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The 70th Army (Soviet Union) was a Soviet field army during World War II. They were active at the Battle of Kursk, the Lublin–Brest Offensive, and the Battle of Berlin, among other actions.

FormationEdit

The 70th Army was formed in October 1942 near Sverdlovsk in Siberia as a separate NKVD Army of the STAVKA Reserve. It was transferred to the Red Army and received the designation "70." On 15 February 1943, the Army was transferred to the Central Front. As of 1 March 1943, its order of battle consisted of the 102nd Rifle Division, 106th Rifle Division, 140th Rifle Division, 162nd Rifle Division, 175th Rifle Division, 181st Rifle Division, 27th Separate Tank Regiment, and 378th Anti-Tank Regiment.

Battle of KurskEdit

From 28 February 1943, the 70th Army took part in both defensive and offensive operations on the Sievsk axis, during which the northern face of Kursk salient was created. During the Battle of Kursk (5 – 23 July 1943), the 70th Army, together with units of the 2nd Tank Army, 13th Army, and 19th Tank Corps, stopped the German 9th Army that was trying to break through to Kursk from the north. During the subsequent Red Army counterattack, the 70th Army took part in Operation Kutuzov (12 July – 18 August) and attacked Trosna to the south of the town of Kromy. On 5 August, its units reached the region southwest of Kromy, and on 17 August, they reached the German "Hagen" defense line near Domakha.

After the end of this operation, the field headquarters of the 70th Army was transferred to the Reserve of the Central Front and on 1 February to STAVKA Reserve, where it received new units.

Lublin-Brest operationEdit

During the second half of February 1944, the 70th Army was transferred to the front at the Turya River north of Kovel. On 25 February, it was subordinated to the Belorussian Front and on 16 April it joined that formation. During the Lublin–Brest Offensive (18 July – 2 August), its units, along with units of the 61st Army and the 26th Army, surrounded Brest from the south-east and destroyed up to four German divisions to the west of Brest.

PolandEdit

After a short period assigned to the front reserves, on 10 August the 70th Army attacked a region to the north of Warsaw. By the end of August, it reached the Narew River near the town of Serock. On 29 October, the 70th Army was back again as reserves of the 1st Belorussian Front and on 19 November as reserves of the 2nd Belorussian Front (2nd Formation).

GermanyEdit

During the East Prussian Offensive (13 January to 25 April), 70th Army attacked from the Serock bridgehead towards Modlin, Płock, and Toruń (Thorn). During three days of fighting, its units broke through the German defenses. On 18 January, they captured Modlin and Modlin Fortress. On 25 January, elements of 70th Army reached the fortified city of Toruń. At the same time other units of 70th Army reached the Vistula River north-east of Bromberg (Bydgoszcz) and crossed the river against opposition. On 10 February, the 70th Army reduced the defenders in Thorn. 70th Army, together with other armies of the front and forces of Baltic Fleet, took part in the East Pomeranian Offensive (10 February – 4 April 1945). The operation captured the city, port, and military naval base of Gdynia on 28 March and the naval base at Danzig (Gdansk) on 30 March. In the beginning of April 1945, 70th Army was transferred to the front reserve and on 15 April it was send to the region of Wittstock, Naugard (Nowogard), and Sztuchow.

During the Battle of Berlin (16 April – 8 May), 70th Army was attached to the spearheads of 2nd Belorussian Front, attacking on the Neubrandenburg – Wismar axis. On 1 May, it captured the cities of Rostock and Teterow. On the evening of 3 May, its units reached the Baltic Sea coastline near Wismar and received orders to guard and defend the coastline near Stettin (Szczecin).

Post warEdit

After the war, the headquarters of the Army was transferred to Chkalov (Orenburg). In October 1945, the field headquarters and its staff was used to create the headquarters of the South Urals Military District.

CommandersEdit

  • General Major G.F. Tarasov (October 1942 – April 1943)
  • General Lieutenant J.W. Galanin (April – September 1943
  • General Major W.M. Sharapov (September – October 1943)
  • General Lieutenant J.F Nikolyaev (October 1943 – March 1944
  • General Major A.I. Ryzhov (March – May 1944
  • General Colonel M.S Popov (May 1944 to the end of the war)

Members of the War Council of the Army

  • Colonel from March 1943 General Major N.N. Savkov (October 1942 to the end of the war)

Chiefs of Staff

  • General Major W.M.Sharapov (October 1942 – November 1943)
  • Colonel G.M.Abayev (November 1942 – February 1944)
  • General Major P.I. Lyapin ( February 1944 – March 1945)
  • Colonel A.P Penchevsky (March – April 1945)
  • General Major S.I. Teteshkin (April 1945 to the end of the war)[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. В27 Великая Отечественная война 1941 – 1945 гг.: Действующая армия. — М.: Animi Fortitudo, Кучково ноле, 2005. — с. 144 – 145


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