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2019 Jammu and Kashmir airstrikes
Part of Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts and 2019 India–Pakistan standoff
File:Pakistan Air Force JF-17 Thunder flies in front of the 26,660 ft high Nanga Parbat.jpg
A Pakistan Air Force JF-17 Thunder
Date 27 February 2019; ago (2019-02-27)
Location Jammu and Kashmir, India
33°22′48″N 74°18′00″E / 33.38°N 74.3°E / 33.38; 74.3Coordinates: 33°22′48″N 74°18′00″E / 33.38°N 74.3°E / 33.38; 74.3
Belligerents
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Flag of India.svg India
Commanders and leaders
Pakistan Arif Alvi
(President)
Pakistan Imran Khan
(Prime Minister)

Pakistan Qamar Javed Bajwa
(Chief of Army Staff) Pakistan Mujahid Anwar Khan
(Chief of Air Staff)

India Ram Nath Kovind
(President)

India Narendra Modi
(Prime Minister)
India Bipin Rawat
(Chief of Army Staff) India Birender Singh Dhanoa
(Chief of Air Staff)

Strength
25 JF-17 Thunder jets[1][2] Unknown number of MiG-21, Su-30MKI and Mirage 2000 jets[3]


Air defense system on ground

Casualties and losses
Pakistan
None
India
1 F-16 jet shot down
Pakistan
1 MiG-21 shot down, pilot (Abhinandan Varthaman) captured and 1 Su-30MKI shot down[3]
India
1 MiG-21 shot down, pilot (Abhinandan Varthaman) captured
Friendly fire
1 Mil Mi-17 shot down, 6 Indian Air Force personnel and 1 civilian killed[1][4]
India Jammu and Kashmir location map UN view<div style="position: absolute; top: Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "{".%; left: Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "{".%; height: 0; width: 0; margin: 0; padding: 0;">
Red pog.svg
<div style="font-size: 90%; line-height: 110%; position: relative; top: -1.5em; width: 6em; Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "{".">
Map of Rajouri where one of the airstrikes were carried out
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On 27 February 2019, six surprise airstrikes were carried out by the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) at multiple locations inside Indian-Administered Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), in an operation known as Operation Swift Retort.[5] The airstrikes were conducted in retaliation of Indian airstrike in Balakot just a day before on 26 February.[6]

On 14 February 2019, a suicide attack in Pulwama, India killed around 40 Indian security personnel. The attack, claimed by Pakistan-based militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), triggered a standoff between the two nuclear-armed countries. On 26 February, Indian Air Force conducted an airstrike across Line of Control (LoC) in Balakot, Pakistan and allegedly killed a large number of JeM militants. The Indian airstrike in Pakistani territory, first time since war of 1971, further escalated the tensions and gave rise to skirmishes along LoC. Pakistani military said that the airstrike although did not cause any damage or casualties as India claims, but is the violation of LoC and will be responded with a "surprise". On 27 February, the Pakistan Air Force conducted six airstrikes across LoC in Jammu and Kashmir, aiming at Indian military installments but deliberately targeting open field to avoid damage and casualties, describing the operation as the display of its aggressive capability. Soon after the airstrikes were carried out, PAF jets were chased down by Indian Air Force (IAF) jets into Pakistan. Pakistani military said that it shot down of two Indian jets in dogfights, one of which, a MiG-21, crashed inside Pakistani territory. The pilot of Mig-21 Wing commander Abhinandan Varthaman was captured by Pakistan army. As the situation deteriorated, many countries including China, Russia and United States offered to mediate the crisis.

BackgroundEdit

On 14 February 2019, a convoy of vehicles carrying security personnel on the Jammu Srinagar National Highway was attacked by a vehicle-borne suicide bomber at Lethpora in the Pulwama district, Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. The attack resulted in the deaths of 46 Central Reserve Police Force personnel and the attacker. The perpetrator of the attack was from Indian-administered Kashmir.[7] India blamed Pakistan for the attack resulting in a standoff between two nuclear armed nations. On 26 February 2019, Indian Air Force conducted an airstrike inside Pakistani territory. India said it targeted alleged militant camps of Jaish-e-Mohammed and killed large number of militants. Pakistan condemned the violation of LoC and vowed to retaliate. In a press conference spokesperson of Pakistan Army Major General Asif Ghafoor said that Pakistan will respond to the airstrike and will surprise India.

“It is your turn now to wait and get ready for our surprise.”

— Asif Ghafoor, spokesperson of Pakistan Army in a press conference[8]

He rejected India's claims of hitting militant camps and causing any damage or casualties. Ghafoor said that if it caused casualties there would have been blood and funeral prayers but not even a single brick or debris is present there. He further said that anyone can visit the site to verify the claims. The site is open for all ambassadors, defence attaches, United Nations Military Observers in Pakistan and even the civilians or the army representatives from India.[9]

AirstrikesEdit

On 27 February 2019, Pakistan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that Pakistan Air Force had conducted six airstrikes at non-military targets in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistani officials claim that their aircraft were able to lock onto the target with great accuracy but they were ordered to drop their bombs in open field in order to avoid any human loss or collateral damage.[10] Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan claim that the strikes were meant to send a message to India.[11] Around 25 JF-17 had crossed Line of Control (LOC) to hit targets in Indian administered Kashmir.[1] The locations were identified to be Nadian, Laam Jhangar, Kerri in Rajouri District and Hamirpur area of Bhimber Ghali in Poonch by Indian officials.[12] Indian officials also rejected Pakistani officials claims and said that Pakistan Air Force (PAF) jets had targeted military positions. Indian army 25th division headquarters, ammunition and supply depot were target of Pakistan air force as per Indian officials claims.[13][14] Senior Indian military officers were present in the surrounding buildings where the strike took place.[15] Moreover, Pakistan Air Force jets had crossed from Nowshera into Indian-administered Kashmir. India also claimed that PAF jets were intercepted by unspecified number of IAF jets. IAF fleet was composed of MiG-21, Sukhoi Su-30MKI and Dassault Mirage 2000.[3]

The announcement was followed by a tweet of Director general of the ISPR Maj Gen. Asif Ghafoor revealing that Pakistan Air Force (PAF) had shot down two Indian aircraft after they encroached on Pakistan's airspace.[10][16] Wreckage one of the aircraft fell in Azad Kashmir while the other one fell in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. One of the aircraft which crashed in Azad Kashmir was identified to be Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 and it was flown by Wing commander Abhinandan Varthaman. He was captured by Pakistan military unit who were present in the premises.[17] The villagers at the ground also claim that they saw two jets in flame. They claim that one of the jet fell in Azad Kashmir while the other one sped toward Indian-administered Kashmir.[17] New York Times labelled Pakistan victorious in the dog fight that took place on 27 February 2019.[18]

On the same day 1 Indian helicopter Mil Mi-17 crashed killing 6 Indian Air Force personnels and 1 civilians. Initially India claimed that the helicopter crashed because of technical failure.[19] However, later investigation revealed that the helicopter was shot down by India's air defense system. The Israeli-manufactured missile was fired by India's air defense system in response to Pakistan Air Force jets who had crossed Line of Control (LOC). However, the missile instead had hit Mi-17 helicopter killing all the people on board. The incident has been characterized as friendly fire.[1][4]

AftermathEdit

Indian reactionEdit

India's Ministry of External Affairs in a press conference confirmed that PAF violated LoC and entered Indian territory through Nowshera and Poonch sector shooting down one IAF jet and it's pilot going missing.[20] India also claimed to have shot down PAF's F-16 Fighting Falcon in its territory.[21] A claim which was denied by Pakistan saying no F-16 was used in the operation.[19] Indian officials also rejected Pakistani claims of shooting down an Su-30MKI.[3]

PakistanEdit

DG ISPR Asif Ghafoor later conducted a press conference stating: "Since today morning activity has been ongoing at LoC. This morning PAF engaged six targets across LoC from within Pakistani airspace". He also said that the strikes were carried out to just demonstrate Pakistan's aggressive capabilities.[22]

Prime Minister Imran Khan addressed the nation saying that the sole purpose of our action was to convey that "if you can come into our country, we can do the same". Khan also offered India for peace talks.[23]

United StatesEdit

According to Foreign Policy journalist Lara Seligman, U.S. officials with direct knowledge of the matter asserted that the US has recently completed a physical count of Pakistan’s F-16s and has found none missing. One US official also disagreed with India's claim that usage restrictions disallow Pakistan from employing F-16s in military encounters with India.[24] However, the spokesman of the United States Department of Defense clarified that it was "not aware" of any such investigation that was conducted and stated "As a matter of policy, the Department does not publicly comment on details of government-to-government agreements on end-use monitoring of US-origin defence articles."[25]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "India blew up its own helicopter while trying to target Pakistani jets, killing 7 – report". Russia Today. 29 March 2019. https://www.rt.com/news/455066-india-helicopter-friendly-fire/. 
  2. "JF-17, not F-16 used to down Indian aircraft, says ISPR DG". Pakistan Today. 25 March 2019. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2019/03/25/jf-17-not-f-16-used-to-shoot-down-indian-aircraft-ispr/. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "We didn't lose any Su-30 jet; Pakistan's claims false: Defence Ministry". New Indian Express. 5 March 2019. http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2019/mar/05/we-didnt-lose-any-su-30-jet-pakistans-claims-false-defence-ministry-1947222.html. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Budgam: Indian missile fired before Mi17 V5 chopper crash". Economic Times. 29 March 2019. https://m.economictimes.com/news/defence/budgam-indian-missile-fired-before-mi17-v5-chopper-crash/articleshow/68623744.cms. 
  5. "PAF response to Indian aggression will be remembered as Operation Swift Retort: air chief". 1 May 2019. https://www.dawn.com/news/1479602. Retrieved 3 May 2019. 
  6. "Pakistan hits back, shoots down two Indian jets; two pilots arrested". 27 February 2019. https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/437594-pakistan-shoots-down-indian-fighter-jet-indian-media. Retrieved 27 February 2019. 
  7. India Blames Pakistan for Attack in Kashmir, Promising a Response Archived 23 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine., New York Times. 15 February 2019.
  8. "Pakistan Army warns India: 'Time to wait for our surprise'". 26 February 2019. https://www.geo.tv/latest/229388-we-will-respond-differently-and-surprise-you-dg-ispr-warns-india. 
  9. "On Kashmir attack, Shah Mahmood Qureshi says 'violence is not the govt's policy'". 16 February 2019. https://www.dawn.com/news/1464205. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Pakistan had no choice but to respond, says DG ISPR". The Nation. 27 February 2019. https://nation.com.pk/27-Feb-2019/pakistan-has-capability-but-wants-peace-dg-ispr. 
  11. ""Won't Be In My Control Or Narendra Modi's If This Escalates": Imran Khan". NDTV. 27 February 2019. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/imran-khan-to-india-better-sense-should-prevail-between-both-countries-let-us-open-corridor-of-negot-2000129. 
  12. "Pakistan jets violate Indian airspace in Kashmir's Nowshera, drop bombs". The Week. 27 February 2019. https://www.theweek.in/news/india/2019/02/27/pakistan-jets-violate-indian-air-space-kashmir-nowshera-drop-bombs.html. 
  13. "Inside story of India's airstrike and Pakistan's counter-attack". The Week. 2 March 2019. https://www.theweek.in/theweek/cover/2019/03/02/stealthy-skydivers.html. 
  14. "Pakistani jets violate Indian air space, enter border areas of Nowshera sector in J-K's Rajouri district". Daily Hunt India. 27 February 2019. https://m.dailyhunt.in/news/india/english/hwnews+in-epaper-hwnws/pakistani+jets+violate+indian+air+space+enter+border+areas+of+nowshera+sector+in+j+k+s+rajouri+district-newsid-109815298. 
  15. "How Pakistan failed to do a Balakot-type strike on India on February 27". Economic Times. 27 March 2019. https://m.economictimes.com/news/defence/how-pakistan-failed-to-do-a-balakot-type-strike-on-india-on-february-27/articleshow/68592269.cms. 
  16. "Pakistan shoots down two Indian fighter jets: Military". Al Jazeera. 27 February 2019. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/02/pakistan-shoots-indian-fighter-jets-military-190227055937142.html. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Indian pilot fired into air before being captured". Dawn News. 28 February 2019. https://www.dawn.com/news/1466569. 
  18. "After India Loses Dogfight to Pakistan, Questions Arise About Its ‘Vintage’ Military". New York Times. 3 March 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/03/world/asia/india-military-united-states-china.html. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 "India Pakistan: Kashmir fighting sees Indian aircraft downed". 27 February 2019. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-47383634. Retrieved 27 February 2019. 
  20. "MEA spokesperson and Air Vice Marshal address media". 27 February 2019. https://mumbaimirror.indiatimes.com/videos/sectionhomelist/mea-spokesperson-and-air-vice-marshal-address-media/videoshow/68184263.cms. Retrieved 27 February 2019. 
  21. "Pakistani F-16 shot down in J-K's Rajouri sector: Officials". 27 February 2019. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/pakistani-f-16-shot-down-in-j-ks-rajouri-sector-officials/articleshow/68182512.cms. Retrieved 27 February 2019. 
  22. "Pakistan had no choice but to respond, says DG ISPR". 27 February 2019. https://nation.com.pk/27-Feb-2019/pakistan-has-capability-but-wants-peace-dg-ispr. Retrieved 27 February 2019. 
  23. "All wars are miscalculated, no one knows where they lead: PM Khan". 27 February 2019. https://www.dawn.com/news/1466364. Retrieved 27 February 2019. 
  24. Seligman, Lara. "Did India Shoot Down a Pakistani Jet? U.S. Count Says No." (in en). https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/04/04/did-india-shoot-down-a-pakistani-jet-u-s-count-says-no/. 
  25. https://web.archive.org/web/20190502222747/https://www.msn.com/en-in/news/newsindia/not-aware-pentagon-on-pak-f-16-count-after-feb-aerial-dogfight-with-iaf/ar-BBVFL8Z

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