|A US Air Force C-27A Spartan out of Howard AFB, Panama|
|Role||Military transport aircraft|
|Manufacturer||Fiat / Aeritalia / Alenia Aeronautica|
|First flight||18 July 1970|
|Primary users||Afghan National Army Air Corps|
Tunisian Air Force
Argentine Army Aviation
The Aeritalia G.222 (formerly Fiat Aviazione, later Alenia Aeronautica) is a medium-sized STOL military transport aircraft. It was developed to meet a NATO specification, but Italy was initially the only NATO member to adopt the type. The United States purchased a small number of G.222s, designating them the C-27A Spartan.
A modernised variant, the Alenia C-27J Spartan, had been developed. While it retains many aspects of the original aircraft, the C-27J adopts the same engines and many of the systems used on the larger Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules.
Development[edit | edit source]
Origins[edit | edit source]
In 1962, NATO issued a specification for a V/STOL transport aircraft (NATO Basic Military Requirement 4), capable of supporting dispersed V/STOL fighters. Fiat's design team, led by Giuseppe Gabrielli, produced a design to meet this requirement, designated G.222; it was to be powered by two Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engines and with six to eight Rolls-Royce RB162 lift engines to give VTOL capability. None of the submissions resulted in a production contract; however the Italian Air Force (AMI) felt that the Fiat Aviazione proposal had merit, and placed an order for two prototypes and a ground-test airframe in 1968. The G.222 was substantially redeveloped from the NATO submission, the V/STOL lift engines having been omitted completely and the conventional Dart engines replaced by a pair of General Electric T64s; the twin-boom tail featured on the V/STOL concept was also eliminated and replaced by a more conventional single tail configuration; subsequently the new aircraft had no V/STOL capability but was retained considerable short take-off/landing (STOL) performance.
On 18 July 1970, the first prototype took the aircraft's maiden flight with test pilot Vittorio Sanseverino at the controls; the Italian Air Force began evaluating the two prototypes in December 1971. Following successful testing, the AMI contract for 44 aircraft was issued to Aeritalia (of which Fiat Aviazione had since become a part). The first production aircraft entered Italian service in April 1978. Following its introduction by the AMI, the G.222 was procured as a tactical transport aircraft by various international customers, including Argentina, Nigeria, Somalia, Venezuela and Thailand.
Further development[edit | edit source]
In 1977, Libya sought the purchase of 20 G.222s, this was vetoed by the U.S. Government, who had imposed an embargo on military arms and equipment to Libya, which including the G.222's T64 engines. To get around this restriction, Aeritalia developed a version of the G.222 powered by the Rolls-Royce Tyne engine and other US supplied equipment were replaced by European equivalents; the more powerful Tyne engine also gave this variant superior "hot and high" performance. Libya placed an order for 20 Tyne-powered aircraft instead.
Following Italian humanitarian missions in Bosnia and Somalia, in 1996 the AMI began undertaking a major update program on their G.222 fleet; modifications include compatibility with Night Vision Goggles to enable night operations, increasing the aircraft's self-defense capabilities, new communications and navigation systems, and the removal of obsolete equipment.
In 1990, the United States Air Force selected the G.222 as the basis of a "Rapid-Response Intra-Theater Airlifter" (RRITA). Operated under the designation C-27A Spartan, ten G.222s were purchased and underwent avionics upgrades by Chrysler Aerospace. These aircraft were stationed at Howard AFB, Panama. The USAF would later dispose of their C-27A fleet, partly due to shifting priorities between the Army and the Air Force and partly because of the impending introduction of a newer variant, the Alenia C-27J Spartan.
Design[edit | edit source]
The G.222 is a twin turboprop-engine tactical military transport aircraft, and is designed to be capable of transporting equipment or troops in combat zones and operating with minimal ground support. Due to features such as double-slotted flaps, stacked brakes, and reversible propellers, the G.222 has excellent short landing capabilities and is able to land in as little as 1,800 feet. As the G.222 has austere maintenance requirements and is able to operate from short, rough airstrips in remote regions, it has been heavily used in humanitarian missions across Africa, Europe and Central America.
The G.222's cargo deck can carry up to 9,000 kg (19,840 lb) of cargo or up to 53 troops; additionally, it can be outfitted to perform medevac operations; other specialist equipment can be added, such as for the signals intelligence role. The cargo deck has a large rear ramp, allowing the loading of palletised goods and vehicles, as well as doors to the sides capable of deploying paratroopers. The height of the landing gear can be manually controlled to easily facilitate the loading of various cargos.
The cockpit provides excellent external visibility for pilots, most of the key controls are centrally-placed between the two pilots. Some aircraft were fitted with refuelling probes and appropriate equipment to support aerial refuelling. Some Italian G.222s have been equipped with a self-protection suite, which uses multiple forms of sensors to warn against identified threats, this suite also includes several countermeasures such as chaff and flare dispensers.
Operational history[edit | edit source]
The G.222 has seen considerable service in air relief and military supply operations. From 1979 onwards, Italy, along with other Western nations, provided considerable military aid to Somalia, part of the Italian contribution was four G.222s. In 1982, three Ejército Argentino G.222s were operational during the Falklands War, and may have participated in a logistical capacity. In 1983, a single Italian Air Force G.222 was outfitted for fire suppression duties, alongside an existing C-130 in the same role.
On 3 September 1992, an Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana) G.222 was shot down when approaching Sarajevo airfield, while conducting a United Nations relief mission. It crashed 18 miles (29 km) from the airfield; a NATO rescue mission was aborted when 2 USMC CH-53 helicopters came under small arms fire. The cause of the crash was determined to be a surface to air missile, but it was not clear who shot it. Everyone on board - four Italian crew members and four French passengers - died in the crash. In 2005, the Italian Air Force officially retired their fleet of G.222s; they were replaced by a newer variant, the C-27J, which had originally been due to enter service in 2001.
In September 2008, Alenia North America was awarded a USAF contract to upgrade and refurbish 18 G.222s, to be tranferred to and used by the Afghan Air Force and Afghan National Army Air Corps. Ballistic protection, adaptions for serving in the conditions of Afghanistan, and many new avionics systems, including a digital auto-pilot, were installed; two aircraft were also configured for VIP transport duties. In January 2013, the USAF decided not to renew the support contract for the Afghan fleet due to claimed servicability issues and operational difficulties; Alenia responded, stating that the fleet was exceeding the requirements laid out by the USAF, with 10-12 aircraft available for operations against the requirement for six.
Variants[edit | edit source]
- Initial designation, two prototypes for the Italian Air Force
- Standard transport version for the Italian Air Force
- (Radiomisura - "radio measurements")- radio/radar calibration aircraft
- (Sistema Aeronautico Antincendio - "aeronautical fire-fighting system") - fire-fighter equipped for dumping water or fire retardant chemicals. Four built for Italian Air Force
- Version powered by the Rolls-Royce Tyne for the Libyan Air Force. Sometimes designated G.222L.
- (Versione Speciale - "special version") ECM version - two built for Italian Air Force. Sometimes designated G.222GE.
- C-27J Spartan
Operators[edit | edit source]
- Afghan National Army Air Force has received several former Italian Air Force G.222s under a USAF contract. Following upgrades by Alenia, deliveries began in 2009. By December 2012, 16 aircraft had been delivered; the USAF canceled the contract then because of lack of maintenance support from Alenia.
- Italian Air Force operated a total of 52 aircraft (42 G.222A/TCM, 4 G.222RM, 5 G.222SAA, and 1 G.222VS). Officially retired from its inventory, but at least 1 RM and 1 G.222VS aircraft remains operational.
- Libyan Air Force operated 20 aircraft.
- Nigerian Air Force received 5 aircraft during 1984-85. Alenia Aeronautica is updating these aircraft. 1 ex-Italian Air Force aircraft ordered in 2008.
- Somali Air Corps ordered 4 aircraft, 2 aircraft received.
- Royal Thai Air Force operated 6 aircraft; retired as of 2012
- Tunisian Air Force operates 5 aircraft.
- Dubai had 1 aircraft.
- United States Air Force operated 10 C-27A (1990–99)
- US Department of State has 4 ex-USAF C-27As based out of Patrick AFB, Florida, in support of counter-narcotics activities in South America, primarily Colombia transporting personnel and supplies.
Specifications (G.222)[edit | edit source]
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988-89
- Crew: Four - commander, co-pilot, radio-operator/flight engineer on flightdeck, loadmaster
- Capacity: 9,000 kg (19,840 lb) of cargo, 53 troops or 36 litters
- Length: 22.70 m (74 ft 5½ in)
- Wingspan: 28.70 m (94 ft 2 in)
- Height: 9.80 m (32 ft 1¾ in)
- Wing area: 82.0 m² (893 ft²)
- Empty weight: 14,590 kg (32,165 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 28,000 kg (61,730 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric T64-GE-P4D turboprop, 2,535 kW (3,400 shp) each
- Maximum speed: 540 km/h (336 mph, 291 knots) at 4,575 m (15,000 ft)
- Cruise speed: 439 km/h (273 mph, 237 knots) at 6,000 m (19,700 ft)
- Range: 1,371 km (852 mi, 740 nmi)at max payload
- Ferry range: 4,633 km(2,879 miles, 2,500 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 8.7 m/s (1,705 ft/min)
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Janes 2005, p. 421.
- Donald (2000). p. 426.
- Frawley (2002). p. 44.
- Air International April 1977, pp. 163-164.
- Air International April 1977, pp. 164, 166.
- Evangelisti, Spinoni and Jones 1999, p. A11-2. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "NATO A113" defined multiple times with different content
- Air International April 1977, pp. 167-168.
- Taylor 1988, p.143.
- Air International April 1979, pp. 170-173.
- Donald and Lake 1996, p. 29.
- McGowen 2012, p. 485.
- Norton 2002, p. 6.
- Schading 2011, p. 279.
- Taylor 1988, pp. 143-144.
- Evangelisti, Spinoni and Jones 1999, pp. A11-2.
- Girolami and Quadro 2006, p. 1-3.
- Humphrey 2007, p. 66.
- Braybrook 1982, p. 8.
- Tran Van Nao 1982, p. 121.
- Sudetic, Chuck (1992-09-04). "U.N. Relief Plane Reported Downed on Bosnia Mission". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/09/04/world/un-relief-plane-reported-downed-on-bosnia-mission.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- Fisk, Robert (1992-09-04). "UN fears aid aircraft was shot down by missile". London: The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/un-fears-aid-aircraft-was-shot-down-by-missile-1549141.html. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- "Roll-out of the first G.222 aircraft, refurbished and modernized with systems and avionics, at Alenia Aeronautica's Capodichino plant". Defense & Aerospace Week, 22 July 2009.
- "The Italian Air Force is to buy 12 C-27J Spartan medium tactical transport aircraft to replace its fleet of G.222 transports, becoming the first customer for the Lockheed Martin/Alenia Aerospazio C-27J". Interavia Business & Technology, 1 December 1999.
- Kington, Tom. "First Refurbished G.222 Ready for Afghan Air Force". DefenseNews.com. Army Times Publishing Company, 6 July 2009. Retrieved: 6 July 2009.
- Osborne, Anthony and Amy Butler. "U.S. Air Force Halts Troubled Afghan Air Force Transport Deal." Aviation Week, 4 January 2013.
- Kington, Tom (27 February 2008). "Italian G-222s Ready for Afghan Use". DefenseNews.com. Army Times Publishing Company. http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=3394478&c=ASI&s=ALL. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
- "First Refurbished G.222 Ready for Afghan Air Force". AirForces Monthly, 27 September 2010. Retrieved: 27 September 2010.
- Alenia G.222 image on Argentine military site
- "Two Twenty Two - Aeritalia's Airlifter". Air International. April 1977, Vol 12 No. 4. pp. 163–170, 202.
- "An Italian Mini-Hercules:The Versatile Two-Twenty-Two". Air International, April 1979, Vol 16 No. 4. pp. 170–173, 197-98.
- Baybrook, Roy. Battle for the Falklands (3): Air Forces, Osprey Publishing, 1982. ISBN 0-8504-5493-X.
- Donald, David; Jon Lake (2000). The Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. NY, NY: Barnes & Noble. p. 426. ISBN 0-7607-2208-0.
- Donald, David and Lake, Jon. Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Single Volume Edition. London:Aerospace Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-874023-95-6.
- Eden, Paul, ed. "Alenia G222 and C-27, Mini-Hercules". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
- Endres, Günter and Michael J. Gething. Jane's Aircraft Recognition Guide. HarperCollins UK, 2005. ISBN 0-0071-8332-1.
- Evangelisti, Gianluca., Maurizio Spinoni., and Patrick F. Jones. "Enhancing Tactical Transport Capabilities: Cockpit Evolution from G222 to C-27J". NATO Research and Technology Organisation, April 1999.
- Frawley, Gerard (2002). The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002-2003. Fyshwick, ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd. p. 44. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
- Girolami, Claudio and Mauro Quadro. C-27J Spartan: Paratroops and Loads Airdrop Qualification. Alenia Aeronautica, October 2006.
- Humphrey, James Harry. Issues In Contemporary Athletics. Nova Publishers, 2007. ISBN 1-5945-4595-2.
- McGowan, Sam. Anything, Anywhere, Anytime: Tactical Airlift in the Us Army Air Forces and Us Air Force from World War II to Vietnam. AuthorHouse, 2012. ISBN 1-4685-0563-7.
- Norton, Bill. STOL progenitors: the technology path to a large STOL transport and the C-17A. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2002. ISBN 1-5634-7538-3.
- Schading, Barbara. A Civilian's Guide to the U.S. Military: A Comprehensive Reference to the Customs, Language and Structure of the Armed Forces. Writer's Digest, 2011. ISBN 1-5996-3331-0.
- Taylor, John W.R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988-89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
- Tran Van Nao. Forest Fire Prevention and Control. Springer, 1982. ISBN 9-0247-3050-3.
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