Flag of the Staff of an Armee Oberkommando (1871–1918)
|Active||2 August 1914 - 30 January 1919|
The 3rd Army (German language: 3. Armee / Armeeoberkommando 3 / A.O.K. 3) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 seemingly from the II Army Inspectorate. The army was disbanded in 1919 during demobilization after the war.
History[edit | edit source]
Upon the mobilization Max von Hausen (Saxon War Minister) was given command of the 3rd Army which mainly consisted of Saxons. The army participated in the Battle of the Frontiers, mainly in the battles of Dinant and Charleroi and the army were responsible for the destruction of Reims in September 1914. After the Second Army's retreat after the First Battle of the Marne, Von Hausen saw his own flank exposed and ordered a retreat. Upon the stabilization of the front on the river Aisne, Von Hausen was relieved of his command and replaced by General Karl von Einem.
Successfully repulsing the French Champagne-Marne offensive from February–March and September–November 1915 respectively, the army would take part in all three Battles of the Aisne and would hold Gen. Anthoine's 4th Army (under Gen. Philippe Petain's Center Army Group) during the Second Battle of the Aisne as part of the Nivelle Offensive from April 16-May 15, 1917.
Einem's right wing units would also participate in Gen. Erich Ludendorff's Champagne-Marne offensive on July 15–17, 1918 supporting the east flank of the German 1st Army. After suffering severe casualties in battle with Gen. John J. Pershing's Allied Expeditionary Force from September 26-November 11 in the Meuse-Argonne offensive, the army was forced to retreat northward shortly before the war's end. At the end of the war it was serving as part of Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz.
Order of Battle, 30 October 1918[edit | edit source]
By the end of the war, the 3rd Army was organised as:
|Organization of 3rd Army on 30 October 1918|
|3rd Army||XXV Reserve Corps||9th Landwehr Division|
|3rd Guards Division|
|1st Guards Division|
|XVI Corps||213th Division|
|1st Bavarian Division|
|I Reserve Corps||202nd Division|
|14th Reserve Division|
|76th Reserve Division|
|XXXVIII Reserve Corps||No units assigned|
|Moving to Bavaria||4th Bavarian Division|
Commanders[edit | edit source]
The 3rd Army had the following commanders during its existence:
|2 August 1914||Generaloberst Max von Hausen||Saxon Minister of War||Adjutant to his Majesty the King of Saxony|
|12 September 1914||General der Kavallerie Karl von Einem||VII Corps||Retired|
|27 January 1915||Generaloberst Karl von Einem|
Glossary[edit | edit source]
- Armee-Abteilung or Army Detachment in the sense of "something detached from an Army". It is not under the command of an Army so is in itself a small Army.
- Armee-Gruppe or Army Group in the sense of a group within an Army and under its command, generally formed as a temporary measure for a specific task.
- Heeresgruppe or Army Group in the sense of a number of armies under a single commander.
See also[edit | edit source]
- German Army order of battle (1914)
- German Army order of battle, Western Front (1918)
- Schlieffen Plan
References[edit | edit source]
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Cron, Hermann (2002). Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Structure, Orders-of-Battle [first published: 1937]. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1.
- Ellis, John; Cox, Michael (1993). The World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6.
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