The 307th ARS was first activated in June 1950 and attached to the 307th Bombardment Wing at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. The unit, however, was located at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona for flying. The 307th gained its crews and equipment from the inactivated 2d Air Refueling Squadron (which later started up again at Hunter AFB, Georgia). 307th crews flew the KB-29M Superfortress, a British grappling hose-type refueling aircraft. On 1 Aug 1951, the people and equipment inactivated and stayed at Davis-Monthan to form the 9th Air Refueling Squadron.
In August 1951, upon relocating to Walker Air Force Base, New Mexico, the 307th refueled other aircraft by using the KB-29P Superfortress, a boom type refueling system developed by Boeing. It was at Walker that the squadron performed the first U.S. Air Force over-water fighter refueling mission. Many people assigned to the squadron during this time participated in Project Ivy, the atomic tests in the Pacific.
After relocating to Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas, the unit performed refueling missions for the 27th Fighter-Escort WingF-84 Thunderjet aircraft within the 42d Air Division. However, when everyone but one officer and one airman were reassigned, the squadron was inactivated on 18 November 1953.
Just six months later, the unit was reactivated and flew out of Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, with KC-97 Stratotanker aircraft. Another six months later, after being a tenant unit, the squadron was happy to move to Lincoln Air Force Base, Nebraska, and rejoin the 307th Bombardment Wing. From 1955 to 1960 the 307th deployed to numerous bases outside the United States, providing tanker support for Strategic Air Command (SAC) forces.
In June 1960 the unit moved once again to Selfridge Air Force Base, Michigan. After performing, for ten years, refueling commitments on a global scale, the squadron was inactivated on 25 June 1966. On 30 September 1985, the 307th was reactivated at a formal ceremony at K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base, Michigan. The squadron, assigned to the 410th Bombardment Wing at Sawyer, was flying for the first time, the KC-135A Stratotanker. The unit inactivated on 1 August 1990.