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Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي
Born 1507
Zeila or or Hubat, Somalia
Died February 21, 1543 (35~36)
Tigray province, Ethiopia
Religion Islam

Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Somali language: Axmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi , Arabic language: أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي‎ ) "the Conqueror"[1] (c. 1507 – February 21, 1543)[2] was an Imam and General of Adal who invaded Ethiopia and defeated several Ethiopian emperors.[2] With the help of an army mainly composed of Somalis,[3] Imam Ahmad (nicknamed Gurey in Somali and Gragn in Amharic (ግራኝ Graññ), both meaning "the left-handed"), embarked on a conquest which brought three-quarters of Ethiopia under the power of the Muslim Sultanate of Adal during the Ethiopian-Adal War from 1529-43.

Ethnicity[edit | edit source]

Imam Ahmad is most often identified by scholars and historical sources as an ethnic Somali. He has traditionally sometimes been interpreted as being an Arab in Ethiopia[4] or sometimes also as a Harari.[5][6][7][8][9][10][2][4][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

However, "although Somali clans — principally the Habar Magadle Isaaq, the Harti Daarood, and the Mareehaan — played a strong role in Gran's conquest of Abyssinia, these clans went to war not so much as Somalis but as Muslims."[24]

Early years[edit | edit source]

Ruins of the Sultanate of Adal in Zeila (Saylac), Somalia.

Imam Ahmad was born around 1507 in Zeila[25] or in the district of Hubat located between Zeila and Harar, around the current town of Fugnan Bira.[26] Ahmed initially lived in Harar during the reign of Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad but due to the Sultans unislamic rule, he left to Hubat.[26] He married Bati del Wambara, the daughter of Mahfuz, governor of Zeila.[14] When Mahfuz was killed returning from a campaign against the Ethiopian emperor Lebna Dengel in 1517, the Adal sultanate lapsed into anarchy for several years, until Imam Ahmad killed the last of the contenders for power and took control of Harar.

In retaliation for an attack on Adal the previous year by the Ethiopian general Degalhan, Imam Ahmad invaded Ethiopia in 1529, supplementing his force with considerable numbers muskets purchased from the Ottomans, which would panick the Ethiopian troops. Although his troops were fearful of their opponents and attempted to desert upon news that the Ethiopian army was approaching, Imam Ahmad maintained the discipline of most of his men, defeating Emperor Lebna Dengel at Shimbra Kure that March.[27] The Ethiopian troops were panicked by his firearms.

Attempt to conquer Abyssinia[edit | edit source]

The chronicle of Imam Ahmad's invasion of Ethiopia is depicted in various Somali, Ethiopian and other foreign sources. Imam Ahmad campaigned in Ethiopia in 1531, breaking Emperor Lebna Dengel's ability to resist in the Battle of Amba Sel on October 28. The Muslim army of Imam Ahmad then marched northward to loot the island monastery of Lake Hayq and the stone churches of Lalibela. When the Imam entered the province of Tigray, he defeated an Ethiopian army that confronted him there. On reaching Axum, he destroyed the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion, in which the Ethiopian emperors had for centuries been crowned.

The Ethiopians were forced to ask for help from the Portuguese, who landed at the port of Massawa on February 10, 1541, during the reign of the emperor Gelawdewos. The force was led by Cristóvão da Gama and included 400 musketeers as well as a number of artisans and other non-combatants. Da Gama and Imam Ahmad met on April 1, 1542 at Jarte, which Trimingham has identified with Anasa, between Amba Alagi and Lake Ashenge.[28] Here the Portuguese had their first glimpse of Ahmad, as recorded by Castanhoso:

While his camp was being pitched, the king of Zeila [Imam Ahmad] ascended a hill with several horse and some foot to examine us: he halted on the top with three hundred horse and three large banners, two white with red moons, and one red with a white moon, which always accompanied him, and [by] which he was recognized.[29]

On April 4, after the two unfamiliar armies had exchanged messages and stared at each other for a few days, da Gama formed his troops into an infantry square and marched against the Imam's lines, repelling successive waves of Muslim attacks with musket and cannon. This battle ended when Imam Ahmad was wounded in the leg by a chance shot; seeing his banners signal retreat, the Portuguese and their Ethiopian allies fell upon the disorganized Muslims, who suffered losses but managed to reform next to the river on the distant side.

Over the next several days, Imam Ahmad's forces were reinforced by arrivals of fresh troops. Understanding the need to act swiftly, da Gama on April 16 again formed a square which he led against Imam Ahmad's camp. Although the Muslims fought with more determination than two weeks earlier—their horse almost broke the Portuguese square—an opportune explosion of some gunpowder traumatized the horses on the Imam's side, and his army fled in disorder. Castanhoso laments that "the victory would have been complete this day had we only one hundred horses to finish it: for the King was carried on men's shoulders in a bed, accompanied by horsemen, and they fled in no order."[30]

Reinforced by the arrival of the Bahr negus Yeshaq, da Gama marched southward after Imam Ahmad's force, coming within sight of him ten days later. However, the onset of the rainy season prevented da Gama from engaging Ahmad a third time. On the advice of Queen Sabla Wengel, da Gama made winter camp at Wofla near Lake Ashenge, still within sight of his opponent,[31] while the Imam made his winter camp on Mount Zobil.[32]

Knowing that victory lay in the number of firearms an army had, the Imam sent to his fellow Muslims for help. According to Abbé João Bermudes (pt), Imam Ahmad received 2000 musketeers from Arabia, and artillery and 900 picked men from the Ottomans to assist him. Meanwhile, due to casualties and other duties, da Gama's force was reduced to 300 musketeers. After the rains ended, Imam Ahmad attacked the Portuguese camp and through weight of numbers killed all but 140 of da Gama's troops. Da Gama himself, badly wounded, was captured with ten of his men and, after refusing an offer to spare his life if he would convert to Islam, was executed.[33] The survivors and Emperor Gelawdewos were afterward able to join forces and, drawing on the Portuguese supplies of muskets, attacked Ahmad on February 21, 1543 in the Battle of Wayna Daga, where their 9,000 troops managed to defeat the 15,000 soldiers under Imam Ahmad. The Imam was killed by a Portuguese musketeer, who was mortally wounded in avenging da Gama's death.

His wife Bati del Wambara managed to escape the battlefield with a remnant of the Turkish soldiers, and they made their way back to Harar, where she rallied his followers. Intent on avenging her husband's death, she married his nephew Nur ibn Mujahid on condition that Nur would avenge Imam Ahmad's defeat. However, she was unable to salvage the situation, and the Adal forces had to withdraw from Ethiopia. This left both kingdoms weakened.

Legacy[edit | edit source]

"In Ethiopia the damage which Ahmad Gragn did has never been forgotten," wrote Paul B. Henze. "Every Christian highlander still hears tales of Gragn in his childhood. Haile Selassie referred to him in his memoirs, "I have often had villagers in northern Ethiopia point out sites of towns, forts, churches and monasteries destroyed by Gragn as if these catastrophes had occurred only yesterday."[34] To some in the Horn of Africa Ahmad is a national hero.[35]

See also[edit | edit source]

Sources[edit | edit source]

Ahmad's invasion of Ethiopia is described in detail in the Futuh al-habaša ("The Conquest of Ethiopia"), written in Arabic by Ahmad's follower Sihab ad-Din Admad ibn 'Abd-al-Qadir, in its current version incomplete, covering the story only to 1537, narrating the Imam's raids on the islands of Lake Tana. Richard Burton the explorer claimed that the second part could be found "in Mocha or Hudaydah"; but, despite later investigation, no one else has reported seeing a copy of this second part. The surviving first part was translated into French by René Basset and published 1897-1901. Richard Pankhurst made a partial translation into English as part of his The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles (Addis Ababa: Oxford University Press, 1967), and a complete translation of the Futuh al-habaša by Paul Lester Stenhouse was published by Tsehai in 2003 (ISBN 978-0-9723172-5-2).

Primary sources of the Portuguese expedition under Gama have been collected and translated by R.S. Whiteway, The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia in 1541-1543, 1902 (Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint Limited, 1967). The Solomonic side of the story is represented in the royal chronicles of Emperor Lebna Dengel and his son, Emperor Gelawdewos.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. R. Michael Feener, Islam in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives, (ABC-CLIO: 2004), p.219
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Saheed A. Adejumobi, The History of Ethiopia, (Greenwood Press: 2006), p.178
  3. John L. Esposito, editor, The Oxford History of Islam, (Oxford University Press: 2000), p. 501
  4. 4.0 4.1 Franz-Christoph Muth, "Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-Gazi" in Siegbert Herausgegeben von Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2003), pp. 155.
  5. Middleton, John (2008). "New encyclopedia of Africa". NY, USA: Thomson/Gale. pp. 403. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0020743800063145. http://books.google.ca/books?id=uD8OAQAAMAAJ&q=ahmad+ibn+ibrahim+al+ghazi+harari&dq=ahmad+ibn+ibrahim+al+ghazi+harari&source=bl&ots=YkUurZqRP-&sig=jSpGTOXdF5Q58bpdyMh5DsyKBEk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fxJFULTUErO60QHbnoHoCw&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAg. Retrieved 2012-04-27. 
  6. "Annales d'Ethiopie">Lecoutre, Delphine (2006). "Annales d'Ethiopie". Paris: de La Table Ronde. pp. 215. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0020743800063145. http://books.google.ca/books?id=6BJzAAAAMAAJ&q=ahmed+gragn+harari&dq=ahmed+gragn+harari&source=bl&ots=YADRZWpKa1&sig=8k12owsKh9np8hIhPN1bmUc2aO4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XN9HUOBP6tjRAcD4gPgJ&ved=0CFkQ6AEwCA. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  7. "A history of Ethiopia">Geofrey, C (1969). "A history of Ethiopia". London: oxford university press. pp. 52. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0020743800063145. http://books.google.ca/books?id=sS0aAQAAMAAJ&q=ahmed+gragn+harari&dq=ahmed+gragn+harari&source=bl&ots=G1QK0JsV8-&sig=S68kK10gg-_hMmerEdJA7R5V2Dk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XN9HUOBP6tjRAcD4gPgJ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBQ. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  8. "Islam & Ethnnicity in Northern Kenya & Southern Ethiopia">Gunither, Schlee (2012). "Islam & Ethnnicity in Northern Kenya & Southern Ethiopia". NY: Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 58. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0020743800063145. http://books.google.ca/books?id=s2h5Lb6obkkC&pg=PA58&dq=ahmad+ibn+al+ghazi+harari&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0X2qUOzkHMLFyAHj9IDYBg&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=ahmad%20ibn%20al%20ghazi%20harari&f=false. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  9. "Between the Jaws of Hyenas: A Diplomatic History of Ethiopia, 1876-1896">Caulk, R.A. (2002). "Between the Jaws of Hyenas: A Diplomatic History of Ethiopia". Berlin: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 489. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0020743800063145. http://books.google.ca/books?id=ZJLCZT7MW08C&pg=PA489&dq=ahmad+ibn+harari&hl=en&sa=X&ei=a5OqULX2MerkywHc9YCgBw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ahmad%20ibn%20harari&f=false. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  10. "Eating the Flowers of Paradise: One Man's Journey Through Ethiopia and Yemen">Rushby, Kevin (2000). "Eating the Flowers of Paradise: One Man's Journey Through Ethiopia and Yemen". LA: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 46. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0020743800063145. http://books.google.ca/books?id=WvBOQqfYhysC&pg=PA46&dq=left+handed+harari&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xZeqUMvYAuaBywHS54Eg&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=left%20handed%20harari&f=false. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  11. Nikshoy C. Chatterji, Muddle of the Middle East, (Abhinav Publications: 1973), p.166
  12. Charles Fraser Beckingham, George Wynn Brereton Huntingford, Manuel de Almeida, Bahrey, Some Records of Ethiopia 1593-1646: Being Extracts from the History of High Ethiopia or Abassia By Manoel De Almeida, Together with Bahrey's History of the Galla, (Hakluyt Society: 1954), p.105
  13. Charles Pelham Groves, The Planting of Christianity in Africa, (Lutterworth Press: 1964), p.110
  14. 14.0 14.1 Richard Stephen Whiteway, Miguel de Castanhoso, João Bermudes, Gaspar Corrêa, The Portuguese expedition to Abyssinia in 1541-1543 as narrated by Castanhoso, (Kraus Reprint: 1967), p.xxxiii
  15. William Leonard Langer, Geoffrey Bruun, Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged, (Houghton Mifflin Co.: 1948), p.624
  16. Ewald Wagner, "`Adal" in Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C, p.71
  17. George Wynn Brereton Huntingford, The historical geography of Ethiopia from the first century AD to 1704, (Oxford University Press: 1989), p.135
  18. Edmond J. Keller - 1991 "Revolutionary Ethiopia: From Empire to People's Republic - Page 19"
  19. Andargachew Tiruneh - The Ethiopian Revolution, 1974-1987 - Page 2"
  20. M. Th Houtsma - 1993 - "First encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936 - Page 120"
  21. Getachew Metaferia - 2009 - "Ethiopia and the United States: History, Diplomacy, and Analysis - Page 87"
  22. Walter Yust - "Encyclopaedia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge: Volume 1" -Page 76
  23. Nikshoy C. Chatterji "Muddle of the Middle East - Volume 1 - Page 166"
  24. Laitin, David D.; Said S. Samatar (1987). Somalia: Nation in Search of a State. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-86531-555-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=DGFyAAAAMAAJ&dq=played+a+strong+role+in+the+Imam%27s+conquest+of+Abyssinia&q=principally+the&pgis=1. 
  25. Briggs, Philip (2012). Bradt Somaliland: With Addis Ababa & Eastern Ethiopia. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 10. ISBN 978-1-84162-371-9. http://books.google.ca/books?id=M6NI2FejIuwC&pg=PA10#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 Kessler, David (1998). Noblesse oblige: essays in honour of David Kessler OBE. Mitchell Vallentine & Company. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-85303-356-1.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Tal" defined multiple times with different content
  27. The battle is described in the Futuh, pp. 71-86.
  28. J. Spencer Trimingham, Islam in Ethiopia (Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press, 1952), p. 173.
  29. Translated in Whiteway, The Portuguese Expedition, p. 41.
  30. Whiteway, The Portuguese Expedition, p. 51.
  31. Whiteway, The Portuguese Expedition, p. 53
  32. G.W.B. Huntingford, The historical geography of Ethiopia from the first century AD to 1704, (Oxford University Press: 1989), p. 134
  33. Described in terms worthy of a saint's life by Jerónimo Lobo, who based his account on the testimony of an eye witness. (The Itinerário of Jerónimo Lobo, translated by Donald M. Lockhart [London: Hakluyt Society, 1984], pp. 201-217)
  34. Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia (New York: Palgrave, 2000), p. 90.
  35. Somalia: From The Dawn of Civilization To The Modern Times: Chapter 8: Somali Hero - Ahmad Gurey (1506-43) CivicsWeb

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