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{{Infobox military unit
 
{{Infobox military unit
|unit_name=13th Motor Rifle Division (NKVD) ? – Sep 1942<br>95th Rifle Division (2nd Formation) Sep 1942 – 28 Feb 1943<br>75th Guards Rifle Division 1 Mar 43 – 11 Jun 1946<br>17th Guards Rifle Brigade 12 Jun 1946 – 1952<br>75th Guards Rifle Division 1952 – ?<br>64th Guards Mechanized Division ? – ?<br>75th Guards Tank Division ? – Nov 1989
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|unit_name=75th Guards Tank Division <br /><small>(11 April 1965–1 July 1989)</small>
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----
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75th Guards Heavy Tank Division<br /><small>(11 January–11 April 1965)</small>
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----
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14th Guards Heavy Tank Division<br /><small>(18 November 1954–11 January 1965)</small>
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----
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14th Guards Tank Division<br /><small>(27 July–18 November 1954)</small>
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----
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64th Guards Mechanized Division<br /><small>(October 1953–27 July 1954)</small>
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----
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17th Separate Guards Rifle Brigade<br /><small>(1946–October 1953)</small>
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----
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75th Guards Rifle Division <br/ ><small>(1 March 1943 – 1946)</small>
 
|image=
 
|image=
 
|caption=
 
|caption=
 
|country=[[Soviet Union]]
 
|country=[[Soviet Union]]
 
|allegiance=
 
|allegiance=
|type=Infantry
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|type=Infantry (Mechanized from 1953, Tank from 1954)
|branch=[[Red Army]]
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|branch=[[Red Army]] ([[Soviet Army]] from 1946)
|dates=Formed in September 1942 / Disbanded in 1989
 
 
|specialization=
 
|specialization=
|command_structure=[[Stalingrad Front]] and [[Southeastern Front]]
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|command_structure=
|size= approximately 5–10,000 (Second World War)
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|size= more than 10,000 (Second World War)
|garrison=Tula
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|garrison=
 
|nickname=
 
|nickname=
 
|patron=
 
|patron=
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|march=
 
|march=
 
|mascot=
 
|mascot=
|battles=[[World War II]]; [[Battle of Kursk]]; [[Battle of Berlin]].
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|battles={{plainlist|
|notable_commanders=Lieutenant-General Vasilii Akimovich,<ref>[http://www.generals.dk/general/Gorishnii/Vasilii_Akimovich/Soviet_Union.html]</ref> Colonel V.A.Gorishny
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[[World War II]]
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*[[Battle of Kursk]]
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*[[Operation Kutuzov]]
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*[[Battle of the Dnieper]] (Chernigov-Pripyat Offensive)
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*[[Battle of Kiev (1943)|Battle of Kiev]])
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*[[Kalinkovichi-Mozyr Offensive]]
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*[[Operation Bagration]]
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*[[Riga Offensive (1944)|Riga Offensive]]
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*Warsaw-Poznan operation ([[Vistula–Oder Offensive]])
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*[[East Pomeranian Offensive]]
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*[[Battle of Berlin]]
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}}
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|battle_honours=[[Bakhmach]]
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|decorations = {{plainlist|
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*{{OrderRedBanner}} (2)
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*{{OrderSuvorov2ndClass}} 2nd class
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}}
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|notable_commanders=Major General [[Vasily Gorishny]]
 
|anniversaries=
 
|anniversaries=
 
}}
 
}}
The '''75th Guards Rifle Division''' (Russian: 75-я гвардейская стрелковая дивизия ''75-ya gvardyeĭskaya strelkovaya diviziya'') was a [[Red Army]] [[Division (military)|infantry division]] during [[World War II]] and afterwards, which later became the [[75th Guards Tank Division]] and was finally disbanded in the 1990s.
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The '''75th Guards Rifle Division''' ({{Lang-ru|75-я гвардейская стрелковая дивизия|translit=75-ya gvardeyskaya strelkovaya diviziya}}) was a [[Red Army]] [[Division (military)|infantry division]] during [[World War II]] and afterwards, which later became the 75th Guards Tank Division and was finally disbanded in the 1990s.
   
The Division was formed in the Tula area in September 1942 on the basis of units of the 13th Motor Rifle Division of the [[NKVD]], as the 95th Rifle Division (II Formation). Its structure included the 90th, 161st, and 241st Rifle Regiments, the 57th Artillery Regiment and other smaller units.
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The 75th Guards Rifle Division was redesignated at the beginning of March 1943 from the second formation of the [[95th Rifle Division]] in recognition of the latter's courage and heroism during the [[Battle of Stalingrad]]. It fought in the [[Battle of Kursk]], defending positions around [[Ponyri, Ponyrovsky District, Kursk Oblast|Ponyri]] on the northern face of the Kursk Bulge, and was awarded the [[Order of the Red Banner]] for its actions. The division fought in [[Operation Kutuzov]] and the [[Battle of the Dnieper]] in the summer and early fall. It was awarded the honorific "[[Bakhmach]]" for helping to capture that city. The division then fought in the [[Battle of Kiev (1943)|Battle of Kiev]] and advanced into eastern Belarus towards the end of the year. In January 1944 it fought in the [[Kalinkovichi-Mozyr Offensive]] and received the [[Order of Suvorov]], 2nd class for its actions. From late June the 75th Guards fought in [[Operation Bagration]], advancing westwards into Belarus. For its actions the division was awarded its second Order of the Red Banner. In September the division was transferred to the Baltic and fought in the [[Riga Offensive (1944)|Riga Offensive]]. It was relocated to eastern Poland in December and fought in the [[Vistula–Oder Offensive]], [[East Pomeranian Offensive]], and [[Battle of Berlin]] in the final months of the war.
   
==Second World War==
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Postwar, the division was withdrawn to [[Tula, Russia|Tula]] and downsized into the 17th Separate Guards Rifle Brigade. The brigade was relocated to [[Chuguyev]], and became the 64th Guards Mechanized Division in 1953. In 1954 it became the 14th Guards Heavy Tank Division, and in 1965 it was redesignated the 75th Guards Tank Division. The division was downsized into a storage base in 1989, and finally disbanded in 1990.
On 18 September 1942 the division saw combat for the first time, at Stalingrad, where it fought for more than 4 months as part of the [[62nd Army (Soviet Union)|62nd Army]] with the [[Stalingrad Front]] and South Eastern Front, in heavy street fighting. For courage and the heroism in this fighting, on 1 March 1943 the Division became 75th Guards Rifle Division (212, 231 and 241st Guards Rifle, 159th Guards Artillery Regiments and other smaller units).
 
   
In July - August 1943, as part of the [[13th Army (Soviet Union)|13th Army]] of the Central Front the Division fought in the [[Battle of Kursk]]. Facing one of the main German thrust (the Ponyri 2 area), several divisional units resisted the German attack effectively and persistently. For its exemplary fighting performance the division was awarded the [[Order of the Red Banner]] on 21 July 1943. The division's soldiers then successfully helped clear left-bank Ukraine during the Chernigov-Pripyatsk (Черниговско-Припятской) operations of the [[Soviet Central Front]]. For helping clear [[Bakhmach]] the division was given the honourable name Bakhmach (Бахмачской) on 9 September 1943. On 25 September 1943 parts of the division forced the River Dnepr in the Tarasovichi area, seized a bridgehead and during October, fought intensely to expand it. For courage shown in battle, 63 soldiers of the division were made [[Hero of the Soviet Union|Heroes of the Soviet Union]], and 829 recognised with awards and medals.
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==World War II==
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[[File:Воины 75-й гвардейской стрелковой дивизии принимают гвардейскую клятву. 1943.jpg|thumb|290px|Officers and men of the division taking the Guards oath on 1 March 1943. Major General [[Vasily Gorishny]] is shown holding the flag, with Colonel [[Ilya Vlasenko]] to his left.]]
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The division was formed on 1 March 1943 by the redesignation of the [[95th Rifle Division|95th Rifle Division (Second formation)]], which was made a [[Guards unit]] for its courage and heroism in the [[Battle of Stalingrad|defense of Stalingrad]]. Its structure included the 90th, 161st, and 241st Rifle Regiments, and the 57th Artillery Regiment, which became the 212th, 231st, and 241st Guards Rifle Regiments, and the 159th Guards Artillery Regiment, respectively, on 4 April, and other smaller units.{{Sfn|Grylev|1970|p=}} The division was commanded by Major General [[Vasily Gorishny]], who led the division for the rest of the war.{{Sfn|Grechko|1976|p=|pp=410–411}} Initially part of the [[Central Front (Soviet Union)|Central Front]] reserve, it joined the [[13th Army (Soviet Union)|13th Army]] in May. In reserve, the 75th Guards were brought up to full strength and replenished from their losses at Stalingrad.{{Sfn|Dunn|1997|p=67}}
   
[[File:Воины 75-й гвардейской стрелковой дивизии принимают гвардейскую клятву. 1943.jpg|thumb|290px|Воины дивизии принимают гвардейскую клятву. У знамени генерал-майор Горишний В. А., слева — полковник Власенко И. А. 1943 год.]]
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===Battle of Kursk===
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[[File:V.A.Gorishny Ilya Vlasenko Konstantin Simonov A.V,Mukhin near Ponyri. Battle of Kursk. 1943.jpg|thumb|290px|Vlasenko, Gorishny, Colonel A.V. Mukhin, and Lieutenant Colonel and writer [[Konstantin Simonov]] at the command post of the 75th Guards Rifle Division near Ponyri during the Battle of Kursk]]
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During July 1943, as part of the army's [[17th Guards Rifle Corps]] alongside the [[70th Guards Rifle Division]], the division fought in the [[Battle of Kursk]]. Facing one of the main German thrusts in the area of the [[Ponyri, Ponyrovsky District, Kursk Oblast|Ponyri]] 2 [[sovkhoz]], the 75th Guards helped repulse the attack, positioned in the second defensive belt. {{Sfn|Glantz|House|2004|p=93}} On 6 July, the second day of the battle, the 70th and 75th Guards, supported by the [[9th Tank Corps|9th]] and [[16th Tank Corps]], attacked the [[2nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)|2nd Panzer Division]], positioned between Bobrik and Saborovka, {{Convert|10|km|mi}} from its start line. In fierce fighting, the 2nd Panzer managed to slightly expand its bridgehead over the [[Svapa River]]. At Ponyri, the 75th Guards' 84th Separate Guards Anti-Tank Battalion was attacked by [[Tiger I|Tiger]] tanks, but managed to claim five [[Panzer IV]]<nowiki/>s with its 45 mm anti-tank guns.{{Sfn|Dunn|1997|p=174}} At 19:30, German tanks and infantry attacked into the division's flank and rear west of Snova after pushing the [[6th Guards Rifle Division]] back. The 75th Guards speedily regrouped and repulsed the German attack, destroying up to 30 tanks according to Soviet reports.{{Sfn|Glantz|Orenstein|1999|p=117}} On 7 July the German attacks at Ponyri 2 continued, with an attack by thirty tanks and infantry from the [[9th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)|9th Panzer Division]] achieving a limited advance against the 75th Guards by 17:00.{{Sfn|Dunn|1997|p=176}} During the day the infantry from the division supported tanks and anti-tank guns in inflicting heavy losses on the attacking German tanks.{{Sfn|Glantz|House|2004|p=117}} On the afternoon of 10 July, after the German troops retreated to their original positions, the 75th Guards participated in a general counterattack in the sector.{{Sfn|Dunn|1997|p=180}} Regrouping and exploiting the breakthrough, the division went on the offensive during [[Operation Kutuzov]] on 15 July.{{Sfn|Tsapayev|Goremykin|2014|p=664}} For its exemplary fighting performance, the division was awarded the [[Order of the Red Banner]] on 21 July 1943.{{Sfn|Grechko|1976|p=|pp=410–411}} By 25 July, the 75th Guards reached the line of Glazunovka and Nizhny Tagino, overcoming stiff German resistance.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://orel-region.ru/victory/memory/6_03.html|title=Перечень воинских частей, принимавших участие в боях за населенные пункты Орловской области: Глазуновский район|website=Book of Memory of Oryol Oblast (online version)|language=Russian|trans-title=List of Military Units participating in battles for settlements of Oryol Oblast: Glazunovsky District|access-date=21 October 2017}}</ref> 5 soldiers of the division were made [[Hero of the Soviet Union|Heroes of the Soviet Union]] (all posthumously), and 173 officers and men recognized with awards and medals.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/heroes/podvig-chelovek_nagrazhdenie12088170/|title=Наградной лист|date=7 August 1943|website=Pamyat-naroda.ru|language=Russian|trans-title=Commendation list (of Mikhail Cheprasov on his Hero of the Soviet Union award)|access-date=22 October 2017}}</ref>
   
In November 1943, the division as part of the [[60th Army (Soviet Union)|60th Army]] of the [[1st Ukrainian Front]] took part in the Kiev offensive operation. From January to July 1944 the division fought as part of the [[65th Army (Soviet Union)|65th Army]] of the Belarus (from 17.2.1944 [[1st Belorussian Front|1st Belarussian]]) Front, and for exemplary fighting performance it was awarded the [[Order of Suvorov]], 2nd class, on 15 January 1944. In the Belarus operation of 1944, operating as part of the first echelon of the [[65th Army (Soviet Union)|65th Army]], the division together with other formations broke the German defense and in persistent fighting seized Parichami (Паричами). The division then participated in the destruction of the German pocket in the Bobruisk area, cleared the city of [[Baranovichi]] and was given the [[Order of the Red Banner]] for a second time on 5 July 1944. Since August 1944 the division operated most of the time with 61st Army. As part of the 3rd and 1st Baltic Fronts, the division participated in clearing the Soviet Baltic region, and then fought in the [[Vistula-Oder Offensive|Vistula-Oder]] and [[East Prussian Offensive|East Prussian]] operations and the [[Battle of Berlin]] as part of the [[1st Belorussian Front]].
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===Chernigov-Pripyat Offensive (1943)===
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[[File:Mass grave soldiers which perished during the liberation of the village Yasnogorodka (Ukraine) in 1943.jpg|thumb|One of the four mass graves of soldiers who died in the liberation of the village of Yasnogorodka in 1943]]
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The division's soldiers then helped clear left-bank Ukraine during the [[Chernihiv|Chernigov]]-Pripyat Offensive of the [[Soviet Central Front|Central Front]], part of the [[70th Army (Soviet Union)|70th Army]] and then the [[60th Army (Soviet Union)|60th Army]]'s [[30th Rifle Corps]]. For helping to clear [[Bakhmach]], the division was given the honorific "Bakhmach" on 9 September. On 25 September parts of the division crossed the [[Dnieper River]] in the area of Tarasovichi and Yasnogorodka and seized a bridgehead.{{Sfn|Tsapayev|Goremykin|2014|p=664}} During the subsequent weeks, the 75th Guards fought in fierce fighting to expand the bridgehead. For courage shown in battle, 63 officers and men of the division were made [[Hero of the Soviet Union|Heroes of the Soviet Union]], and 829 recognized with awards and medals.{{Sfn|Grechko|1976|p=|pp=410–411}}
   
During the war years, about 14,000 of the Division's soldiers were awarded awards and medals, including 74 which were made Heroes of the Soviet Union. Colonel V.A.Gorishny (made General-major on 1.3.1943) commanded the division throughout the war.
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===Kiev Offensive Operations===
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In October and November 1943, the division, part of the 60th Army of the [[1st Ukrainian Front]], fought in the [[Battle of Kiev (1943)|Kiev offensive operation]].{{Sfn|Tsapayev|Goremykin|2014|p=664}} From January to July 1944 the division fought as part of the [[65th Army (Soviet Union)|65th Army]] of the Belarusian (from 17 February [[1st Belorussian Front|1st Belarusian]]) Front. On 6 January, the division numbered 7,516 personnel, including 821 officers and 2,214 non-commissioned officers.{{Sfn|Slutsky|Dotsenko|1944a|p=4}} Between 8 and 14 January, the 75th Guards fought in the [[Kalinkovichi-Mozyr Offensive]], which aimed to capture [[Kalinkovichi]] and [[Mazyr|Mozyr]] in eastern Belarus. The division was part of the [[105th Rifle Corps]] along with the [[132nd Rifle Division|132nd]] and [[253rd Rifle Division]]<nowiki/>s at the time. In the first echelon, the 75th Guards and the 132nd were tasked with taking [[Davydovichi]], [[Kholodniki]], and [[Domanovichi]]. After the corps' breakthrough, the [[1st Guards Tank Corps]] was to exploit it and encircle Kalinkovichi from the northwest.{{Sfn|Glantz|2016|p=423}} The assault began at 09:40 hours on 8 January, just before the end of an artillery bombardment. The division and the rest of its corps ran into strong German opposition, and only a limited advance was achieved.{{Sfn|Glantz|2016|p=427}} The 75th Guards were unable to advance and retreated back to their jumping-off positions at the end of the first day.{{Sfn|Glantz|2016|p=430}} After several days of indecisive fighting, the 1st Guards Tank Corps was committed to achieve the breakthrough on 11 January. The division covered the corps' realignment on a new direction of advance.{{Sfn|Glantz|2016|p=432}}
   
==Postwar==
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The infantry-supported tank attack broke through the German line, and the division cooperated with the 1st Guards Tank Corps' [[17th Guards Tank Brigade (Soviet Union)|17th Guards Tank Brigade]] in the attack on [[5th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)|5th Panzer Division]] positions along and east of the Shatsilki–Kalinkovichi road, but ran into fierce resistance. Assisted by airstrikes and an artillery bombardment, the tank brigade was able to capture the village of Anisovichi. The [[69th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)|69th]] and 75th Guards Rifle Divisions cleared 65th Army lines of communications and supply of German troops, enabling the 1st Guards Tank Corps to continue advancing south. In the afternoon of 12 January, the two rifle divisions provided support to the 15th and 17th Guards Tank Brigades in their successful assaults on the fortified villages of Turovichi and Zapolye, only {{Convert|15|km|mi}} from Kalinkovichi.{{Sfn|Glantz|2016|p=|pp=434–436}}
Between February and April 1946, the Division was relocated to the cities of Tula and [[Plavsk]] in place of the disbanded [[267th Rifle Division]] of [[1st Guards Rifle Corps]]. The staff of 267th Rifle Сивашской [[Order of the Red Banner]] [[Order of Suvorov]] Division joined 75th Guards Rifle Division.
 
   
On June 12, 1946, 75th Guards Rifle Division was transformed into the 17th Guards Rifle Brigade. The brigade, stationed at Tula, was transferred in the summer of 1946 to [[13th Guards Rifle Corps|13th Guards Rifle Кёнигсбергский Corps]]. The brigade was relocated from Tula to Kaluga. In the city of Tula the Brigade released barracks for the [[106th Guards Airborne Division]] which had arrived from the Tejkovskogo area of the Ivanovo region. In May, 1946 the brigade was relocated from the city of Kaluga to the city of [[Dorogobuzh]] in the Smolensk area.
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The final assault on Kalinkovichi began on 13 January, by which time the German troops had begun withdrawing to new defensive positions along the [[Ipa River]], northwest of the town. Facing strong resistance from rear guards, the 1st Guards Tank Corps briefly halted its advance {{Convert|5|km|mi}} from Kalinkovichi at midday in order to call in airstrikes and allow the 105th Rifle Corps to catch up. The last village strongpoint on the road to Kalinkovichi, Antonovka, was captured by an assault of the 105th Rifle Corps and the 1st Guards Tank Corps. The division supported the tanks until the latter reached the outskirts of the town, then shifted west towards the Ipa.{{Sfn|Glantz|2016|p=|pp=444–446}}
   
The headquarters of 13th Guards Rifle Corps was relocated in the summer of 1946 to the city of Moscow. On April, 15th, 1947 the brigade has been relocated from the city of Kaluga in the city of Ryazan and was a part of [[1st Guards Rifle Corps]]. In August October 1948, the brigade was sent from Ryazan to the cities of Kharkov and [[Chuguev]] in the [[Kiev Military District]], having released barracks areas for the [[11th Guards Airborne Division]].
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For exemplary fighting performance in the offensive, the 75th Guards Rifle Division was awarded the [[Order of Suvorov]], 2nd class, on 15 January. During the subsequent [[Ozarichi–Ptich Offensive]] from 16 to 30 January, the division was held in general reserve.{{Sfn|Glantz|2016|p=461|pp=}} Along with the rest of the 105th Rifle Corps, the 75th Guards were positioned in the second echelon of a reinforced shock group that also included the [[69th Rifle Division|69th]], [[90th Guards Tank Division (1957–1985)|82nd]], and [[162nd Rifle Division]]<nowiki/>s in the first echelon after the advance on the northern sector of the penetration bogged down. The first echelon was able to break through and on 31 January the second echelon was committed to expand the penetration west and east to capture ground north of Savichi and the town of [[Syshchichi]] to the east.{{Sfn|Glantz|2016|p=|pp=472, 474–475}} In mid-February the division supported a local offensive of the [[48th Army (Soviet Union)|48th Army]] as part of the [[95th Rifle Corps]], which achieved a gain of {{Convert|2|km|mi}}.{{Sfn|Glantz|2016|p=502|pp=}}
   
In 1952 the Division was reformed from 17th Guards Rifle Brigade, and later became the 64th Guards Mechanised Division, incorporating the 160th, 205th, and 216th Guards Mechanised Regiments, and the 25th Tank Regiment. Later the [[Division (military)|Division]] became the 75th Guards Tank Division, with the 187th MRR, [[283rd Guards Tank Regiment]], and 25th and 380th Tank Regiments. It served for years in the Kiev MD as part of the [[6th Guards Tank Army]], and finally disbanded in the late 1980s as part of the Gorbachev-inspired reductions. It was disbanded by November 1989.
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===Operation Bagration===
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[[File:585th (80) Medical Battalion of the 75th Guards Rifle Division. 1944.jpg|thumb|Personnel of the division's 585th Medical Battalion, 1944]]During [[Operation Bagration]], the Red Army's westward offensive through Belarus, which began on 23 June, the division was part of the 105th Rifle Corps{{Sfn|Glantz|Orenstein|2005|p=213}} in the first echelon of the [[65th Army (Soviet Union)|65th Army]].{{Sfn|Dunn|2000|p=183}} On 24 June, it led the attack on the German trenches held by the [[36th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)|36th Infantry Division]]. Following the breakthrough of the German defenses, the 75th Guards supported the exploitation by the 1st Guards Tank Corps.{{Sfn|Dunn|2000|p=190}} In stubborn fighting, the division helped take [[Parichi]]. The division then participated in the destruction of the German pocket in the [[Babruysk|Bobruisk]] area during the [[Bobruysk Offensive|Bobruisk Offensive]] and fought in the [[Minsk Offensive]].{{Sfn|Tsapayev|Goremykin|2014|p=664}} It captured the city of [[Baranovichi]] in early July, and was given the [[Order of the Red Banner]] for a second time on 5 July 1944.{{Sfn|Grechko|1976|p=|pp=410–411}}
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===Baltic Operations===
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From August 1944 to the end of the war, the division was part of the [[61st Army (Soviet Union)|61st Army]]. In September, the 75th Guards were transferred with the army from [[Białystok]] to the [[Pskov]] area.{{Sfn|Tsapayev|Goremykin|2014|p=664}} As part of the [[3rd Baltic Front|3rd]] and [[1st Baltic Front]]s, the division participated in clearing the Baltic region, fighting in Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia.{{Sfn|Bonn|2005|p=|pp=371–372}} The division fought in the [[Riga Offensive (1944)|Riga Offensive]] from September, and for helping to capture the city the 212th Guards Rifle Regiment and 159th Guards Artillery Regiment received the honorific Riga, the 241st Guards Rifle Regiment was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, and the 231st Guards Rifle Regiment was awarded the [[Order of Suvorov]], 3rd class.{{Sfn|Pakin|Kochnev|1996|p=5}}
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In December, along with the army, it was transferred back to the 1st Belorussian Front. During the [[Vistula–Oder Offensive]], the division advanced west across Poland.{{Sfn|Grechko|1976|p=|pp=410–411}}{{Sfn|Tsapayev|Goremykin|2014|p=664}} For courage shown in battle on the [[Vistula]], 3 officers and men of the division were made [[Hero of the Soviet Union|Heroes of the Soviet Union]], and hundreds recognized with awards and medals.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/heroes/podvig-chelovek_nagrazhdenie46678089/|title=Наградной лист|date=5 March 1945|website=Pamyat-naroda.ru|language=Russian|trans-title=Commendation list (of Dmitry Zhikin on his Hero of the Soviet Union award)|access-date=22 October 2017}}</ref>
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===East Pomeranian Offensive===
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The division fought in the [[East Pomeranian Offensive]]. For courage shown in battle on the [[Oder]], 8 officers and men of the division were made [[Hero of the Soviet Union|Heroes of the Soviet Union]], and 1317 recognized with awards and medals. The last operation of the division in World War II was the [[Battle of Berlin]]. The division ended its fighting on 3 May 1945, when it linked up with troops from the [[Ninth United States Army]]'s [[102nd Infantry Division (United States)|102nd Infantry Division]]{{Sfn|Tsapayev|Goremykin|2014|p=664}} on the [[Elbe]] near [[Wittenberg]]. During the war, 13,824 of the division's officers and men were awarded awards and medals, including 74 who were made Heroes of the Soviet Union.{{Sfn|Grechko|1976|p=|pp=410–411}} The 75th Guards Division ranked third among the rifle divisions of the Red Army by the number of Heroes of the Soviet Union – the [[167th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)|167th Rifle Division]] had 108 Heroes and the [[25th Guards Rifle Division]] had 77 Heroes.{{Sfn|Ogarkov|1979a|p=595}}{{Sfn|Ogarkov|1979b|p=349}}
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=== Composition ===
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The 75th Guards Rifle Division included the following units in April 1943:
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<ref>{{Cite web|title = RKKA - 75-я Бахмачская дважды Краснознаменная гвардейская стрелковая дивизия|url =
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http://www.rkka.ru/handbook/guard/75gvsd.htm
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|website = |trans-title = 75th Guards Rifle Division}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|title = Боевые действия Красной Армии в ВОВ|url =
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http://bdsa.ru/gvardejskie-divizii/4745-75-gvardejskaya-strelkovaya-diviziya
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|website = |trans-title = 75th Guards Rifle Division}}</ref>
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* 212th Guards Rifle Regiment (former 90th RR of 95th RD)
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* 231st Guards Rifle Regiment (former 161st RR of 95th RD)
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* 241st Guards Rifle Regiment (former 241st RR of 95th RD)
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* 159th Guards Artillery Regiment (former 57th AR of 95th RD)
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* 84th Separate Guards Antitank Battalion (former 97th SATB of 95th RD)
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* 155th Machine-gun Battalion (to 15 April 1943)
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* 73rd Separate Guards Reconnaissance Company (former 13th RC of 95th RD)
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* 87th Separate Guards Sapper Battalion (former 48th SB of 95th RD)
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* 106th Separate Guards Communications Company (former 119th SCC of 95th RD)
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* 585th (80) Medical Battalion (former 103rd MB of 95th RD)
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* 77th Separate Guards Chemical Defence Company (former 30th SCDS of 95th RD)
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* 726th (79) Trucking Company (former 283rd TC of 95th RD)
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* 660th (74) Field Bakery (former 174th FB of 95th RD)
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* 678th (78) Divisional Veterinary Hospital (former 7th DVH of 95th RD)
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* 1593rd (25703) Field Post Office (former 1766th (2054) FPO of 95th RD)
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* 652nd (44705) Field Ticket Office of the State Bank (former 1723rd (652) FTO of 95th RD)
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=== Awards and honorifics of the division units ===
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* 212th Guards Rifle Regiment - Honorific Riga, [[Order of the Red Banner]], [[Order of Suvorov]], 3rd class
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* 231st Guards Rifle Regiment - [[Order of the Red Banner]], [[Order of Suvorov]], 3rd class
  +
* 241st Guards Rifle Regiment - [[Order of the Red Banner]]
  +
* 159th Guards Artillery Regiment - Honorific Riga, [[Order of the Red Banner]]
  +
* 84th Separate Guards Antitank Battalion - [[Order of Lenin]]
  +
* 87th Separate Guards Sapper Battalion - [[Order of the Red Star]]
  +
  +
=== Commanders ===
  +
[[File:Commander of 75th RD Gen. Gorishnii V.A. and Commanders of the Regiments. 1944.jpg|thumb|290px|Gorishny (center) with regimental commanders, 1944]]
  +
  +
==== Division Commander ====
  +
  +
*Major General {{ill|Vasily Gorishny|ru|Горишний, Василий Акимович}} (1 March 1943 – May 1946)
  +
  +
==== Deputy Division Commander for political affairs ====
  +
  +
* Colonel [[Ilya Arkhipovich Vlasenko|Ilya Vlasenko]] (1 March 1943 – June 1944)
  +
  +
==== Heads of the political department ====
  +
  +
* Colonel Arkady Ryabov (1 March – May 1943)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel Boris Pakin (January 1945 – May 1946)
  +
  +
==== Chiefs of Staff ====
  +
  +
* Colonel Georgy Klymenko (February 1943 — end of 1943)
  +
* Colonel Boris Galperin (December 1944 — early 1946)
  +
  +
==== Division Artillery Commander ====
  +
  +
* Colonel Aristo Dalakishvili (1 March 1943 — May 1946)
  +
  +
==== Regimental commanders ====
  +
  +
===== 212th Guards Rifle Regiment =====
  +
* Colonel {{ill|Mikhail Semyonovich Borisov|ru|Борисов, Михаил Семёнович}} (1 March 1943–Killed in action 9 February 1944)
  +
* Colonel Iosif Chusovitin (28 February – 28 November 1944)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel Mikhail Trygubenko (acting; December 1944)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel (promoted to Colonel) Afanasy Vorobiev (9 January 1945 – May 1946)
  +
  +
===== 231st Guards Rifle Regiment =====
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel {{ill|Fyodor Makovetsky|ru|Маковецкий, Фёдор Ефремович}} (1 March 1943 – critically wounded January 1944)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel Vasily Maksimov (13 January 1944 – 9 January 1945)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel Adelzyan Zalialov (9 January – 4 June 1945)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel Georgy Svyrydenko (4 June 1945 – May 1946)
  +
  +
===== 241st Guards Rifle Regiment =====
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel {{ill|Nikolay Budarin|ru|Бударин, Николай Петрович}} (1 March 1943 – Killed in action 6 November 1943)
  +
* Major Panteley Nechay (acting; November–December 1943)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel (promoted to Colonel) Leonid Myroshnychenko (December 1943 – 22 November 1944)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel Aleksandr Voloshanenko (22 November 1944 – May 1946)
  +
  +
===== 159th Guards Artillery Regiment =====
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel {{ill|Nikanor Lyovkin|ru|Лёвкин, Никанор Александрович}} (1 March – November 1943)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel (promoted to Colonel) Pavel Rylkov (December 1943 – critically wounded 17 February 1945)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel Subbotin (February–March 1945)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel Korotkikh (April – 5 October 1945)
  +
* Lieutenant Colonel Grigory Zagorulko (5 October 1945 – May 1946)
  +
  +
==== Battalion commanders ====
  +
  +
===== 84th Separate Guards Antitank Battalion =====
  +
* Major Ivan Yasko (1943 – May 1946)
  +
  +
==Postwar==
  +
The division remained in Germany with the [[47th Army]]'s [[9th Guards Rifle Corps]], part of the [[Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany]]. In February 1946 the army was disbanded and the division withdrawn to [[Ivanovo]] in the [[Moscow Military District]].{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=381}} After arriving in the district, it replaced the disbanded [[267th Rifle Division]] as part of the [[1st Guards Rifle Corps]] at [[Tula, Russia|Tula]]. In May, it was redesignated as the 17th Separate Guards Rifle Brigade<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://encyclopedia.mil.ru/encyclopedia/dictionary/details.htm?id=3245@morfDictionary|title=БАХМАЧСКАЯ СТРЕЛКОВАЯ ДИВИЗИЯ|date=2007|website=Военный энциклопедический словарь [Military Encyclopedic Dictionary] (Online edition)|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Bakmach Rifle Division|access-date=20 October 2017}}</ref> and was subsequently transferred to the [[13th Guards Rifle Corps]]. Around the same time the brigade moved to [[Kaluga]]. The 17th Guards moved to [[Ryazan]] in April 1947 and to [[Kharkov]] in the [[Kiev Military District]] in the fall of 1948.{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=499}} From Kharkov the brigade relocated to [[Chuguyev]], part of the [[20th Guards Rifle Corps]].{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=478}} Gorishny commanded the brigade until September 1949, when he took command of another division.{{Sfn|Tsapayev|Goremykin|2014|p=664}}
  +
  +
In October 1953, it was converted into the 64th Guards Mechanized Division,{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=149}} with the 159th, 205th, and 216th Guards Mechanized Regiments and the 380th Tank Regiment.{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=208}} On 27 July 1954, the 64th Guards was converted into the 14th Guards Tank Division.{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=205}} Simultaneously, the 205th Guards Mechanized Regiment was disbanded.{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=214}} The 427th Guards Mechanized Regiment instead joined the division.{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=200}} On 18 November, it became a heavy tank division. At the same time, the 159th and 216th Guards Mechanized Regiments became the 283rd and 389th Guards Heavy Tank Regiments, respectively.{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=214}} In May 1957 it became part of the newly arrived [[6th Guards Tank Army]].{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|pp=485–486}}
  +
  +
By the early 1960s the division included the 283rd and 389th Guards and the 380th Heavy Tank Regiments. On 11 January 1965 it was renumbered as the 75th Guards to restore its World War II numbering, and on 11 April it became a regular tank division.{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|p=201}} By the late 1980s, the division included the 358th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, the 42nd Guards, 283rd Guards, and 380th Tank Regiments, and the 577th Artillery Regiment, all at Chuguyev. On 1 July 1989, as part of [[Gorbachev]]-inspired reductions, it was downsized into the 5362nd Weapons and Equipment Storage Base. The storage base was disbanded in June 1990.{{Sfn|Feskov et al|2013|pp=485–486}}
   
 
==Sources and references==
 
==Sources and references==
<references/>
 
*Soldat.ru forum data on history of division
 
*Aberjona Press, 'Slaughterhouse: The Handbook of the Eastern Front'
 
*Feskov et al., 'The Soviet Army during the period of the Cold War'
 
   
  +
=== Citations ===
  +
{{reflist|30em}}
  +
  +
=== Bibliography ===
  +
*Soldat.ru forum data on history of the division
  +
*{{Cite book|title=Slaughterhouse: The Handbook of the Eastern Front|last=|first=|publisher=Aberjona Press|year=2005|isbn=9780971765092|editor-last=Bonn|editor-first=Keith E.|location=Bedford, Pennsylvania|pages=|ref=harv}}
  +
*{{Cite book|url=https://www.questia.com/read/6832239/kursk-hitler-s-gamble-1943|title=Kursk: Hitler's Gamble, 1943|last=Dunn|first=Walter S.|publisher=Praeger|year=1997|isbn=9780275957339|location=Westport|pages=|ref=harv|url-access=subscription |via=[[Questia]]}}
  +
*{{Cite book|url=https://www.questia.com/library/105951444/soviet-blitzkrieg-the-battle-for-white-russia-1944|title=Soviet Blitzkrieg: The Battle for White Russia, 1944|last=Dunn|first=Walter S.|publisher=Lynne Rienner Publishers|year=2000|isbn=9781555878801|location=Boulder, Colorado|pages=|ref=harv|url-access=subscription |via=[[Questia]]}}
  +
*{{Cite book|last=Feskov|first=V.I.|last2=Golikov|first2=V.I.|last3=Kalashnikov|first3=K.A.|last4=Slugin|first4=S.A.|publisher=Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing|year=2013|isbn=9785895035306|location=Tomsk|language=Russian|script-title=ru:Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской|trans-title=The Armed Forces of the USSR after World War II: From the Red Army to the Soviet: Part 1 Land Forces|ref={{sfnRef|Feskov et al|2013}}}}
  +
*{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8staRARZsvsC&dq=%2275th+guards+rifle+division%22&q=%2275th+guards%22#v=snippet&q=%2275th%20guards%22&f=false|title=The Battle for Kursk 1943: The Soviet General Staff Study|last=Glantz|first=David M.|last2=Orenstein|first2=Harold S.|publisher=Taylor & Francis (Frank Cass)|year=1999|isbn=0-7146-4933-3|location=London, UK|pages=|ref=harv}}&nbsp;— This report, commissioned by the Soviet General Staff in 1944, was designed to educate the Red Army on how to conduct war operations. It was classified secret until its declassification in 1964, and was later edited and translated to English by Orenstein and Glantz. Its original title was ''Collection of materials for the study of war experience, no. 11'' ({{lang-ru|Сборник материалов по изучению опыта Великой Отечественной войны № 11|link=no}}, {{transl|ru|''Sbornik materialov po izucheniiu opyta Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny № 11''}})
  +
*{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books/about/Belorussia_1944.html?id=NUC6ZelkwIYC&printsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Belorussia 1944: The Soviet General Staff Study|last=|first=|publisher=Taylor & Francis e-Library|year=2005|isbn=0-203-30920-0|editor-last=Glantz|editor-first=David M.|location=London|pages=|editor-last2=Orenstein|editor-first2=Harold S.|ref=harv}}
  +
*{{cite book|title=The Battle of Kursk|last=Glantz|first=David M.|last2=House|first2=Jonathan M.|publisher=University Press of Kansas|year=2004|isbn=978-0-7006-1335-9|location=Lawrence, Kansas|pages=|ref=harv|origyear=1999}}
  +
*{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books/about/Battle_for_Belorussia.html?id=T57TjwEACAAJ|title=Battle for Belorussia: The Red Army's Forgotten Campaign of October 1943 – April 1944|last=Glantz|first=David M.|publisher=University Press of Kansas|others=With Mary E. Glantz|year=2016|isbn=978-0-7006-2329-7|location=Lawrence, Kansas|pages=|ref=harv}}
  +
*{{Cite encyclopedia|title=Бахмачская стрелковая дивизия|encyclopedia=Советская военная энциклопедия [Soviet Military Encyclopedia]|publisher=Voenizdat|location=Moscow|url=http://militera.lib.ru/enc/enc1976/index.html|date=1976|editor-last=Grechko|editor-first=Andrei|volume=1: А - Бюро [A–Bureau]|pages=410–411|language=Russian|trans-title=Bakhmach Rifle Division|ref=harv}}
  +
*{{Cite web|url=http://www.teatrskazka.com/Raznoe/Perechni_voisk/Perechen_05_02.html|title=Перечень № 5. II. Гвардейские стрелковые и мотострелковые дивизии|last=Grylev|first=A.N.|date=1970|publisher=Voenizdat|location=Moscow|language=Russian|trans-title=List (Perechen) No. 5 Part II. Guards Rifle and Mountain Rifle Divisions|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170828230944/http://www.teatrskazka.com/Raznoe/Perechni_voisk/Perechen_05_02.html|archive-date=28 August 2017|url-status=live|access-date=22 October 2017|ref=harv}}
  +
*{{Cite encyclopedia|title=Сумско-Киевская стрелковая дивизия|encyclopedia=Советская военная энциклопедия [Soviet Military Encyclopedia]|publisher=Voenizdat|location=Moscow|url=http://militera.lib.ru/enc/enc1976/index.html|date=1979a|editor-last=Ogarkov|editor-first=Nikolay|volume=7: Радиоконтроль - Тачанка [Radio Control–Tachanka]|pages=594–595|language=Russian|trans-title=Sumy–Kiev Rifle Division|ref=harv}}
  +
*{{Cite encyclopedia|title=Синельниковско-Будапештская стрелковая дивизия|encyclopedia=Советская военная энциклопедия [Soviet Military Encyclopedia]|publisher=Voenizdat|location=Moscow|url=http://militera.lib.ru/enc/enc1976/index.html|date=1979b|editor-last=Ogarkov|editor-first=Nikolay|volume=7: Радиоконтроль - Тачанка [Radio Control–Tachanka]|pages=|language=Russian|trans-title=Sinelnikovo–Budapest Rifle Division|ref=harv|page=349}}
  +
*{{Cite book|url=http://www.litmir.me/bd/?b=264404|title=О войне и товарищах. Сборник воспоминаний.|last=|first=|publisher=KMP|year=1996|isbn=|editor-last=Pakin|editor-first=B.G.|location=Krasnograd|pages=|language=Russian|trans-title=On War and Comrades: A Collection of Memories|ref=harv|editor-last2=Kochnev|editor-first2=K.F.}}
  +
*{{Cite book|title=Великая Отечественная: Комдивы. Военный биографический словарь|last=Tsapayev|first=D.A.|last2=Goremykin|first2=Viktor|publisher=Kuchkovo Pole|year=2014|isbn=978-5-9950-0382-3|volume=3|location=Moscow|pages=|language=Russian|trans-title=The Great Patriotic War: Division Commanders. Military Biographical Dictionary|ref=harv|display-authors=1}}
  +
  +
==== Military documents ====
  +
*{{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=131488587|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 06.01.1944 по 31.01.1944 г.|last=Slutsky|first=Lieutenant Colonel|last2=Dotsenko|year=1944a|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 6–31 January 1944|ref=harv|first2=Major}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 997, opus 1, file 84)
  +
  +
== Further reading ==
  +
  +
=== Primary sources ===
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=10012709|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд за февраль 1944 г.|last=Lieutenant Colonel Slutsky|last2=Major Dotsenko|year=1944b|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, February 1944|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 856, opus 1, file 156)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=131488588|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 01.03.1944 по 30.03.1944 г.|last=Lieutenant Colonel Slutsky|last2=Major Dotsenko|year=1944c|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 1–30 March 1944|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 997, opus 1, file 84)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=131488589|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 01.04.1944 по 30.04.1944 г.|last=Lieutenant Colonel Slutsky|last2=Captain Yekimovsky|year=1944d|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 1–30 April 1944|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 997, opus 1, file 84)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=131488590|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 01.05.1944 по 31.05.1944 г.|last=Lieutenant Colonel Slutsky|last2=Captain Yekimovsky|year=1944e|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 1–31 May 1944|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 997, opus 1, file 84)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=131488591|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 01.06.1944 по 30.06.1944 г.|last=Lieutenant Colonel Slutsky|last2=Captain Yekimovsky|year=1944f|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 1–30 June 1944|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 997, opus 1, file 84)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=131025948|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 01.07.1944 по 31.07.1944 г.|last=Major Dotsenko|last2=Captain Yekimovsky|year=1944g|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 1–31 July 1944|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 973, opus 1, file 56)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=111246331|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд за октябрь месяц|last=Major Dotsenko|last2=Captain Glebov|year=1944j|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division for the month of October|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 828, opus 1, file 64, document 539)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=134198476|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 01.01.1945 по 31.01.1945 г.|last=Major Dotsenko|last2=Captain Glebov|year=1945a|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 1–31 January 1945|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 1218, opus 1, file 43, document 63)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=134198477|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 01.02.1945 по 28.02.1945 г.|last=Galperin|first= Boris|last2=Major Dotsenko|year=1945b|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 1–28 February 1945|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 1218, opus 1, file 43, document 197)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=110358147|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 01.03.1945 по 31.03.1945 г.|last=Galperin|first= Boris|last2=Major Dotsenko|year=1945c|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 1–31 March 1945|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 828, opus 1, file 130_a)
  +
* {{Cite web|url=https://pamyat-naroda.ru/documents/view/?id=110358146|title=Журнал боевых действий 75 гв. сд, Период с 01.04.1945 по 30.04.1945 г.|last=Galperin|first= Boris|last2=Major Dotsenko|year=1945d|website=Pamyat Naroda|publisher=Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation|language=Russian|trans-title=Combat Journal of the 75th Guards Rifle Division, 1–30 April 1945|ref=harv}} ([[Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defence]], fond 828, opus 1, file 130_a)
 
{{Soviet Union divisions before 1945}}
 
{{Soviet Union divisions before 1945}}
{{Wikipedia|75th Guards Rifle Division}}
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{{Soviet Union divisions 1945–57}}
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{{Soviet Union divisions}}
 
[[Category:Infantry divisions of the Soviet Union in World War II|G075]]
 
[[Category:Infantry divisions of the Soviet Union in World War II|G075]]
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[[Category:Military units and formations established in 1943]]
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[[Category:Military units and formations disestablished in 1946]]
 
[[Category:Military units and formations established in 1942]]
 
[[Category:Military units and formations established in 1942]]

Revision as of 21:10, December 4, 2019

75th Guards Tank Division
(11 April 1965–1 July 1989)

75th Guards Heavy Tank Division
(11 January–11 April 1965)


14th Guards Heavy Tank Division
(18 November 1954–11 January 1965)


14th Guards Tank Division
(27 July–18 November 1954)


64th Guards Mechanized Division
(October 1953–27 July 1954)


17th Separate Guards Rifle Brigade
(1946–October 1953)


75th Guards Rifle Division
(1 March 1943 – 1946)
Country Soviet Union
Branch Red Army (Soviet Army from 1946)
Type Infantry (Mechanized from 1953, Tank from 1954)
Size more than 10,000 (Second World War)
Engagements
Decorations
Battle honours Bakhmach
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Major General Vasily Gorishny

The 75th Guards Rifle Division (Russian: 75-я гвардейская стрелковая дивизия) was a Red Army infantry division during World War II and afterwards, which later became the 75th Guards Tank Division and was finally disbanded in the 1990s.

The 75th Guards Rifle Division was redesignated at the beginning of March 1943 from the second formation of the 95th Rifle Division in recognition of the latter's courage and heroism during the Battle of Stalingrad. It fought in the Battle of Kursk, defending positions around Ponyri on the northern face of the Kursk Bulge, and was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for its actions. The division fought in Operation Kutuzov and the Battle of the Dnieper in the summer and early fall. It was awarded the honorific "Bakhmach" for helping to capture that city. The division then fought in the Battle of Kiev and advanced into eastern Belarus towards the end of the year. In January 1944 it fought in the Kalinkovichi-Mozyr Offensive and received the Order of Suvorov, 2nd class for its actions. From late June the 75th Guards fought in Operation Bagration, advancing westwards into Belarus. For its actions the division was awarded its second Order of the Red Banner. In September the division was transferred to the Baltic and fought in the Riga Offensive. It was relocated to eastern Poland in December and fought in the Vistula–Oder Offensive, East Pomeranian Offensive, and Battle of Berlin in the final months of the war.

Postwar, the division was withdrawn to Tula and downsized into the 17th Separate Guards Rifle Brigade. The brigade was relocated to Chuguyev, and became the 64th Guards Mechanized Division in 1953. In 1954 it became the 14th Guards Heavy Tank Division, and in 1965 it was redesignated the 75th Guards Tank Division. The division was downsized into a storage base in 1989, and finally disbanded in 1990.

World War II

Воины 75-й гвардейской стрелковой дивизии принимают гвардейскую клятву. 1943

Officers and men of the division taking the Guards oath on 1 March 1943. Major General Vasily Gorishny is shown holding the flag, with Colonel Ilya Vlasenko to his left.

The division was formed on 1 March 1943 by the redesignation of the 95th Rifle Division (Second formation), which was made a Guards unit for its courage and heroism in the defense of Stalingrad. Its structure included the 90th, 161st, and 241st Rifle Regiments, and the 57th Artillery Regiment, which became the 212th, 231st, and 241st Guards Rifle Regiments, and the 159th Guards Artillery Regiment, respectively, on 4 April, and other smaller units.[1] The division was commanded by Major General Vasily Gorishny, who led the division for the rest of the war.[2] Initially part of the Central Front reserve, it joined the 13th Army in May. In reserve, the 75th Guards were brought up to full strength and replenished from their losses at Stalingrad.[3]

Battle of Kursk

V.A.Gorishny Ilya Vlasenko Konstantin Simonov A.V,Mukhin near Ponyri. Battle of Kursk. 1943

Vlasenko, Gorishny, Colonel A.V. Mukhin, and Lieutenant Colonel and writer Konstantin Simonov at the command post of the 75th Guards Rifle Division near Ponyri during the Battle of Kursk

During July 1943, as part of the army's 17th Guards Rifle Corps alongside the 70th Guards Rifle Division, the division fought in the Battle of Kursk. Facing one of the main German thrusts in the area of the Ponyri 2 sovkhoz, the 75th Guards helped repulse the attack, positioned in the second defensive belt. [4] On 6 July, the second day of the battle, the 70th and 75th Guards, supported by the 9th and 16th Tank Corps, attacked the 2nd Panzer Division, positioned between Bobrik and Saborovka, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from its start line. In fierce fighting, the 2nd Panzer managed to slightly expand its bridgehead over the Svapa River. At Ponyri, the 75th Guards' 84th Separate Guards Anti-Tank Battalion was attacked by Tiger tanks, but managed to claim five Panzer IVs with its 45 mm anti-tank guns.[5] At 19:30, German tanks and infantry attacked into the division's flank and rear west of Snova after pushing the 6th Guards Rifle Division back. The 75th Guards speedily regrouped and repulsed the German attack, destroying up to 30 tanks according to Soviet reports.[6] On 7 July the German attacks at Ponyri 2 continued, with an attack by thirty tanks and infantry from the 9th Panzer Division achieving a limited advance against the 75th Guards by 17:00.[7] During the day the infantry from the division supported tanks and anti-tank guns in inflicting heavy losses on the attacking German tanks.[8] On the afternoon of 10 July, after the German troops retreated to their original positions, the 75th Guards participated in a general counterattack in the sector.[9] Regrouping and exploiting the breakthrough, the division went on the offensive during Operation Kutuzov on 15 July.[10] For its exemplary fighting performance, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Banner on 21 July 1943.[2] By 25 July, the 75th Guards reached the line of Glazunovka and Nizhny Tagino, overcoming stiff German resistance.[11] 5 soldiers of the division were made Heroes of the Soviet Union (all posthumously), and 173 officers and men recognized with awards and medals.[12]

Chernigov-Pripyat Offensive (1943)

Mass grave soldiers which perished during the liberation of the village Yasnogorodka (Ukraine) in 1943

One of the four mass graves of soldiers who died in the liberation of the village of Yasnogorodka in 1943

The division's soldiers then helped clear left-bank Ukraine during the Chernigov-Pripyat Offensive of the Central Front, part of the 70th Army and then the 60th Army's 30th Rifle Corps. For helping to clear Bakhmach, the division was given the honorific "Bakhmach" on 9 September. On 25 September parts of the division crossed the Dnieper River in the area of Tarasovichi and Yasnogorodka and seized a bridgehead.[10] During the subsequent weeks, the 75th Guards fought in fierce fighting to expand the bridgehead. For courage shown in battle, 63 officers and men of the division were made Heroes of the Soviet Union, and 829 recognized with awards and medals.[2]

Kiev Offensive Operations

In October and November 1943, the division, part of the 60th Army of the 1st Ukrainian Front, fought in the Kiev offensive operation.[10] From January to July 1944 the division fought as part of the 65th Army of the Belarusian (from 17 February 1st Belarusian) Front. On 6 January, the division numbered 7,516 personnel, including 821 officers and 2,214 non-commissioned officers.[13] Between 8 and 14 January, the 75th Guards fought in the Kalinkovichi-Mozyr Offensive, which aimed to capture Kalinkovichi and Mozyr in eastern Belarus. The division was part of the 105th Rifle Corps along with the 132nd and 253rd Rifle Divisions at the time. In the first echelon, the 75th Guards and the 132nd were tasked with taking Davydovichi, Kholodniki, and Domanovichi. After the corps' breakthrough, the 1st Guards Tank Corps was to exploit it and encircle Kalinkovichi from the northwest.[14] The assault began at 09:40 hours on 8 January, just before the end of an artillery bombardment. The division and the rest of its corps ran into strong German opposition, and only a limited advance was achieved.[15] The 75th Guards were unable to advance and retreated back to their jumping-off positions at the end of the first day.[16] After several days of indecisive fighting, the 1st Guards Tank Corps was committed to achieve the breakthrough on 11 January. The division covered the corps' realignment on a new direction of advance.[17]

The infantry-supported tank attack broke through the German line, and the division cooperated with the 1st Guards Tank Corps' 17th Guards Tank Brigade in the attack on 5th Panzer Division positions along and east of the Shatsilki–Kalinkovichi road, but ran into fierce resistance. Assisted by airstrikes and an artillery bombardment, the tank brigade was able to capture the village of Anisovichi. The 69th and 75th Guards Rifle Divisions cleared 65th Army lines of communications and supply of German troops, enabling the 1st Guards Tank Corps to continue advancing south. In the afternoon of 12 January, the two rifle divisions provided support to the 15th and 17th Guards Tank Brigades in their successful assaults on the fortified villages of Turovichi and Zapolye, only 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Kalinkovichi.[18]

The final assault on Kalinkovichi began on 13 January, by which time the German troops had begun withdrawing to new defensive positions along the Ipa River, northwest of the town. Facing strong resistance from rear guards, the 1st Guards Tank Corps briefly halted its advance 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Kalinkovichi at midday in order to call in airstrikes and allow the 105th Rifle Corps to catch up. The last village strongpoint on the road to Kalinkovichi, Antonovka, was captured by an assault of the 105th Rifle Corps and the 1st Guards Tank Corps. The division supported the tanks until the latter reached the outskirts of the town, then shifted west towards the Ipa.[19]

For exemplary fighting performance in the offensive, the 75th Guards Rifle Division was awarded the Order of Suvorov, 2nd class, on 15 January. During the subsequent Ozarichi–Ptich Offensive from 16 to 30 January, the division was held in general reserve.[20] Along with the rest of the 105th Rifle Corps, the 75th Guards were positioned in the second echelon of a reinforced shock group that also included the 69th, 82nd, and 162nd Rifle Divisions in the first echelon after the advance on the northern sector of the penetration bogged down. The first echelon was able to break through and on 31 January the second echelon was committed to expand the penetration west and east to capture ground north of Savichi and the town of Syshchichi to the east.[21] In mid-February the division supported a local offensive of the 48th Army as part of the 95th Rifle Corps, which achieved a gain of 2 kilometres (1.2 mi).[22]

Operation Bagration

585th (80) Medical Battalion of the 75th Guards Rifle Division. 1944

Personnel of the division's 585th Medical Battalion, 1944

During Operation Bagration, the Red Army's westward offensive through Belarus, which began on 23 June, the division was part of the 105th Rifle Corps[23] in the first echelon of the 65th Army.[24] On 24 June, it led the attack on the German trenches held by the 36th Infantry Division. Following the breakthrough of the German defenses, the 75th Guards supported the exploitation by the 1st Guards Tank Corps.[25] In stubborn fighting, the division helped take Parichi. The division then participated in the destruction of the German pocket in the Bobruisk area during the Bobruisk Offensive and fought in the Minsk Offensive.[10] It captured the city of Baranovichi in early July, and was given the Order of the Red Banner for a second time on 5 July 1944.[2]

Baltic Operations

From August 1944 to the end of the war, the division was part of the 61st Army. In September, the 75th Guards were transferred with the army from Białystok to the Pskov area.[10] As part of the 3rd and 1st Baltic Fronts, the division participated in clearing the Baltic region, fighting in Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia.[26] The division fought in the Riga Offensive from September, and for helping to capture the city the 212th Guards Rifle Regiment and 159th Guards Artillery Regiment received the honorific Riga, the 241st Guards Rifle Regiment was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, and the 231st Guards Rifle Regiment was awarded the Order of Suvorov, 3rd class.[27]

In December, along with the army, it was transferred back to the 1st Belorussian Front. During the Vistula–Oder Offensive, the division advanced west across Poland.[2][10] For courage shown in battle on the Vistula, 3 officers and men of the division were made Heroes of the Soviet Union, and hundreds recognized with awards and medals.[28]

East Pomeranian Offensive

The division fought in the East Pomeranian Offensive. For courage shown in battle on the Oder, 8 officers and men of the division were made Heroes of the Soviet Union, and 1317 recognized with awards and medals. The last operation of the division in World War II was the Battle of Berlin. The division ended its fighting on 3 May 1945, when it linked up with troops from the Ninth United States Army's 102nd Infantry Division[10] on the Elbe near Wittenberg. During the war, 13,824 of the division's officers and men were awarded awards and medals, including 74 who were made Heroes of the Soviet Union.[2] The 75th Guards Division ranked third among the rifle divisions of the Red Army by the number of Heroes of the Soviet Union – the 167th Rifle Division had 108 Heroes and the 25th Guards Rifle Division had 77 Heroes.[29][30]

Composition

The 75th Guards Rifle Division included the following units in April 1943: [31][32]

  • 212th Guards Rifle Regiment (former 90th RR of 95th RD)
  • 231st Guards Rifle Regiment (former 161st RR of 95th RD)
  • 241st Guards Rifle Regiment (former 241st RR of 95th RD)
  • 159th Guards Artillery Regiment (former 57th AR of 95th RD)
  • 84th Separate Guards Antitank Battalion (former 97th SATB of 95th RD)
  • 155th Machine-gun Battalion (to 15 April 1943)
  • 73rd Separate Guards Reconnaissance Company (former 13th RC of 95th RD)
  • 87th Separate Guards Sapper Battalion (former 48th SB of 95th RD)
  • 106th Separate Guards Communications Company (former 119th SCC of 95th RD)
  • 585th (80) Medical Battalion (former 103rd MB of 95th RD)
  • 77th Separate Guards Chemical Defence Company (former 30th SCDS of 95th RD)
  • 726th (79) Trucking Company (former 283rd TC of 95th RD)
  • 660th (74) Field Bakery (former 174th FB of 95th RD)
  • 678th (78) Divisional Veterinary Hospital (former 7th DVH of 95th RD)
  • 1593rd (25703) Field Post Office (former 1766th (2054) FPO of 95th RD)
  • 652nd (44705) Field Ticket Office of the State Bank (former 1723rd (652) FTO of 95th RD)

Awards and honorifics of the division units

Commanders

Commander of 75th RD Gen. Gorishnii V.A. and Commanders of the Regiments. 1944

Gorishny (center) with regimental commanders, 1944

Division Commander

Deputy Division Commander for political affairs

Heads of the political department

  • Colonel Arkady Ryabov (1 March – May 1943)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Boris Pakin (January 1945 – May 1946)

Chiefs of Staff

  • Colonel Georgy Klymenko (February 1943 — end of 1943)
  • Colonel Boris Galperin (December 1944 — early 1946)

Division Artillery Commander

  • Colonel Aristo Dalakishvili (1 March 1943 — May 1946)

Regimental commanders

212th Guards Rifle Regiment
  • Colonel ru (Mikhail Semyonovich Borisov) (1 March 1943–Killed in action 9 February 1944)
  • Colonel Iosif Chusovitin (28 February – 28 November 1944)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Mikhail Trygubenko (acting; December 1944)
  • Lieutenant Colonel (promoted to Colonel) Afanasy Vorobiev (9 January 1945 – May 1946)
231st Guards Rifle Regiment
  • Lieutenant Colonel ru (Fyodor Makovetsky) (1 March 1943 – critically wounded January 1944)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Vasily Maksimov (13 January 1944 – 9 January 1945)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Adelzyan Zalialov (9 January – 4 June 1945)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Georgy Svyrydenko (4 June 1945 – May 1946)
241st Guards Rifle Regiment
  • Lieutenant Colonel ru (Nikolay Budarin) (1 March 1943 – Killed in action 6 November 1943)
  • Major Panteley Nechay (acting; November–December 1943)
  • Lieutenant Colonel (promoted to Colonel) Leonid Myroshnychenko (December 1943 – 22 November 1944)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Aleksandr Voloshanenko (22 November 1944 – May 1946)
159th Guards Artillery Regiment
  • Lieutenant Colonel ru (Nikanor Lyovkin) (1 March – November 1943)
  • Lieutenant Colonel (promoted to Colonel) Pavel Rylkov (December 1943 – critically wounded 17 February 1945)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Subbotin (February–March 1945)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Korotkikh (April – 5 October 1945)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Grigory Zagorulko (5 October 1945 – May 1946)

Battalion commanders

84th Separate Guards Antitank Battalion
  • Major Ivan Yasko (1943 – May 1946)

Postwar

The division remained in Germany with the 47th Army's 9th Guards Rifle Corps, part of the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany. In February 1946 the army was disbanded and the division withdrawn to Ivanovo in the Moscow Military District.[33] After arriving in the district, it replaced the disbanded 267th Rifle Division as part of the 1st Guards Rifle Corps at Tula. In May, it was redesignated as the 17th Separate Guards Rifle Brigade[34] and was subsequently transferred to the 13th Guards Rifle Corps. Around the same time the brigade moved to Kaluga. The 17th Guards moved to Ryazan in April 1947 and to Kharkov in the Kiev Military District in the fall of 1948.[35] From Kharkov the brigade relocated to Chuguyev, part of the 20th Guards Rifle Corps.[36] Gorishny commanded the brigade until September 1949, when he took command of another division.[10]

In October 1953, it was converted into the 64th Guards Mechanized Division,[37] with the 159th, 205th, and 216th Guards Mechanized Regiments and the 380th Tank Regiment.[38] On 27 July 1954, the 64th Guards was converted into the 14th Guards Tank Division.[39] Simultaneously, the 205th Guards Mechanized Regiment was disbanded.[40] The 427th Guards Mechanized Regiment instead joined the division.[41] On 18 November, it became a heavy tank division. At the same time, the 159th and 216th Guards Mechanized Regiments became the 283rd and 389th Guards Heavy Tank Regiments, respectively.[40] In May 1957 it became part of the newly arrived 6th Guards Tank Army.[42]

By the early 1960s the division included the 283rd and 389th Guards and the 380th Heavy Tank Regiments. On 11 January 1965 it was renumbered as the 75th Guards to restore its World War II numbering, and on 11 April it became a regular tank division.[43] By the late 1980s, the division included the 358th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, the 42nd Guards, 283rd Guards, and 380th Tank Regiments, and the 577th Artillery Regiment, all at Chuguyev. On 1 July 1989, as part of Gorbachev-inspired reductions, it was downsized into the 5362nd Weapons and Equipment Storage Base. The storage base was disbanded in June 1990.[42]

Sources and references

Citations

  1. Grylev 1970.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Grechko 1976, pp. 410–411.
  3. Dunn 1997, p. 67.
  4. Glantz & House 2004, p. 93.
  5. Dunn 1997, p. 174.
  6. Glantz & Orenstein 1999, p. 117.
  7. Dunn 1997, p. 176.
  8. Glantz & House 2004, p. 117.
  9. Dunn 1997, p. 180.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Tsapayev & Goremykin 2014, p. 664.
  11. "Перечень воинских частей, принимавших участие в боях за населенные пункты Орловской области: Глазуновский район" (in Russian). http://orel-region.ru/victory/memory/6_03.html. 
  12. "Наградной лист" (in Russian). 7 August 1943. https://pamyat-naroda.ru/heroes/podvig-chelovek_nagrazhdenie12088170/. 
  13. Slutsky & Dotsenko 1944a, p. 4.
  14. Glantz 2016, p. 423.
  15. Glantz 2016, p. 427.
  16. Glantz 2016, p. 430.
  17. Glantz 2016, p. 432.
  18. Glantz 2016, pp. 434–436.
  19. Glantz 2016, pp. 444–446.
  20. Glantz 2016, p. 461.
  21. Glantz 2016, pp. 472, 474–475.
  22. Glantz 2016, p. 502.
  23. Glantz & Orenstein 2005, p. 213.
  24. Dunn 2000, p. 183.
  25. Dunn 2000, p. 190.
  26. Bonn 2005, pp. 371–372.
  27. Pakin & Kochnev 1996, p. 5.
  28. "Наградной лист" (in Russian). 5 March 1945. https://pamyat-naroda.ru/heroes/podvig-chelovek_nagrazhdenie46678089/. 
  29. Ogarkov 1979a, p. 595.
  30. Ogarkov 1979b, p. 349.
  31. "RKKA - 75-я Бахмачская дважды Краснознаменная гвардейская стрелковая дивизия". http://www.rkka.ru/handbook/guard/75gvsd.htm. 
  32. "Боевые действия Красной Армии в ВОВ". http://bdsa.ru/gvardejskie-divizii/4745-75-gvardejskaya-strelkovaya-diviziya. 
  33. Feskov et al 2013, p. 381.
  34. "БАХМАЧСКАЯ СТРЕЛКОВАЯ ДИВИЗИЯ" (in Russian). Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. 2007. http://encyclopedia.mil.ru/encyclopedia/dictionary/details.htm?id=3245@morfDictionary. 
  35. Feskov et al 2013, p. 499.
  36. Feskov et al 2013, p. 478.
  37. Feskov et al 2013, p. 149.
  38. Feskov et al 2013, p. 208.
  39. Feskov et al 2013, p. 205.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Feskov et al 2013, p. 214.
  41. Feskov et al 2013, p. 200.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Feskov et al 2013, pp. 485–486.
  43. Feskov et al 2013, p. 201.

Bibliography

Military documents

Further reading

Primary sources



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