army says attack repelled". 6 August 2016. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-aleppo-idUSKCN10G22V. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  149. Charkatli, Izat (5 August 2016). "Jihadists launch massive offensive on artillery base following VBIED". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jihadists-launch-massive-offensive-artillery-base-following-vbied/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  150. Fadel, Leith (6 August 2016). "Battle for Aleppo intensifies as jihadists enter Artillery Base". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/battle-aleppo-intensifies-jihadists-enter-artillery-base/. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  151. "Jayesh Al-Fatih Raids The Air Forces School And Clashes With The Regime Inside - Qasion News Agency". http://www.qasioun.net/en/news/show/33708/Jayesh_Al_Fatih_Raids_The_Air_Forces_School_And_Clashes_With_The_Regime_Inside. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  152. "Syria rebels try to break government siege in Aleppo". http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2016/08/06/syria-rebels-try-break-government-seige-aleppo/88336208/. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  153. "Syria rebels claim to have broken Assad regime's siege of Aleppo". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3726662/Syria-rebels-key-positions-south-Aleppo-monitor.html. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  154. "At least 500 fighters killed in a week in Aleppo battle: monitor". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3726838/At-500-fighters-killed-week-Aleppo-battle-monitor.html. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  155. Factions incur regime, the Russians, the Iranians and the Lebanese Hezbollah the biggest spiritual and military loss since 2013 Archived 5 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  156. "AP News - The Columbus Dispatch". http://hosted2.ap.org/OHCOL/07e34bb59e064cedb7e2776e8db4b4f7/Article_2016-08-07-ML--Syria/id-6f8380a39f3643c884e2cc0075bce6a8. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  157. "Syrian Rebels Breach Government-Imposed Siege on Aleppo". AP. 7 August 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2016/08/07/world/middleeast/ap-ml-syria.html. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  158. Tomson, Chris (8 August 2016). "Understanding the battle for supply lines to Aleppo city – Map update". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/understanding-battle-supply-lines-aleppo-city-map-update/. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  159. "عشرات الضربات الجوية ترافق الاشتباكات العنيفة في جنوب غرب مدينة حلب وشهداء وجرحى في قصف جوي على المدينة". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/08/09/%D8%B9%D8%B4%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%88%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%AA%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%81%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%B4%D8%AA%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%A7/. 
  160. Charkatli, Izat (11 August 2016). "Jihadists launch an offensive to obstruct Khanasser supply route". al-Masdar. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jihadists-launch-offensive-obstruct-khanasser-supply-route/. Retrieved 12 August 2016. 
  161. Charkatli, Izat (12 August 2016). "Syrian Army chases Jihadists out of Aleppo supply road fringes". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-chases-jihadists-aleppo-supply-road-fringes/. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  162. Fadel, Leith (12 August 2016). "Jihadists foil first Syrian Army offensive in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jihadists-foil-first-syrian-army-offensive-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  163. Fadel, Leith (13 August 2016). "Syrian Army advances in southern Aleppo amid Russian airstrikes". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-advances-southern-aleppo-amid-russian-airstrikes/. Retrieved 14 August 2016. 
  164. "The Inside Source". http://www.insidesourcenews.com/#!BREAKING-Rebels-Repel-HUGE-SAA-Attack-in-Aleppo/cjds/57ac563a0cf2460a62ee65b2. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  165. 165.0 165.1 "SAA Retreats From The Technical College!". http://www.insidesourcenews.com/#!SAA-Retreats-From-The-Technical-College/cjds/57b557c40cf25814fdca64f0. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  166. Fadel, Leith (4 September 2016). "Syrian Army captures strategic military base in southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-captures-strategic-military-base-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 4 September 2016. 
  167. Editorial, Reuters. "Siege of eastern Aleppo resumes as Syrian government re-takes army site". http://in.reuters.com/article/mideast-crisis-syria-aleppo-idINKCN11A0QJ. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  168. "Continued clashes and advances for the regime in Aleppo". http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=49606. 
  169. 169.0 169.1 "The Inside Source". http://www.insidesourcenews.com/#!SAA-Counter-Attacks-in-South-Aleppo/cjds/57b9a3420cf2416a2e1cf879. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  170. Fadel, Leith (21 August 2016). "Syrian Army captures SyriaTel Hill in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-captures-syriatel-hill-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  171. "The Inside Source". http://www.insidesourcenews.com/#!Rebels-Suffer-Large-Defeat-in-Southern-Aleppo/cjds/57bd79600cf2f98c52991935. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  172. Fadel, Leith (5 September 2016). "Syrian Army makes huge gains in southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-makes-huge-gains-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 5 September 2016. 
  173. "BREAKING! Rebel Frontline Collapses in South Aleppo!". BREAKING! Rebel Frontline Collapses in South Aleppo!. 5 September 2016. http://www.insidesourcenews.com/#!BREAKING-Rebel-Frontline-Collapses-in-South-Aleppo/cjds/57cd258c4c5873b76b3ef262. Retrieved 5 September 2016. 
  174. Charkatli, Izat (5 September 2016). "Syrian Army continues massive advance in S. Aleppo amidst jihadist collapse". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-continues-massive-advance-s-aleppo-amidst-jihadist-collapse/. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  175. Fadel, Leith (6 September 2016). "Syrian Army attacks important district in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-attacks-important-district-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  176. Charkatli, Izat (7 September 2016). "Breaking: Syrian Army launches massive offensive in south Aleppo district". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/breaking-syrian-army-launches-massive-offensive-south-aleppo-district/. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  177. Fadel, Leith (7 September 2016). "Syrian Army captures the Ramouseh Garages in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-captures-ramouseh-garages-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  178. Fadel, Leith (8 September 2016). "Syrian Army captures several sites in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-captures-several-sites-southern-aleppo-2/. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  179. "قوات النظام تستعيد السيطرة على حي الراموسة بعد أسابيع على خسارتها للمنطقة". http://www.syriahr.com/2016/09/08/%D9%82%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D8%B8%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%AA%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B7%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D8%AD%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B1%D8%A7/. 
  180. Fadel, Leith (9 September 2016). "Syrian Army opens key southern Aleppo road". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-opens-key-southern-aleppo-road/. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  181. Fadel, Leith (10 September 2016). "Syrian Army advances in southern Aleppo amid jihadist collapse". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-advances-southern-aleppo-amid-jihadist-collapse/. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  182. Fadel, Leith (10 September 2016). "Syrian Army captures more territory in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-captures-territory-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  183. Fadel, Leith (11 September 2016). "Syrian Army launches massive assault in southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-launches-massive-assault-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 11 September 2016. 
  184. "Hopes fade for peaceful Eid in Syria as over 100 killed". http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/09/syria-scores-killed-air-strikes-truce-deal-160910135209691.html. 
  185. "UN says armed Syrian groups blocking Aleppo aid for 'political gain'". http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/09/14/un-says-armed-syrian-groups-blocking-aid-to-aleppo-for-political/. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  186. Fadel, Leith (16 September 2016). "Syrian Army returns to strategic Aleppo highway after rebel attack". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-returns-strategic-aleppo-highway-rebel-attack/. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  187. Fadel, Leith (16 September 2016). "Russian Air Force carries out first airstrike in Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/russian-air-force-carries-first-airstrike-aleppo/. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  188. "Syria: Attack on humanitarian convoy is an attack on humanity". International Committee of the Red Cross. 20 September 2016. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/syria-attack-humanitarian-convoy-attack-humanity. 
  189. "Air strikes hit aid convoy as Syria says ceasefire over". Reuters. 19 September 2016. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-idUSKCN11P146. 
  190. Fadel, Leith (21 September 2016). "Jaysh Al-Fateh's defenses crumble as the Syrian Army swiftly advances in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jaysh-al-fatehs-defenses-crumble-syrian-army-swiftly-advances-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  191. "Aerial bombardment on Khan Toman kills 13". http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=50903. 
  192. Fadel, Leith (21 September 2016). "Jaysh Al-Fateh hangs onto Hikmah Hill despite crumbling defenses in southern Aleppo". https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/jaysh-al-fateh-hangs-onto-hikmah-hill-despite-crumbling-defenses-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  193. "3000 Russian soldiers arrived to Aleppo to support regime forces". SOHR. 21 September 2016. http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=50896. Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  194. Leith Fadel (22 September 2016). "Syrian Army to begin important east Aleppo offensive". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-begin-important-east-aleppo-offensive/. Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  195. Leith Fadel (22 September 2016). "Syrian Army, Hezbollah storm southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-hezbollah-storm-southern-aleppo/. Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  196. Izat Charkatli (22 September 2016). "Syrian Army continues advance in south Aleppo – Map update". Al-Masdar News. https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/syrian-army-continues-advance-south-aleppo-map-update/. Retrieved 23 September 2016. 

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.