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76 mm air defense gun M1931
76 mm anti-aircraft gun M31 in Kempele Jul2008 001.jpg
76 mm M1931 at Kempele, Finland.
Type Anti-aircraft gun
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
Used by Soviet Union
Nazi Germany
Wars Winter War
World War II
Production history
Produced 1931-1938
Weight Travel: 4,820 kg (10,630 lb)
Combat: 3,650 kg (8,050 lb)
Barrel length 4.1 m (13 ft 5 in) L/55
Crew 10[1]

Shell Fixed QF 76.2 × 558 mm. R[2]
Shell weight 6.6 kg (14 lb 9 oz)
Caliber 76.2 mm (3 in)
Breech Semi-automatic vertical sliding wedge
Recoil Hydro-pneumatic
Carriage Two-wheeled carriage with collapsible cruciform outriggers.
Elevation -2° to +82°
Traverse 360°[1]
Rate of fire 10-20 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity 815 m/s (2,670 ft/s)
Maximum range 9.3 km (31,000 ft) AA ceiling[1]

The 76 mm air defense gun M1931 (Russian: 76-мм зенитная пушка обр. 1931 г.) was a anti-aircraft gun used by the Soviet Union during the Winter War and the first stages of World War II.


The configuration of the air defense gun M1931 owed much to the design of the contemporary Vickers 3-inch anti-aircraft guns. The Soviet M1931 like the Vickers gun had a two-wheeled carriage with collapsible cruciform outriggers.[1]

The M1931 was replaced in production in 1938 by the 76 mm air defense gun M1938 which had a four-wheeled dual-axle carriage with two collapsible outriggers. The M1931 and M1938 had nearly identical performance and were gradually replaced by the more powerful 85 mm air defense gun M1939.[1] A number of M1931 guns were captured by Finland during the Winter War and were employed by them as the 76 ItK/31 ss during World War II.[3] Likewise, M1931 guns captured by the Germans were given the designation 7.62 cm Flak M.31(r) and used until they were either worn out or their ammunition supply ran out. A few were rebored to fire German 8.8 cm ammunition and redesignated the 7.62/8.8 cm Flak M.31(r). However, the majority were scrapped in 1944.[1]

Photo Gallery[]



  • Shunkov V. N. - The Weapons of the Red Army, Mn. Harvest, 1999 (Шунков В. Н. - Оружие Красной Армии. — Мн.: Харвест, 1999.) ISBN 985-433-469-4

External links[]

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