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31st Arkansas Infantry (Confederate)
Flag of Arkansas.svg
Arkansas state flag
Active 1862–1863
Disbanded May 25, 1865
Country Dixie CSA
Branch Infantry
Size Regiment
Engagements

American Civil War

Arkansas Confederate Infantry Regiments
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30th Arkansas Infantry Regiment 32nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment

The 31st Arkansas Infantry (1862–1863) was a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War from the state of Arkansas. The 31st Arkansas served throughout the war in the western theater, seeing action in the Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia campaigns. Following its depletion in numbers the regiment was consolidated several times with other Arkansas regiments, finally merging in 1865 into the 1st Arkansas Consolidated Mounted Rifles.

Organization[edit | edit source]

In the fall of 1861, the Confederacy was in need of more soldiers. Lieutenant Thomas H. McCray of the 5th Arkansas Infantry Regiment was sent back to Arkansas from Kentucky by General William Hardee to recruit one or more companies of "sharpshooters" from the north central part of the state including Conway, Independence, Jackson, Pope, Van Buren, and Yell Counties[2] McCray began enlisting soldiers in early November, and by late November, had two companies totaling 150 men at Pocahontas, Arkansas as part of a brigade size force under the command of Colonel Solon Borland.[2] McCray’s recruits were retained in Arkansas by Colonel Borland because he had received intelligence that the state was under the threat of invasion from Southeastern Missouri.[3]

As early as mid December 1861, the 150 recruits under "Major McCray" were being referred to as McCray’s Battalion. By January 25, 1862, McCray had formerly organized a four-company battalion of 300 Arkansas volunteers and had been elected Major. McCray continued to refer to his new command as a Battalion of Sharpshooters.[2] On February 5, Major McCray reported that he had four more companies ready to join his unit and was requesting permission to organize a full regiment. McCray's desire to immediately increase his command to a regiment was delayed by bigger events in the war. On March 6–8, General Van Dorn had led his Army of the West to defeat at the Battle of Pea Ridge, in northwest Arkansas. In the wake of this defeat, Van Dorn was ordered to move his forces east of the Mississippi River in an attempt to unite the Army of the West with the Confederate Army of Mississippi to attack Grant at Pittsburgh Landing, Tennessee. McCray had continued his recruiting efforts and by March 23, McCray's Battalion left Jacksonport on April 6 and marched overland to Des Arc.[2] On April 15 the unit was reported with an aggregate strength of 346 men with 21 officers and 256 men fit for duty. By April 22 the unit had moved down the White River and up the Mississippi River to Memphis, Tennessee, where several of the unit sick were left in the hospital. The unit received orders to move to Corinth Mississippi, but as late as April 27, several companies from the battalion were involved in an effort to destroy cotton stored near the river north of Memphis to prevent it from falling into Northern hands.[4]

On April 28 General Van Dorn issued Special Order Number 68, Army of the West, from Memphis, which directed McCray to conduct an election in his battalion for Lieutenant Colonel.[2] On the next day, General Van Dorn announced the re-organization of the Army of the West in General Order Number 17, in which McCray's Battalion of Arkansas Volunteers was listed as belonging to Brigadier General J. L. Hogg's Brigade of Major General McCown's Division.[5] The election for Lieutenant Colonel occurred on May 1 and by May 5 McCray was being addressed as Lieutenant Colonel in official correspondence.[4]

Changes were occurring rapidly in the Confederate forces near Corinth in May. In early May 1862 the Confederate forces underwent an army-wide reorganization due to the passage of the Conscription Act by the Confederate Congress in April 1862.[6] All twelve-month regiments had to re-muster and enlist for two additional years or the duration of the war; a new election of officers was ordered; and men who were exempted from service by age or other reasons under the Conscription Act were allowed to take a discharge and go home.[7] Officers who did not choose to stand for re-election were also offered a discharge. The reorganization was accomplished among all the Arkansas regiments in and around Corinth, Mississippi, following the Battle of Shiloh.[8] On May 25, 1862, a tenth company reassigned from Williamson's Arkansas Infantry Battalion was added to McCray’s Battalion which was stationed at Camp Churchill Clark, near Corinth, and the battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry Regiment on May 27, 1862. McCray was elected colonel of the regiment.[9] The unit would continue to occasionally be referred to as a sharpshooter regiment, but evidence suggest that the unit was trained and employed as a standard infantry regiment.[2] The unit was made up of volunteer companies from the following companies:[9]

File:Colonel Thomas Hamilton McCray.jpg

Colonel Thomas Hamilton McCray

Company A was organized at Jacksonport, Arkansas, on November 2, 1861, Captain James M. Morgan commanding. The company marched to Pocahontas, Arkansas, where it appears to have served for a time as an unattached company in the garrison commanded by Colonel Solon Borland. When McCray’s Battalion was organized on January 25, 1862, the Jacksonport company was assigned as Company A. The company retained this designation when McCray’s Battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 104 men are known to have served with Company A. Nearly one-fourth of them died of disease during the war; and only three of them were still with the colors at the surrender in April 1865. One member, Private Jonathan Pool, was awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the Battle of Chickamauga.[10]

Company B known as the "Quitman Sharpshooters", was organized at Quitman, Arkansas, on October 30, 1861, Captain Jesse E. Martin commanding. When McCray’s Battalion was organized on January 25, 1862, the Quitman Sharpshooters was assigned as Company B. The company retained this designation when McCray’s Battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 85 men are known to have served with Company B. Nearly a third of them died of disease during the war; and only three of them were still with the colors at the surrender in April 1865. One member, Sergeant J. Greene Read, was posthumously awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the Battle of Chickamauga.[11]

Company C was organized at Springfield, Arkansas, on January 8, 1862, Captain Samuel H. Nichols commanding. When McCray’s Battalion was organized on January 25, 1862, the Springfield company was assigned as Company C. The company retained this designation when McCray’s Battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 77 men are known to have served with Company C. Nearly a third of them died of disease during the war; none of them were left at the surrender in April 1865. One member, Private James N. Garvin, was awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the Battle of Chickamauga.[12]

Company D was organized at Clinton, Arkansas, on January 22, 1862, Captain Robert S. Hill commanding. When McCray’s Battalion was organized on January 25, 1862, the Clinton company was assigned as Company D. The company retained this designation when McCray’s Battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 107 men are known to have served with Company D. Nearly a fourth of them died of disease during the war; only one of them was left at the surrender in April 1865. One member, Private William H. Huie, was awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the Battle of Chickamauga.[13]

Company E organized at Dover, Arkansas, on February 1, 1862, Captain J. W. Rittenberry commanding. The Dover company was assigned to McCray’s Battalion as Company E. The company retained this designation when McCray’s Battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 69 men are known to have served with Company E. Nearly a fourth of them died of disease during the war; none of them were left at the surrender in April 1865.[14]

Company F was organized at Clinton, Arkansas, on March 3, 1862, Captain P. H. Britton commanding. The company was assigned to McCray’s Battalion as Company F. The company retained this designation when McCray’s Battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 43 men are known to have served with Company F. Nearly a fifth of them died of disease during the war; only three of them were left at the surrender in April 1865. One member, Sergeant John N. Cannon, was awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the Battle of Chickamauga.[15]

Company G was organized at Point Remove, Conway County, Arkansas, on March 5, 1862, Captain T. J. Nunnelly commanding. The company was assigned to McCray’s Battalion as Company G. The company retained this designation when McCray’s Battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 50 men are known to have served with Company G. Over a fourth of them died of disease during the war; only two of them were left at the surrender in April 1865. One member, Sergeant James W. Carter, was awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the Battle of Chickamauga.[16]

Company H was organized at Bayou de View, Jackson County, Arkansas, on March 1, 1862, Captain John N. Barnes commanding. The company was assigned to McCray’s Battalion as Company H. The company retained this designation when McCray’s Battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 53 men are known to have served with Company H. Nearly a third of them died of disease during the war; only two of them were left at the surrender in April 1865. One member, Private Francis M. Arnold, was awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the Battle of Chickamauga.[17]

Company I was organized at Batesville, Independence County, Arkansas, on March 23, 1862, Captain Ebenezer H. Howser commanding. The company was assigned to McCray’s Battalion as Company I. The company retained this designation when McCray’s Battalion was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 43 men are known to have served with Company I. Nearly forty percent of them died of disease during the war; only one of them was left at the surrender in April 1865. One member, Sergeant George W. Williams, was awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the Battle of Chickamauga.[18]

Company K was organized at Dardanelle, Yell County, Arkansas, on February 28, 1862, Captain John A. Jacoway commanding. The company was assigned to Williamson’s Battalion Arkansas Infantry as Company G. Williamson’s Battalion was broken up on May 25, 1862, with its component companies being distributed among four other Arkansas units in Mississippi. The Dardanelle company was assigned to McCray’s Battalion, which was reorganized as the 31st Arkansas Infantry on May 27, 1862. A total of 62 men are known to have served with Company K. This company had the smallest number of deaths in the regiment during the war, less than twenty percent dying of disease, but had a higher desertion rate than the other companies; only one man was left at the surrender in April 1865. One member, Private James E. Coker, was awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor for his heroism at the Battle of Chickamauga.[19]

The unit was commanded by Colonels Thomas H. McCray and Henry G. Bunn; Lieutenant Colonels J. L. Hays, John A. Jacoway, and James F. Johnson; and Majors J. W. Clark, Davis G. Daugherty, and James M. Morgan.[20]

Battles[edit | edit source]

Brigadier General William L. Cabell had officially replaced General Hogg, who had sickened and died on 16 May, in command of a brigade that included the 31st Arkansas along with the 10th, 11th, 14th Texas Cavalry (dismounted) Regiments, but it appears that Colonel McCray had the field command of this organization as early as June 1, 1862.[21] In response to a growing threat of invasion of northern Georgia, General Bragg ordered Major General McCown to move his division of the Army of the West to Chattanooga and report for duty to General Kirby Smith.[22] In General Bragg's return of the Army of Mississippi and the Army of the West, the 31st is listed as belonging to a brigade commanded by Brigadier General W. L. Cabell with 3 regiments of dismounted cavalry from Texas.[21]

In preparation for the upcoming Kentucky Campaign, General Smith reorganized his forces and Colonel McCray’s brigade was placed in Churchill's Division of General Smith's Confederate Army of Kentucky. With Colonel McCray in command of the Brigade, command of the 31st Arkansas fell to Major J. W. Clark. Under Clark's command the regiment took an active part in the Battle of Richmond, Kentucky and reported one killed, and nine wounded.[9]

After the Kentucky Campaign, General Bragg united his Army of Mississippi and the Army of Kentucky to create the Army of Tennessee.[9] Colonel Mathew Ector, a Texan, was promoted to Brigadier General and on October 31, 1862 was given command the mostly Texas brigade that McCray had led in the Kentucky Campaign. The 31st Arkansas was transferred to the brigade commanded by Brigadier General Evander McNair.[23] When the regiment was first reported as a part of McNair’s Brigade on November 21, 1862, it only had 131 men fit for duty.[21]

The 31st Arkansas missed the first major engagement with its new brigade. The unit was at Shelbyville Tennessee when the rest of McNair’s brigade fought in the Battle of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862 – January 2, 1863. Heavy casualties suffered at Murfreesboro in McNair’s Brigade caused several field (temporary) consolidations among its regiments. On February 9, 1863, the 31st Arkansas was temporarily consolidated with the 25th Arkansas Infantry. Colonel McCray was placed in command of the consolidated 25th/31st Arkansas.[21]

In June, 1863, McNair’s Brigade was reassigned to Walker's (later French's) Division of the Army of the Department of Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana, Lieutenant General William J. Hardee, C. S. Army, commanding, under the overall command of General Joseph E. Johnston who was assigned the mission of organizing a force to attempt to relieve General Pemberton’s besieged army at Vicksburg.[21] Johnston had been gathering troops at Jackson, intending to relieve pressure on Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton's beleaguered garrison. Johnston cautiously advanced his 30,000 soldiers toward the rear of Grant's army surrounding Vicksburg.[24] In response, Grant ordered Sherman to deal with Johnston's threat. By July 1, 1863, Johnston's force was in position along the Big Black River. Sherman used the newly arrived IX Corps to counter this threat. On July 5, the day after the surrender of Vicksburg was made official; Sherman was free to move against Johnston. Johnston hastily withdrew his force across the Big Black River and Champion's Hill battlefields with Sherman in pursuit. Sherman had with him the IX Corps, XV Corps, XIII Corps, and a detachment of the XVI Corps. On July 10 the Union Army had taken up position around Jackson. The heaviest fighting in the Siege of Jackson came on July 11 during an unsuccessful Union attack, which resulted in heavy casualties.[25] Instead of risking entrapment, Johnston chose to evacuate the state capital and withdrew on July 16. Sherman's forces occupied the city the following day.[24]

In the aftermath of the Vicksburg Campaign most of Johnston’s army was transferred back to the Army of Tennessee. By August 10, 1863, Colonel McCray had requested transfer to the Department of the Trans-Mississippi and reported to General Kirby Smith, at Shreveport Louisiana by mid September.[21] Several additional consolidations occurred in McNair’s Brigade during the month of August and were made official September 1, 1863. Depleted by deaths and desertions, the 31st Arkansas Regiment and the 4th Arkansas Infantry Battalion were permanently consolidated with the 4th Arkansas Infantry Regiment on September 1, 1863. With barely enough men left to fill up two companies in the consolidated regiment, the 31st Arkansas boys served under the 4th Arkansas Regiment’s Colonel Henry Gaston Bunn until the end of the war.[20]

The McNair’s Brigade rejoined the Army of Tennessee near Tullahoma, Tennessee in September, 1863. The 4th/4th Bn/31st Arkansas Consolidated Infantry went into the Battle of Chickamauga with an aggregate of 250.[21] Fighting with remarkable courage at the Battle of Chickamauga, in September 1863, nine men of the old 31st Arkansas were awarded the Confederate equivalent of the Medal of Honor.[9] The 31st Arkansas disappeared from the records after January 20, 1864.[21]

All references to the 31st Arkansas as a separate command effectively end after January 1864, with the survivors of the regiment serving with the 4th Arkansas through the Atlanta Campaign, Hood’s Tennessee Campaign, and the final actions of the Army of Tennessee in the Carolina’s Campaign of 1865.[21]

Consolidation and Surrender[edit | edit source]

On April 9, 1865, the depleted Arkansas regiments of D. H. Reynolds' Brigade, Walthall's Division, Confederate Army of Tennessee, including the 31st Arkansas, were consolidated into a single regiment the 1st Arkansas Consolidated Mounted Rifles, at Smithfield, North Carolina. The companies of the consolidated regiment were consolidated from the following Arkansas regiments:[8]

The 1st Arkansas Consolidated Mounted Rifles surrendered with the Army of Tennessee at Greensboro, North Carolina, April 26, 1865. About a dozen soldiers of the 31st Arkansas men were left when the consolidated rifles regiment surrendered.[1] The 1st Arkansas Consolidated Mounted Rifles were paroled on May 1, 1865, at Jamestown, North Carolina.[26]

After the surrender, the men were offered free rail transportation (where available) in the direction of their homes, by what was left of the Southern railway companies. Most of the men traveled by rail, where they could. A large number of men were killed or seriously injured in a railroad accident at Flat Creek Bridge, Tennessee on May 25, 1865.[27]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Bass, Ronald R. "History of the Thirty-first Arkansas Confederate Infantry", Arkansas Research, Inc, Conway, ISBN 1-56546-096-0
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Odom, Danny "Re: 31st Arkansas Infantry" Arkansas in the Civil War Message Boar, Posted 24 June 2012, Accessed 26 June 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=26674
  3. THE WAR OF THE REBELLION: A COMPILATION OF THE OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES. Ser. I, Vol. 8, Ch. XVIII–Confederate Correspondence. CHAPTER XVIII. OPERATIONS IN MISSOURI, ARKANSAS. KANSAS, AND THE INDIAN TERRITORY. November 19, 1861 – April 10, 1862., page 686, Accessed May 6, 2010, http://www.simmonsgames.com/research/authors/USWarDept/ORA/OR-S1-V08-C018C.html
  4. 4.0 4.1 Odom, Danny "" Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 23 June 2012, Accessed 24 June 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=26657
  5. United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 10, In Two Parts. Part 2, Correspondence, etc., Book, 1884; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154614/m1/490/?q=McCray : accessed June 24, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  6. UPTON, EMORY, Bvt. Maj. Gen., United States Army; "THE MILITARY POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES" WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1912, Page 471, Congressional edition, Volume 6164, Google Books, Accessed 4 November 2011, http://books.google.com/books?id=2-tGAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA471&lpg=PA471&dq=Confederate+conscription+law+reorganization+regiment&source=bl&ots=7ptDBF0n2D&sig=-K_6PQoHglmh_SOzuobv_JyNWUw&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Confederate%20conscription%20law%20reorganization%20regiment&f=false
  7. United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 10, In Two Parts. Part 2, Correspondence, etc., Book, 1884; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154614/m1/500/?q=Army of Mississippi : accessed June 17, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Bryan Howerton, "1st Consolidated Mounted Rifles", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted, 5 January 2009, 8:58 am" Accessed 6 August 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=19347
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Gerdes, Edward G., "31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stindx.html
  10. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company A, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcoa.html
  11. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company B, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcob.html
  12. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company C, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcoc.html
  13. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company D, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcod.html
  14. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company D, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcoe.html
  15. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company F, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcof.html
  16. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company G, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcog.html
  17. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company H, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcoh.html
  18. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company I, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcoi.html
  19. Gerdes, Edward G., "Company K, 31st Arkansas Infantry (orig. McCray's Battalion)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 6 August 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/31stcok.html
  20. 20.0 20.1 National Park Service, Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, Confederate Arkansas Troops, 31st Regiment, Arkansas Infantry, Accessed 26 January 2011, http://www.civilwar.nps.gov/cwss/regiments.cfm
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 Odom, Danny "Re: Where was 31st Arkansas Infantry at Stones Riv" Arkansas in the Civil War Message Boar, Posted 25 June 2012, Accessed 26 June 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=26685
  22. United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 17, In Two Parts. Part 2, Correspondence, Etc., Book, 1887; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154627/m1/626/?q=31st Arkansas McCray : accessed June 25, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  23. Ector's Brigade In The Civil War By Billy Kurtz West Jr., B.S. In Ed. A Thesis In History.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Korn, Jerry, and the Editors of Time-Life Books. War on the Mississippi: Grant's Vicksburg Campaign. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1985. ISBN 0-8094-4744-4, Page 156.
  25. Gue, Benjamin F. History of Iowa From the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century/4 Vol. 4. Iowa Biography, 1903, p. 164.
  26. Howerton, Bryan, "9th Regiment Arkansas Infantry", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 15 July 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/9thinf_hist.html
  27. Howerton, Bryan R. "Re: 25 Infantry Company C", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 20 March 2005, Accessed 8 February 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/arch_config.pl?read=9849

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Bass, Ronald R. History of the 31st Arkansas Confederate Infantry. (Conway, AR: Arkansas Research, 1997).
  • Gammage, Washington L., The Camp, the Bivouac, and the Battlefield, Being a History of the Fourth Arkansas Regiment, from its First Organization Down to the Present Date.
  • Reynolds, Daniel Harris and Bender, Robert P., Worthy of the Cause for Which They Fight: The Civil War Diary of Brigadier General Harris Reynolds, 1861-1865. (University of Arkansas Press, 2011), accessed at Google eBooks, http://books.google.com/books?id=H10SkwjYznkC&dq=Reynolds+arkansas+brigade&source=gbs_navlinks_s ISBN 978-1-55728-971-1.
  • Willis, James, Arkansas Confederates in the Western Theater. (Morningside Bookshop, 1998), ISBN 13: 9780890293331.

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