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22nd Arkansas Infantry (Confederate)
22nd-ark-inf-flag.jpg
Flag of the 22nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment (Possibly Post-War)
Active November 17, 1861–June 9, 1865
Disbanded June 9, 1865
Country Confederate States of America
Allegiance Dixie CSA
Branch Infantry
Size Regiment
Engagements

American Civil War

Arkansas Confederate Infantry Regiments
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21st Arkansas Infantry Regiment (Craven's) 23rd Arkansas Infantry Regiment

The 22nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment was a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War (1862–1865). This was the second regiment to be officially designated as the 22nd Arkansas. The first was mustered in at DeValls Bluff, Arkansas, on April 9, 1862, and later reorganized as the 20th Arkansas Infantry Regiment. The unit was sometimes referred to as King's Arkansas Infantry or McCord's Arkansas Infantry.[1]

Organization[edit | edit source]

The second regiment designated as the 22nd Arkansas Infantry was the unit originally known as the 17th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, which was organized at Fort Smith, Arkansas, November 17, 1861.[2] Its commanding officers were Colonels Frank Rector, James P. King and Henry J. McCord, Lieutenant Colonel John W. Wallace, and Majors John J. Dillard and Mark T. Tatum.[3] The regiment was originally composed of eight companies mostly from Sebastian County and the surrounding area.[4] The 17th Arkansas Infantry was originally composed of volunteer companies from the following counties:[5]

  • Company A – of Sebastian County, commanded by Captain Henry Kayser.[6]
  • Company B – of Sebastian County, commanded by Captain E.A. Adams.[7]
  • Company C – of Sebastian County, commanded by Captain Unknown. According to the unit muster rolls several men of this company were left sick in the hospital in Arkansas when the remainder moved under General Van Dorn to reinforce General Beauregard at Corinth, Mississippi in April 1862. They were ordered to rejoin their company and were en route to do so when General Thomas C. Hindman ordered them to remain in Arkansas and assigned them to Company A, 22nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment. The muster roll also indicates that approximately three fourths of the unit had previously served in Gratiot's 3rd Regiment, Arkansas State Troops.[5][8]
  • Company D – of Washington County, commanded by Captain Unknown.[9]
  • Company E – of Washington County, commanded by Captain Joseph R. Parks.[10]
  • Company F – of Sebastian County, commanded by Captain David Arbuckle.[11]
  • Company G – of Madison County, commanded by Captain Stephen B. Enyart. Most of this company subsequently served in Company K, 22nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment.[5][12]
  • Company H – of Hempstead County, commanded by Captain Benjamin P. Jett, Jr. (Hempstead Rifles Number 2) (Originally in 3rd Regiment, Arkansas State Troops)[13]

Battles[edit | edit source]

The regiment's first major action was the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862 where, from some accounts, Rector's regiment did not acquit itself well. A Missouri (Confederate) artillery battery allegedly found the regiment's colors lying on the field, and for a time refused to return the flag to Rector, saying that a regiment that would abandon its colors in battle had no right to carry them after the battle.[4] Another account of the 17th Arkansas's conduct at the Battle of Pea Ridge was given in 1895 in a letter from former Captain Ben B. Chism to Mrs. Harlow Bishop of Junction City, Texas:

"The 17th Arks. Infty [sic] Regt. was organized at Cross Hollows, Arks. in Washington County I believe in Fall of 1861. Frank Rector was elected Col. John Griffith Lt. Col. Matheson Major. The Regt. went into Winter quarters at Bentonville, Arks. and left there a short time before the battle of Elk Horn (Pea Ridge) in which battle the Regt. participated on both 7th & 8th March 1862. You had [a] brother either killed or wounded in this battle.

The Regt. was hard pressed and retired [on the] 8th for want of ammunition, it seemed the Confederate Army had pretty well all left the battlefield before the 17th retreated. The enemy pressed us hard. I remember this incident we had little or no ammunition, and were retreating slowly when an artillery officer galloped up to Col. Griffith who was commanding (Col. Rector, owing to a severe cold could not be heard to give a command) and said to him, "For God's sake, save my battery!". Three or four pieces of artillery were coming down a hill side Col. Griffith answered, "Captain, I have no ammunition, but I can use the bayonet!". The command was given "By [?] Regiment into line, guard against cavalry". In this position we stood in line, until the Federal Cavalry had flanked us pretty well on the left, getting into our rear, at this juncture a Missouri (Confd.) Regt. passed near to us, making its way after our retreating army.

When it was found the enemy was in or nearly in our rear, the command was given to move, and we started at a double quick, but we could not follow the army. my recollection is we moved North pursued by the Federal Cavalry. we were cut off from the main army and the pursuit of us by the enemies' cavalry continued till late in the evening. When traveling in the mountains we [returned to?] the army. At this time Genl. Pike was seen making his way from the direction of the battlefield accompanied by two or three aids [sic]. He was hailed by Col. Griffith and asked what should [be] done. Genl. Van Dorn had retreated to the Northeast and we were making our way in a South or Southwestern direction [here Chism inserts 'North or Northeast' as an apparent afterthought/correction]. Genl. Pike told Col. Griffith to disband his Regt. and let them go in squads of five or six men and make their way to Van Buren, [to] fall in with the Army there. This was [the] cause of the 17th Ark. breakup, for not more than half of the Regt. reported at Van Buren to go on East of the Miss. river, the Regt. numbering some 200 went with Genl. Van Dorn to Corinth, Miss. reaching that point some time in April 62. Here the Regt. was reorganized, John Griffith elected Col., Joseph Dodson Lt. Col., B.P. Jett Major.[14]

Whatever the truth behind the regiment's retreat and break up following the Battle of Pea Ridge, by early May 1862, portions of Companies A, B, C, and G were still in Arkansas with Colonel Rector, and the remaining companies were at Corinth, Mississippi, with the Army of the West. Lieutenant Colonel John Griffith commanded a battalion-sized 17th Arkansas at the battle of Corinth, and this portion of the regiment would go on to form the famous 11th/17th Consolidated Mounted Infantry.[15]

Meanwhile, back in Arkansas, Governor Henry Massey Rector issued an address on May 5, 1862 calling for the formation of 30 new infantry companies and 20 new cavalry companies. Most of the states' militia regiments had conducted their final recorded militia muster during the last week of February and the first week of March 1862. Rector indicated that if there were insufficient volunteers to fill these new companies, a draft would be made upon the militia regiments and brigades. As a further enticement, Rector also indicated that these regiments were for home defense and that they would not be transferred to Confederate Service without their consent.[16] During the spring and summer following this final muster, many former militiamen joined one of the newly formed Volunteer Regiments. It may be that the militiamen decided it was better to enlist and remain together than to wait for forced conscription under new Confederate Conscription laws, which were being strictly enforced during the summer of 1862. Rector's much reduced former regiment, the remaining portions of Companies A, B, C, and G, were reinforced with troops, many of whom were came from the 58th Regiment Arkansas Militia regiment of Franklin County, the 15th Regiment Arkansas Militia of Pope County, and the 10th Militia Regiment of Johnson County.[17]

Reorganized as the 1st Regiment[edit | edit source]

Colonel Rector's new reorganized regiment, in accordance with Governor Rector's plan of maintaining the organization as a regiment of state troops, was initially organized at Camp Johnson, on July 11, 1862,[17] near Fort Smith, Arkansas as the "1st Regiment, Northwest Division, Trans-Mississippi Department" with 1037 men. They were also called Rector's War Regiment, 1st Arkansas Volunteers.[18] The reorganized regiment consisted of the following companies:[19]

  • Company A – Sebastian County (included men from Griffith's 17th Arkansas).
  • Company B – Sebastian County.
  • Company C – Sebastian County.
  • Company D – Sebastian County.
  • Company E – Franklin County (Men from the 58th Regiment Militia of Franklin County).[20]
  • Company F – Benton County (this is the new Co. F).
  • Company G – Crawford County.
  • Company H – Pope County (men from 15th Arkansas Militia Regiment of Pope County).[21]
  • Company I – Johnson County (men from 10th Arkansas Militia Regiment of Johnson County).[22]
  • Company K – Madison County (men from 16th, 17th and Stirman's Battalion).

Redesignated as the 35th Arkansas Infantry Regiment[edit | edit source]

Two other new regiments were raised under Governor Rector's plan, Brooks' 2nd Arkansas and Adams' 3rd Arkansas. These regiments would become Rector's 35th Arkansas Infantry Regiment and Brook's 34th Arkansas Infantry Regiment.[18]

Sometime in early September 1862 the 35th Arkansas and 34th Arkansas Infantry Regiments moved to Elm Springs,[23] 12 miles (19 km) northwest of Fayetteville which was a training camp designed for 5,000. Here the regiment continued to drill. At Elm Springs the regiment was ordered to turn over their weapons to the ordnance department. The purpose would have been to convert as many of the weapons as possible to stardard percussion cap weapons. In this unarmed state the regiments drilled. Supplies and clothing dribbled through and the men began to rely less and less on homemade knapsacks and haversacks. In mid September the unit was ordered to Elkhorn. Soon they retraced their path back to Elm Springs. At this time the Federals advanced toward the southwestern part of Missouri. General Holmes summoned General Hindman to Little Rock. Federal cavalry was reported to be marching with all speed to capture the three unarmed regiments. Under orders from General Rains the regiments marched south heading to Judge Walker’s farm in southern Washington County. The march was hampered by torrential rains and took two days to cover 15 miles (24 km). Captain Fontaine Richard Earle of Company B, 34th Arkansas said “it seemed as if the heavens had been overcrowded with water and that the flood-gates had been opened for relief.”[23]

During the retreat there were many desertions. The regiment moved to Spadra Bluff on the Arkansas River near Van Buren, occupying winter quarters that had been built by a Texas cavalry unit the previous winter. The regiment that had formed with more than 1,000 men in July, numbered approximately 400 men by the time of the Battle of Prairie Grove. They remained here for almost a month and continued their training. Here weapons were supplied, Enfield rifles.[23]

On November 15, 1862, General Hindman moved the Arkansas infantry to Massard Prairie, 3 miles (4.8 km) southeast of Fort Smith to drill and organize the divisions. The 35th Arkansas was assigned to Brigadier General James F. Fagan's 1st Brigade of Brigadier General Frances A. Shoup's 2nd Division, of Major General Thomas Carmichael Hindman's 1st Corps of Lieutenant General Theophilus Holmes's Army of the Trans-Mississippi. The unit was brigaded with the 34th Arkansas Infantry Regiment commanded by Colonel William H. Brooks, the 29th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, commanded by Colonel Joseph C. Pleasants, the 39th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, commanded by Colonel Alexander T. Hawthorne and Chew's Arkansas Infantry Battalion, commanded by Major Robert E. Chew.[23]

At the very end of November the cavalry was sent north toward Washington County. Early in December the infantry followed heading north. The 35th Arkansas crossed the Arkansas River on December 2, 1862. On December 4, the column reached Oliver’s Store on Lee creek in the Boston Mountains. There battle flags were presented to the regiments of the division.[23]

On December 6, 1862 Fagan's brigade arrived at Morrow’s and controlled all the approaches to Cane Hill from the south and east. Hindman then learned of the approach of General Herron, who had two divisions just north of Fayetteville. Hindman planned to get behind the Federal division of General Blunt and prevent General Herron’s division from combining with Gen. Blunt. Upon reaching the high ground at Prairie Grove on December 7, Hindman’s army formed on ridge overlooking Crawford Prairie and Fagan's brigade was advanced to a position fifty yards from the Borden Orchard. The position was very good and there the army waited for Herron to advance. Brook’s regiment was posted behind an artillery battery. Around 2:00 pm the artillery duel started. Blocher’s Battery, which was part of Fagan's brigade became a lightning rod for Federal artillery and later infantry. The 20th Wisconsin advanced to take the battery and when their right flank was 50 yards away from their Brook’s 34th Arkansas rose and fired into them. The regiment was ordered forward along with Chew’s Arkansas Infantry Battalion and Hawthorne’s regiment. The 20th Wisconsin was driven back and the battery was retaken. As the Confederate counterattack came off the ridge and onto the prairie they came under heavy fire and retreated to their position in the ravine. As the Confederates were reorganizing another Federal attack was launched. This time the 37th Illinois advanced to the summit. Again the Fagan's brigade rose out of the scrub and fired a point blank volley and charged. The two forces locked in hand to hand fighting. Again the Confederates followed the retreating Federals and ran into heavy fire. As the brigade resumed their position on the summit, the tempo of the battle slowed and shifted to another part of the battlefield. They stayed in position until nearly midnight when the order to retreat came. During the march over the Boston Mountains many of the men deserted to their homes.[23]

After the retreat from Prairie Grove to Van Buren, Fagan's brigade spent the winter of 1863-64 in camp near Little Rock, remaining there unitl June when the unit began the movements that would lead to the Battle of Helena.[24] Fagan's Brigade was assigned to Major General Sterling Price's Division of Lieutenant General Theophilus H. Holmes's army during the attack on Union forces at Helena Arkansas on July 4, 1863. General Fagan's 1,300 men were assigned to capture Hindman's Hill southwest of the city. Generals Fagan and Price failed to coordinate their attacks due to General Holmes' vague order to "attack at daylight." Price interpreted this order to mean an attack at sunrise and Fagan interpreted it to mean an attack at first light. The result was that Fagan was surprised to find his attack on Hindman Hill was opposed by artillery fire from Graveyard Hill, which was General Price's objective. General Fagan had expected Price to be engaged already with that battery. Fagan's artillery had not been able to reach the battlefield because of felled trees blocking the road. Fagan had no artillery available to silence the Federal guns and had no choice but to order his troops to try to take the hill while under artillery fire. Fagan's men reached the summit of the hill and managed to seize the outer fortifications but were pinned down just short of the summit by the two Union batteries. The exposed Confederates were targeted by every remaining gun on the battlefield as well as the heavy guns of the USS Tyler. By 10:30 Holmes realized that his position had deteriorated and that he could make no further headway. A general retreat was ordered, and the attack on the Union base had failed.[25] The regiment reported 75 casualties during the Battle of Helena, including 16 Killed, 44 wounded and 15 missing.[26]

The regiment participated in the defenses of Little Rock on September 10–11. Colonel Alexander T. Hawthorn took command of the brigade in the fall of 1863. The regiment spent the winter of 1863-64 in Camden, Ouachita County.[27]

Redesignated as the 22nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment[edit | edit source]

The Arkansas State Military Board was responsible for authorizing and designating regiments of volunteers. The board did a reasonably good job of sequencing the unit designations through much of the war; however the Confederate War Department at Richmond tended to designate new regiments based upon when the muster rolls were received. Another reason for dual designations was administrative. In the case of the 35th Arkansas, it is a little more convoluted. Earlier, Col. George W. King's south Arkansas regiment had been designated by the State Military Board as the 22nd Arkansas. Since the rolls for the 20th Arkansas had not yet arrived at Richmond, the War Department assumed that Arkansas had skipped that number, so G. W. King's 22nd Arkansas was designated by the Confederate War Department as the 20th Arkansas. By the time the reorganized muster rolls of Col. James P. King's 35th Arkansas arrive in Richmond, the War Department noticed that the designation 22nd Arkansas wasn't being used (due to their previous error), so J. P. King's regiment was redesignated at the 22nd Arkansas.[28] Colonel Henry J McCord assumed command of the 35th Arkansas Infantry on December 2, 1863, the redisgnation of the 35th Arkansas to the 22nd Arkansas appears to have been effective at the same time that Colonel McCord assumed command.[29]

The brigade was assigned to Churchill's Arkansas Division during the Red River Campaign.[30] In the Spring of 1864, the Churchill's Division, with Hawthorn's Brigade moved south to oppose the advance of Union General Nathaniel Bank's army in north-central Louisiana in March and early April 1864, helping to defeat him at the Battle of Pleasant Hill, Louisiana on April 10, 1864. Hawthorn's brigade was initially left behind at Camden when the rest of the army went to join General Taylor. They were eventually called upon as well, and left Camden for Louisiana on April 5. They reached Shreveport around the 14th or 15 April when they got news about the Confederate victories at Mansfield and Pleasant Hill. On the 16th, they started their march back to Arkansas with the rest of the army. Churchill's Division marched back north into Arkansas to deal with the other part of the Federal advance, General Frederick Steele's Camden Expedition. The division arrived after a long forced march at Woodlawn, Arkansas on April 26, where they rested overnight, then joined the pursuit of Steele's retreating army, catching it trying to cross the Saline River near Jenkins' Ferry. At the Battle of Jenkins' Ferry.[30] Colonel Cocke was killed during the Battle of Jenkins' Ferry.[31]

Battles following Prairie Grove[edit | edit source]

The 35th/22nd Arkansas Infantry was involved in the following engagements:[32]

The regiment spent the remainder of the war in southern Arkansas and northeast Texas.[33]

Flag[edit | edit source]

Flag of the 22nd Arkansas Infantry

A flag attributed to the 22nd Arkansas is currently in the collection of the Old State House Museum Collection in Little Rock Arkansas. The flag is made of wool and cotton flag with a field of five red and white horizontal bars of varying widths. Canton is light blue 11 1/2" on the staff by 11 1/2" on the fly. There are 13 5-pointed stars that are white with gold edges each 1 1/2. Set in an "X" shape. Unit designation is embroidered in white chain stitch Roman uncial and minuscule figure and letters: 22nd Regt. Battle honors are embroidered in contrasting red or white block letters on the red and white bars: OAK HILLS, ELK HORN, PRAIRIE GROVE, HELENA, JENKINS FERRY. The curators of the Old State House Museum believe that the flag was actually carried by the 22nd Arkansas during the war up until the unit surrender at Shreveport, Louisiana May 25, 1865. The flag is believed to have been returned to the State of Arkansas in 1905 by the U.S. War Department.[34] Other historians believe that the flag may be a post war flag created by the veterans of the unit for use during a Reunion.

Surrender[edit | edit source]

This regiment surrendered with the Department of the Trans-Mississippi, General E. Kirby Smith commanding, May 26, 1865.[35][36] When the Trans-Mississippi Department surrendered, all of the Arkansas infantry regiments were encamped in and around Marshall, Texas (war-ravaged Arkansas no longer able to subsist the army). The regiments were ordered to report to Shreveport, Louisiana, to be paroled but none of them did so.[37] Company G of the 22nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment along with members of the 34th Arkansas Infantry Regiment decided that rather than march to Shreveport, LA, they would to march to Fort Smith, Arkansas and surrendered to General Bussey at that location on June 9, 1865.[38]

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

Banasik, Michael E. Embattled Arkansas: The Prairie Grove Campaign of 1862. Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Company, 1996.

Baxter, William. Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove: Scenes and Incidents of the War in Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000.

Bears, Edwin C. “The Battle of Helena, July 4, 1863.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 20 (Autumn 1961): 256–297.

Christ, Mark K. Civil War Arkansas, 1863: The Battle for a State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010.

Christ, Mark K., ed. Rugged and Sublime: The Civil War in Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1994.

Christ, Mark K. “‘We Were Badly Whipped’: A Confederate Account of the Battle of Helena, July 4, 1863.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 69 (Spring 2010): 44–53.

DeBlack, Thomas A. With Fire and Sword: Arkansas, 1861–1874. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2003.

Hess. Earl J.; Shea, William L.; Piston, William G.; Hatcher, Richard W.: Wilson's Creek, Pea Ridge, and Prairie Grove: A Battlefield Guide, with a Section on Wire Road, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A. Bison Books 2006, ISBN 978-0-8032-7366-5

Montgomery, Don, ed. The Battle of Prairie Grove. Prairie Grove, AR: Prairie Grove Battlefield Historic State Park, 1996.

Sallee, Scott E. “The Battle of Prairie Grove: War in the Ozarks, April ’62–January ’63.” Blue & Gray Magazine 21 (Fall 2004): 6–23, 45–50.

Schieffler, George David. “Too Little, Too Late to Save Vicksburg: The Battle of Helena, Arkansas, July 4, 1863.” MA thesis, University of Arkansas, 2005

Shea, William L. War in the West: Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove. Abilene, TX: McWhiney Foundation Press, 2001.

Shea, William L. Fields of Blood: The Prairie Grove Campaign. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8078-3315-5

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 41, In Four Parts. Part 4, Correspondence, Etc., Book, 1893; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth145061 : accessed February 14, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  2. Sikakis, Stewart, Compendium of the Confederate Armies, Florida and Arkansas Facts on File, 1992, ISBN 978-0-8160-2288-5, page 101
  3. National Park Service, Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, Confederate Arkansas Troops, 25th Regiment, Arkansas Infantry, Accessed 25 July 2011, http://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/regiments.cfm
  4. 4.0 4.1 Howerton, Bryan, "17th Arkansas Regiment, No. 1", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 10 February 2007, 1:37 pm, Accessed 2 August 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=14724
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, 17th (GRIFFITH'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, Accessed 28 January 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/17thf&s.html
  6. Howerton, Bryan R., "COMPANY A, 17TH (GRIFFITH'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 12 May 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/17thcoa.html
  7. Howerton, Bryan R., "COMPANY B, 17TH (GRIFFITH'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 12 May 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/17thcob.html
  8. Howerton, Bryan R., COMPANY D, ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 12 May 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/17thcod.html
  9. Howerton, Bryan R., "COMPANY D, 17TH (GRIFFITH'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 12 May 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/17thcod.html
  10. Howerton, Bryan R., "COMPANY E, 17TH (GRIFFITH'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 12 May 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/17thcoe.html
  11. Howerton, Bryan R., "COMPANY F, 17TH (GRIFFITH'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 12 May 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/17thcof.html
  12. Howerton, Bryan R., "COMPANY G, 17TH (GRIFFITH'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 12 May 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/17thcog.html
  13. Howerton, Bryan R., "COMPANY H, 17TH (GRIFFITH'S) ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 12 May 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/17thcoh.html
  14. Chism, Ben B. "Letter to Mrs. Harlow Bishop, Junction City, Texas, from Paris, Ark., May 28, 1895", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted by Kenneth Byrd on 10 February 2007, 3:23 pm, Accessed 2 August 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=14728
  15. Howerton, Bryan, "17th Arkansas Regiment, No. 1", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 10 February 2007, Accessed 21 October 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=14724
  16. The Rebellion record: a diary of American events, with documents ..., Volume 5 edited by Frank Moore, Page 11. Accessed May 3, 2011, http://books.google.com/books?pg=PA11&dq=Arkansas+State+Military+board&id=1bB2AAAAMAAJ#v=onepage&q=Arkansas%20State%20Military%20board&f=false
  17. 17.0 17.1 Howerton, Bryan, "Which 22nd Arkansas at Elkhorn Tavern?", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Accessed 1 August 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=18468
  18. 18.0 18.1 Howerton, Bryan, "MORE on the 3rd's" Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 7 February 2007, Accessed, 21 October 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=14631
  19. Gerdes, Edward G., "35TH ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/35thf&s.html
  20. Gerdes, Edward G., "58th Regiment Arkansas Militia", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/58thfas.html
  21. Gerdes, Edward G., "15th Regiment Arkansas Militia", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/15milhis.html
  22. Gerdes, Edward G., "10th Regiment Arkansas Militia (Johnson County)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/10milhis.html
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 34th AR Infantry Uniforms & Equipment, Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 11 July 2007, Accessed 2 November 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=15999
  24. Howerton, Bryan R. "Report on Camp Conditions" Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 29 June 2012, Accessed 2 July 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=26699
  25. Rickard, J (14 August 2007), Battle of Helena, Arkansas, 4 July 1863 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_helena.html
  26. United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 22, In Two Parts. Part 1, Reports., Book, 1888; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154600/m1/430/?q=Helena Fagan Brigade Arkansas 1863 : accessed June 30, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas
  27. Cornell, Chester; "Fontaine Richard Earle (1831–1908)", The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, Central Arkansas Library System, Accessed 2 November 2011, http://encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=5901
  28. Howterton, Bryan R.: "In Response To: Arkansas unit numerical designations", Posted 8 March 2005, Accessed 22 December 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=25301
  29. Martin, George, "Re: 17th/1st/35th/22nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment.", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 22 October 2011, Accessed 1 July 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=24891
  30. 30.0 30.1 "Arkansas Confederate Regimental Histories". Internet Archive Wayback Machine. http://web.archive.org/web/20071212052703/http://asms.k12.ar.us/armem/welch/ar_infy.htm. Retrieved May 24, 2012. 
  31. National Park Service, Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, Confederate Arkansas Troops, 34th Regiment, Arkansas Infantry Accessed 27 January 2011, http://www.civilwar.nps.gov/cwss/regiments.cfm
  32. "35th Arkansas Infantry, CSA, Quartermaster Ledger", Community & Conflict, The impact of the Civil War on the Ozarks, Springfield-Greene County Library District, Accessed 5 August 2011, http://www.ozarkscivilwar.org/archives/1318
  33. United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 41, In Four Parts. Part 4, Correspondence, Etc., Book, 1893; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth145061/m1/1143/?q=Churchill Division Arkansas 1864 : accessed June 30, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  34. "Flag, Confederate - King's 22nd/20th Reg. Arkansas Vol. Inf", Old State House Museum, Accessed 17 March 2012, http://www.collections.oldstatehouse.com/emuseum40/view/objects/asitem/64/9/title-desc?t:state:flow=38e2a410-5f63-40f5-9bbb-581b07db0b17
  35. Howerton, Bryan, "1st, 2nd & 3rd Consolidated Arkansas Infantry Regiments", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 26 July 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=24472
  36. Sikakis, Stewart, Compendium of the Confederate Armies, Florida and Arkansas, Facts on File, Inc., 1992, ISBN 0-8160-2288-7, page 69.
  37. Howerton, Bryan, "Re: 17th/1st/35th/22nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment.", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 26 October 2011, Accessed 26 October 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=24907
  38. PARK , RUIE ANN SMITH. Ed. “The Civil War Letters of brothers William H. H. and John S. Shibley”, Washington County Historical Society, reproduced at the Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 19 March 2012, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/roster1.html

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