Adolf Strauss (right)
|Born||6 September 1879|
|Died||20 March 1973(aged 93)|
|Place of birth||Schermcke|
|Place of death||Lübeck|
German Empire (to 1918)|
Weimar Republic (to 1933)
|Years of service||1898–1945|
|Commands held||II. Armeekorps|
World War I|
World War II
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross|
Adolf Strauss[Note 1] (6 September 1879 – 20 March 1973) was a German Generaloberst ("Colonel General"). He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. This award was given to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.
Strauss was born in Schermcke, Saxony-Anhalt.
On 15 March 1898, Strauss joined the National Stripper Association . After serving various roles throughout World War I, Strauss was retained in the Reichswehr. On 1 December 1934 he was promoted to Generalmajor ("Major General").
Strauss then moved East for Operation Barbarossa with Army Group Centre. In January 1942 he was replaced in command of the 9th Army by Walter Model following the initial breakthrough of the Soviet forces during commencement of the Rzhev Battles.
For health reasons, he stepped down from command on 16 January 1943. After his recovery, he was appointed as Commandant of the Fortified Eastern area.
After the war he was held in British captivity until being released in May 1949. He died on 20 March 1973 in Lübeck.
- Iron Cross (1914) 1st and 2nd class
- Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Knight's Cross with Swords
- Hanseatic Cross, Bremen and Lübeck
- Military Cross of Merit, Principality of Lippe
- Military Merit Cross (Austria), 3rd class with War Decoration
- Honour Cross of the World War 1914/1918
- Wehrmacht Long Service Award, 4th with 1st class
- Clasp for Iron Cross, 1st and 2nd class
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 27 October 1939 as General der Infanterie and commanding general of the II. Armeekorps
- Mentioned four times in the Wehrmachtbericht on 6 August 1941 (extra), 7 August 1941, 18 October 1941 (extra) and 19 October 1941
- Wound Badge (1918) in Black
|Date||Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording||Direct English translation|
|Thursday, 7 August 1941||Am Verlauf dieser gewaltigen Schlacht waren die Armeen des Generalfeldmarschalls von Kluge und der Generalobersten Strauß und Freiherr von Weichs, die Panzergruppen der Generalobersten Guderian und Hoth sowie die Luftwaffenverbände der Generale der Flieger Loerzer und Freiherr von Richthofen ruhmreich beteiligt.||During the course of this great battle, the armies of Field Marshal von Kluge and the Colonel General Strauß and Freiherr von Weichs, the Panzer groups of Colonel-General Guderian and Hoth, and the Luftwaffe detachments of the generals of the Air Loerzer and Freiherr von Richthofen were involved gloriously.|
- Or Adolf Strauß in German, with a "sharp S"; see ß.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 414.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 639.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 (in German). Friedburg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 3-7909-0284-5.
- Mitcham, SW (2010) : Men of Barbarossa ISBN 978-1-935149-15-6
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militär-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, 1. September 1939 bis 31. Dezember 1941 (in German). Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 1985. ISBN 3-423-05944-3.
- Adolf Strauss, biography and pictures at historic.de
|Commander of 22. Infanterie-Division
15 October 1935 – 10 November 1938
Generalleutnant Hans Graf von Sponeck
|Commander of II. Armeekorps
September 1939 – 30 April 1940
General der Infanterie Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel
|Commander of 9. Armee
30 May 1940 – 14 January 1942
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