|702d Expeditionary Airlift Squadron|
Members of the 702d Expeditionary Airlift Squadron in front of a C-27 Spartan at Kandahar Air Base Afghanistan
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Active||1943-1945; 1947-1949; 1952-1957; 1957-1965; 1971-2000: After 2010|
|Motto||We Fly for the Troops (2011-2012)|
|Decorations|| Distinguished Unit Citation|
French Croix de Guerre with Palm
The 702d Airlift Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. Its last was assigned to the 305th Operations Group, stationed at McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey. It was inactivated on 1 March 2000.
World War IIEdit
The 702d Bombardment Squadron was activated 1 April 1943 at Gowen Field in Idaho, where initial organization took place while key personnel traveled to Orlando AAB, Florida for training with the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics. Both elements met at Wendover Army Air Field, Utah on 8 June 1943, where initial training with the Consolidated B-24 Liberator took place. The squadron moved to Sioux City Army Air Base, Iowa in July 1943 to complete training. In September the 702d began to receive B-24H aircraft, the model of the Liberator they would fly in combat.
On 20 October 1943 the ground echelon moved to Camp Shanks, New York and embarked on the RMS Queen Mary on 26 October 1943, sailing next day. The unit arrived in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland on 2 November 1943 and disembarked at Gourock. The air echelon departed Sioux City late in October 1943 and flew to the United Kingdom via the southern route: Florida, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and West Africa. Upon arrival, the squadron was stationed at RAF Tibenham as part of the 2nd Combat Bombardment Wing. The group was initially given a fuselage code of IS.
The 700th entered combat on 13 December 1943 by attacking U-boat installations at Kiel. The unit operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization until the war ended, striking such targets as industries in Osnabrück, synthetic oil plants in Lutzendorf, chemical works in Ludwigshafen, marshalling yards at Hamm, an airfield at Munich, an ammunition plant at Duneberg, underground oil storage facilities at Ehmen, and factories at Münster.
The squadron participated in the Allied campaign against the German aircraft industry during Big Week, from 20 to 25 February 1944, being awarded a Distinguished Unit Citation for attacking a Me 110 aircraft assembly plant at Gotha on 24 February. This was the longest running continuous air battle of World War II - some two and a half hours of fighter attacks and flak en route and leaving the target area. Bomb damage assessment photographs showed that the plant was knocked out of production indefinitely.
The unit occasionally flew air interdiction and air support missions. It helped to prepare for the invasion of Normandy by bombing airfields, V-1 and V-2 launch sites, and other targets. It attacked shore installations on D-Day, 6 June 1944, and supported ground forces at Saint-Lô by striking enemy defenses in July 1944. During the Battle of the Bulge, between December 1944 and January 1945 it bombed German communications. Early on 24 March 1945 the 702d dropped food, medical supplies, and ammunition to troops that landed near Wesel during the airborne assault across the Rhine and that afternoon flew a bombing mission to the same area, hitting a landing ground at Stormede.
On occasion the unit dropped propaganda leaflets and hauled fuel to France. It was awarded the Croix de guerre with Palm by the French government for operations in the theater from December 1943 to February 1945 supplying the resistance.
By far, the 702d's most tragic mission is the attack on Kassel of 27 September 1944. In cloud, the navigator of the lead bomber of the 445th Bombardment Group miscalculated and the 35 planes of the 700th and the other squadrons of the group left the bomber stream of the 2d Air Division and proceeded to Göttingen some 35 miles (56 km) from the primary target. After the bomb run, the group was alone in the skies and was attacked from the rear by an estimated 150 Luftwaffe planes, resulting in the most concentrated air battle in history. The Luftwaffe unit was a Sturmgruppe, a special unit intended to attack bombers by flying in tight formations of up to ten fighters in line abreast. This was intended to break the bomber formation at a single pass. The 361st Fighter Group intervened, preventing complete destruction of the group. Twenty-nine German and 25 American planes went down in a 15-mile (24 km) radius. Only four of the 445th group's planes made it back to the base – two crashing in France, one in Belgium, another at RAF Old Buckenham. Two landed at RAF Manston. Only one of the 35 attacking aircraft was fit to fly next day.
After the end of the air war in Europe, the 702d flew low level Trolley missions over Germany carrying ground personnel so they could see the result of their efforts during the war. The group's air echelon departed Tibenham on 17 May 1945, and left the United Kingdom on 20 May 1945. The 702d ground echelon sailed on the USAT Cristobal from Bristol. The ship arrived at New York on 8 June 1945. Personnel were given 30 days R&R. The squadron reestablished at Fort Dix, New Jersey, with the exception of the air echelon, which had flown to Sioux Falls Army Air Field, South Dakota. Most personnel were discharged or transferred to other units, and only a handful were left when the unit was inactivated on 12 September 1945.
The 702d Bombardment Squadron was activated again in the Reserve during the summer of 1947 at Hill Field, Utan, nominally as a Boeing B-29 Superfortress very heavy bombardment squadron and assigned to its World War II headquarters. The squadron was inactivated in June 1949 when Continental Air Command reorganized to the wing base organizational model. It does not appear that the squadron was ever equipped with aircraft, however, and reserve training at Hill was continued by the 9013th Volunteer Air Reserve Training Wing.
The squadron was activated again in the reserves in 1952 at Buffalo Municipal Airport, New York as the 702d Fighter-Bomber Squadron. Although designated as a fighter unit, until 1955 the squadron primarily flew North American T-6 aircraft, although it was equipped with a few North American F-51 Mustangs and Lockheed F-80 Shooting Stars. In 1955 the 702d moved a few miles to Niagara Falls Municipal Airport as a Republic F-84 Thunderjet unit. In 1957 the United States Air Force reduced its operations at Niagara Falls and the 702d was inactivated in July.
The United States Air Force realigned its reserve forces at this time, transferring all fighter aircraft to the Air National Guard, while Air Force Reserve organizations flew tactical airlift aircraft. In mid-November 1957 the 702d was redesignated as the 702d Troop Carrier Squadron and began training in Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar aircraft at Memphis Municipal Airport, where the 445th group was now located. When Continental Air Command reorganized under the dual deputy system in November the squadron transferred directly to the 445th wing although it was detached from wing headquarters.
The squadron was called to active duty in 1962 during the Cuban missile crisis. It performed routine airlift missions until inactivated in 1965. Reactivated in 1973 as an associate unit. The squadron had no aircraft of its own, but flew long-range C-141 Starlifter assigned to the 438th Military Airlift Wing. It provided worldwide airlift until the retirement of C-141 aircraft in 2000.
Global War on TerrorEdit
The 702d was converted to provisional status as the 702d Expeditionary Airlift Squadron and joined the 451st Expeditionary Operations Group at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan in the summer of 2011. The Kandahar squadron was made up of deployed Air National Guard and Army National Guard members, flying the C-27J to support personnel deployed at forward operating bases and flew its first combat mission four days after standing up. The majority of the squadron members were drawn from the Maryland Air National Guard. The squadron inactivated the following year. During the deployment the squadron flew 3200 missions despite being equipped with only two aircraft.
- Constituted as the 702d Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) on 20 March 1943
- Activated on 1 April 1943
- Redesignated 702d Bombardment Squadron, Heavy on 20 August 1943
- Inactivated on 12 September 1945
- Redesignated 702d Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy on 13 May 1947
- Activated in the reserve on 1 JAugust 1947
- Inactivated on 27 June 1949.
- Redesignated 702d Fighter-Bomber Squadron on 24 June 1952
- Activated in the reserve on 8 July 1952
- Inactivated on 1 July 1957
- Redesignated 702d Troop Carrier Squadron, Medium on 24 October 1957
- Activated in the reserve on 16 November 1957
- Redesignated 702d Troop Carrier Squadron (Assault) on 25 September 1958 (on active duty 28 October 1962 - 28 November 1962)
- Inactivated on 15 December 1965
- Redesignated 702d Military Airlift Squadron (Associate) on 3 December 1970
- Activated on 1 April 1971
- Redesignated 702d Airlift Squadron (Associate) on 1 February 1992
- Redesignated 702d Airlift Squadron on 1 October 1994
- Inactivated on 1 March 2000
- Converted to provisional status and redesignated 702d Expeditionary Airlift Squadron
- Activated on 31 July 2011
- Inactivated ca. 31 July 2012
- 445th Bombardment Group: 1 April 1943 - 12 September 1945
- 445th Bombardment Group: 1 August 1947 - 27 June 1949.
- 445th Fighter-Bomber Group: 8 July 1952 - 1 July 1957
- 445th Troop Carrier Group: 16 November 1957
- 445th Troop Carrier Wing: 25 September 1958
- 920th Troop Carrier Group: 11 February 1963 - 15 December 1965
- 514th Military Airlift Wing: 1 July 1973
- 514th Operations Group: 1 August 1992 - 1 March 2000
- Air Combat Command to activate or inactivate as needed
- 451st Expeditionary Operations Group: 31 July 2011 - 2012
- B-24 Liberator, 1943–1945
- C-47 Skytrain, 1955–1957
- C-123 Provider, 1957–1975
- C-141 Starlifter, 1973–2000
- C-27 Spartan, 2011-2012
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Capt Frank Hartnett, Air Force Print News Today 702 EAS deactivates at Kandahar 6/20/2012 (retrieved August 24, 2012)
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Birsic, Rudolph J. (1947). The History of the 445th Bombardment Group (H) (unofficial). Bangor Public Library World War II Regimental Histories. No. 98. Glendale, CA: Griffin-Patterson Co.. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-9845301-0-6. http://digicom.bpl.lib.me.us/ww_reg_his/98/#b.mon.tag. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Maurer, Maurer, ed (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/combat_sq_of_the_af_wwii.pdf.
- ↑ Birsic, pp. 14, 17
- ↑ Birsic, p. 15
- ↑ Watkins, Robert (2008). Battle Colors: Insignia and Markings of the Eighth Air Force In World War II. Vol I (VIII) Bomber Command. Atglen, PA: Shiffer Publishing Ltd.. pp. 88–89. ISBN 0-7643-1987-6.
- ↑ Birsic, p. 21
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Maurer, Maurer, ed (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 319–320. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/af_combat_units_wwii.pdf.
- ↑ Birsic, p. 45 (Citation for Distinguished Unit Citation)
- ↑ Birsic, p. 24
- ↑ Birsic, p. 29
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 The Kassel Mission Historical Society: Dedicated to the 445th Bomb Group (retrieved August 16, 2013)
- ↑ Birsic, pp. 33-34
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 Birsic, p. 42
- ↑ See Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 242. ISBN 0-912799-53-6. http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100921-026.pdf.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 241–242. ISBN 0-912799-12-9. http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/combat_wings.pdf.
- ↑ Haulman, Daniel L. AFHRA Factsheet 445 Operations Group, 12/28/2007 (retrieved August 16, 2013)
- ↑ 1/Lt Abigail Wise, US Air Forces Central Command news release New airframe, squadron on Kandahar Airfield 8/26/2011 (retrieved August 24, 2013)
- ↑ Station number in Anderson, Capt. Barry (1985). Army Air Forces Stations: A Guide to the Stations Where U.S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United Kingdom During World War II. Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. http://www.afhra.af.mil./shared/media/document/AFD-081010-027.pdf. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- Anderson, Capt. Barry (1985). Army Air Forces Stations: A Guide to the Stations Where U.S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United Kingdom During World War II. Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. http://www.afhra.af.mil./shared/media/document/AFD-081010-027.pdf. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- Birsic, Rudolph J. (1947). The History of the 445th Bombardment Group (H) (unofficial). Bangor Public Library World War II Regimental Histories. No. 98. Glendale, CA: Griffin-Patterson Co.. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-9845301-0-6. http://digicom.bpl.lib.me.us/ww_reg_his/98/#b.mon.tag. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/af_combat_units_wwii.pdf.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/combat_sq_of_the_af_wwii.pdf.
- Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6. http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100921-026.pdf.
- Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9. http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/combat_wings.pdf.
- Watkins, Robert (2008). Battle Colors: Insignia and Markings of the Eighth Air Force In World War II. Vol I (VIII) Bomber Command. Atglen, PA: Shiffer Publishing Ltd.. ISBN 0-7643-1987-6.
- The Kassel Mission Historical Society: Dedicated to the 445th Bomb Group (retrieved August 16, 2013)
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