|Participant in Somali Civil War|
Sunni Islamism|
Ahmed Godane (May 2009 – Dec 2010; Dec 2011 –)|
Ibrahim Haji Jama Mee'aad (Dec 2010 – Dec 2011)
Sheikh Mukhtar Robow (May 2008 – May 2009)
Aden Hashi Farah (2002 – May 2008)
Kismayo (22 August 2008 – 29 September 2012)|
|Part of||Al Qaeda|
|Originated as||Islamic Courts Union (ICU)|
Allied Democratic Forces
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM) (Arabic language:حركة الشباب المجاهدين; Ḥarakat ash-Shabāb al-Mujāhidīn, Somali: Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (Arabic language:الشباب), meaning "The Youth", or "The Youngsters", is a jihadist group based in Somalia. In 2012, it pledged allegiance to the militant Islamist organization al-Qaeda. As of 2013, the group has retreated from the major cities, but imposes strict forms of Sharia law in some rural regions. Al-Shabaab's troop strength as of 2013 was estimated at 4,000 to 6,000 militants. In February 2012, some of the group's leaders quarreled with Al-Qaeda over the union, and quickly lost ground.
The group is an off-shoot of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which splintered into several smaller factions after its defeat in 2006 by the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and the TFG's Ethiopian military allies. Al-Shabaab describes itself as waging jihad against "enemies of Islam", and is engaged in combat against the TFG and the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM). Alleging ulterior motives on the part of foreign organizations, group members have also reportedly intimidated, kidnapped and killed aid workers, leading to a suspension of humanitarian operations and an exodus of relief agents. Al-Shabaab has been designated a terrorist organization by several Western governments and security services. As of June 2012, the US State Department has open bounties on several of the group's senior commanders.
In early August 2011, the TFG's troops and their AMISOM allies reportedly managed to capture all of Mogadishu from the al-Shabaab militants. An ideological rift within the group's leadership also emerged in response to pressure from the recent drought and the assassination of top officials in the organization. Al Shabaab is hostile to Sufi traditions and has often clashed with the militant Sufi group Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a. The group has also been suspected of having links with Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb and Boko Haram. The group has attracted some members from western countries, notably Samantha Lewthwaite and Abu Mansoor Al-Amriki.
al-Shabaab has also been accused of being responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of elephants every year for their ivory, and for killing rangers hired to protect them. The proceeds from the ivory trade allegedly supply Al-Shabaab with income with which to carry out their operations. At the same time, the group also has some social support during its time in administration within Somalia as it partook in some reforms.
al-Shabaab is also known as Ash-Shabaab, Hizbul Shabaab (Arabic: "Party of the Youth"), and the Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations (PRM). For short, the organization is referred to as HSM, which stands for "Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen". The term Shabaab means "youth" in Arabic, and the group should not be confused with similarly named groups.
Organization and leadershipEdit
Al-Shabaab's composition is multiethnic, with its leadership positions mainly occupied by Afghanistan- and Iraq-trained ethnic Somalis and foreigners. According to the National Counterterrorism Center, the group's rank-and-file members hail from disparate local groups, sometimes recruited by force. Unlike most of the organization's top leaders, its foot soldiers are primarily concerned with nationalist and clan-related affairs as opposed to the global jihad. They are also prone to infighting and shifting alliances. According to the Jamestown Foundation, Al-Shabaab seeks to exploit these vulnerabilities by manipulating clan networks in order to retain power. The group itself is likewise not entirely immune to local politics. More recently, Muslim converts from neighbouring countries have also been conscripted, typically to do undesirable or difficult work.
Although al-Shabaab's leadership ultimately falls upon al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, the internal leadership is not fully clear, and with foreign fighters trickling out of the country, its structure is increasingly decentralized. In December 2010, al-Qaeda replaced Moktar Ali Zubeyr "Godane" with Ibrahim al-Afghani, also known as Ibrahim Haji Jama Mee'aad. But Al Shabaab refused to comply, and Godane continued to function as its Emir. The group was originally run by Aden Hashi Farah "Ayro", who was appointed by Hassan Dahir Aweys, one of the leaders of ICU at the time of the organization's founding. After the death of Ayro, Sheikh Mukhtar Robow (also known as Abu Mansur) became leader until he was succeeded by Moktar Ali Zubeyr "Godane". In August 2011, Godane was heavily criticized by Al-Shabaab co-founder Hassan Dahir Aweys and others for not letting aid into the hunger stricken parts of southern Somalia. Although not formally announced, Shabaab was effectively split up into a "foreign legion," led by Godane and a coalition of factions forming a "national legion" under Aways. The latter group often refused to take orders from Godane and the two groups hardly talked to each other. In February 2012, Godane made Bay'ah, or an oath of allegiance, to al-Qaeda. With it he likely hopes to reclaim and extend his authority, and to encourage foreign fighters to stay. This move will further complicate the cooperation with the "national legion" of al-Shabaab.
- Sheikh Aden Hashi Farah "Ayro" (2002–2008) – central Hawiye clan
- Sheikh Mukhtar Robow "Abu Mansoor" (2008–2009) – He was referred to as The Speaker, not Amir. Leesaan sub-clan of southern Rahanweyn clan
- Sheikh Ibrahim al-Afghani – Sacad Muse sub-clan of Isaaq clan (2010–2011)
- Sheikh Moktar Ali Zubeyr "Godane" (2009–2010) – Arab sub-clan of northern Isaaq clan (2011–present)
- Sheikh Mukhtar Robow "Abu Mansoor" – Second Deputy Leader and regional commander in charge of Bay and Bakool. (Leesaan sub-clan of Rahanweyn)
- Sheikh Fuad Mohammed Khalaf "Shangole" – Third-most important leader after "Godane" and "Abu Mansoor". In charge of public affairs. (Awrtabe sub-clan of Darod)
- Hassan Dahir Aweys – Spiritual Leader (Surrendered to Federal Government in 2013)
- Sheikh Hussein Ali Fidow – Political Chief and Wasiir (prime Minister)
- Sheikh Ali Mohamud Raghe "Dheere" – current Deputy Amir. He is from Hawiye Murusade clan. Official Spokesman. (Not to be confused with the Sheikh Ali Dhere who established the first Islamic court in Mogadishu in 1996.)
- Sheikh Ibrahim Haji Jama Mee'aad "al-Afghani" (Abubakar al-Seyli'i) – Deceased. He was Governor of the Kisimayo administration (Sacad Muse sub-clan of Isaaq) (Killed in 2013)
- Sheikh Hassan Yaqub Ali – Was Official spokesman of the Kisimayo administration but currently he is Waali (governor) of Gal-Mudug. (Rahanwayn clan)
- Sheikh Abdirahman Hassan Hussein – Leader (Governor) of the Middle Shabelle region
- Sheikh Hassan Abdullah Hersi "al-Turki" – Leader of the Ras Kamboni Brigades which controls the Juba Valley and was first part of Hizbul Islam but merged with al-Shabaab in 2010. (Ogaden sub-clan of Darod)
- Sheikh Mohamed Said Atom – Warlord and arms dealer who in July 2010 announced allegiance to al-Shabaab and the al-Shabaab commander in Puntland.
- Mukhtar Abu-Muslim – Head of Fatwas, from Rahanweyn clan.
- Abdulahi Haji "Daud" – Head of assassinations, from Hawiye clan of Murursade sub-clan.
- Sahal Isku Dhuuq Head of kidnappings of aid workers for ransom, from Dir clan of Biyomaal sub-clan.
- Hassan Afrah, – Head of relationship with pirates, from Hawiye clan of Saleban sub-clan.
- Dahir Gamaey "Abdi Al-Haq" – Judge of Al-Shabaab, from Hawiye clan of Duduble sub-clan.
al-Shabaab is said to have many foreigners within its ranks, particularly at the leadership level. Fighters from the Persian Gulf and international jihadists were called to join the holy war against the Somali government and its Ethiopian allies. Though Somali Islamists did not originally use suicide bombing tactics, the foreign elements of al-Shabaab have been blamed for several suicide bombings. A 2006 UN report identified Iran, Libya, and Egypt, among countries in the region, as the main backers of the Islamist extremists. Egypt has a longstanding policy of securing the Nile River flow by destabilizing Ethiopia.
Formerly a predominantly nationalist organization, al-Shabaab repositioned itself as a militant Islamist group that also attracted a large cadre of Western devotees. As of 2011, the group's foreign recruitment strategy was active in the United States, where members attempted to recruit from the local Muslim communities. According to an investigative report by the U.S. House Committee on Homeland Security, Al Shabaab recruited over 40 Muslim Americans since 2007. In 2010, the New York Times reported that after more than a dozen Americans were killed in Somalia, the organization's recruiting success had decreased in the US.
These American and foreign recruits played a dual role within the organization, serving as mercenaries and as a propaganda tool for radicalization and recruitment. These individuals, including Omar Hammami, appeared in propaganda videos posted in online forums in order to appeal to disaffected Muslim youth and inspire them to join the Islamist struggle. This was a top-down strategy, wherein Islamist agents attempted to use mosques and legitimate businesses as a cover to meet, recruit, and raise funds for operations in the US and abroad. By mid-2013, the U.S. Congress reported that such militant recruitment appeared to have halted.
Most of the foreign al-Shabaab members come from Yemen, Sudan, the Swahili Coast, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. As of 2010, their number was estimated at between 200 to 300 militants, augmented by around 1,000 diasporan ethnic Somalis. Many of Al-Shabaab's foot soldiers also belong to Somalia's marginalized ethnic minorities from the farming south.
Of the foreign members, Jonathan Evans, the former head of MI5, addressing a London security conference in 2010, advised that "a significant number of UK residents" were training with al-Shabaab. Linking this increased involvement with a reduction in Al Qaida activity in Pakistan's tribal areas, he also suggested that since Somalia, like Afghanistan, at the time had no effective central government, the presence of foreign fighters there could inspire terrorist incidents in the UK. "It is only a matter of time before we see terrorism on our streets inspired by those who are today fighting alongside al-Shabaab." The actual number has been estimated at between 50 and 100 persons; one source estimating around 60 active Al-Shabaab recruiters, including 40 Somalis and an additional 20 mainly British-based 'clean skins', individuals who have not committed any crimes but are believed to have ties with the group. There is also evidence of funding of the group by Somalis resident in Britain.
Of the ten people subject to control orders (now Tpim orders) in 2012, at least five are associated with al-Shabaab: (pseudonymously) CC, CE "a British citizen of Iranian origin, aged 28 in 2012", CF, and DD "a non-British citizen […] believed […] to have been associated with the funding and promotion of [terrorism-related activity] in East Africa." At least two British Somalis, Ibrahim Magag (referred to as BX in Court documentation) and Mohammed Ahmed Mohamed, have absconded.
In 2012, it was also reported that the group was attracting an increasing number of non-Somali recent converts from Kenya, a predominantly Christian country in the African Great Lakes region. Estimates placed the figure of Kenyan fighters at around 10% of al-Shabaab's total forces. Referred to as the "Kenyan Mujahideen" by Al-Shabaab's core members, the converts are typically young and overzealous. Poverty has made them easier targets for the group's recruiting activities. The Kenyan insurgents can blend in with the general population of Kenya, and they are often harder to track by law enforcement. Reports suggest that al-Shabaab is attempting to build an even more multi-ethnic generation of fighters in the larger region. One such recent convert, who helped carry out the Kampala bombings but now cooperates with the Kenyan police, believes that the group is trying to use local Kenyans to do its "dirty work" for it, while its own core members escape unscathed. According to diplomats, Muslim areas in coastal Kenya and Tanzania, such as Mombasa and Zanzibar, are especially vulnerable for recruitment.
Foreigners from Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as Afghan-trained Somalis, play an important role in the group's leadership ranks owing to their combat experience. Bringing with them specialized skills, these commanders often lead the indoctrination of new recruits, and provide training in remote-controlled roadside bombings, suicide attack techniques, and the assassination and kidnapping of government officials, journalists, humanitarian and civil society workers.
Foreign al-Shabaab commanders include:
Foreign leaders and members:
- Fazul Abdullah Mohammed: Mohammed, a Kenyan national, was appointed by Osama bin Laden as al Qaeda's leader in East Africa in late 2009. Before the death of Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, Mohammed served as the military operations chief for al Qaeda in East Africa. He was an experienced al-Qaeda leader who is known to be able to move in and out of East African countries with ease. In August 2008, he eluded a police dragnet in Kenya. Mohammed had been hiding in Somalia with Shabaab and the Islamic Courts for years. Mohammed was considered to be Shabaab's military leader, while Sheikh Muktar Abdelrahman Abu Zubeyr was Shabaab's spiritual leader. He was killed on June 8, 2011.
- Shaykh Muhammad Abu Fa'id: Fai'd, a Saudi citizen, serves as a top financier and a "manager" for Shabaab.
- Abu Musa Mombasa: Mombasa, a Pakistani citizen, serves as Shabaab's chief of security and training.
- Abu Mansoor Al-Amriki: Amriki, whose real name was Omar Hammami, was a U.S. citizen who converted to Islam and traveled to Somalia in 2006. Once in Somalia, he quickly rose through the ranks. He served as a military commander, recruiter, financier, and propagandist. Amriki appeared in several Shabaab propaganda tapes. He became a primary recruiter for Al Shabaab; issued written statements on their behalf and appeared in its propaganda videos and audio recordings. An indictment unsealed in August 2010 charged him with providing material support to terrorists. In January 2013, Amriki was ousted from al-Shabaab because it felt he had joined in a "narcissistic pursuit of fame". He then publicly voiced ideological differences with the group via YouTube and Twitter, asserting that local militant leaders were only concerned with fighting in Somalia and not globally. He was assassinated by the insurgents in September 2013. He was removed from the FBI's Most Wanted Terrorists list in November 2013. He was removed from the US State Department's Rewards for Justice list in January 2014.
- Abdikadar Mohamed Abdikadar "Ikrima": a Kenya-born Somali Al-Shabaab commander alleged by the Kenyan government to have planned several attacks in the country, including a plot to target the UN's bureau in Nairobi, the Kenyan parliamentary building, and an Ethiopian restaurant patronized by Somali government representatives. According to US officials, Abdikadar was also a close associate of the late Al-Qaeda operatives Harun Fazul and Saleh Nabhan.
- Mahmud Mujajir: Mujajir, a Sudanese citizen, is Shabaab's chief of recruitment for suicide bombers.
- Samantha Lewthwaite: Allegedly an Al-Shabaab member, she is believed to have been behind an attack on a sports bar in Mombasa in 2012. Widow of 7/7 suicide bomber Germaine Lindsay.
- Issa Osman Issa: Issa serves as a top al-Qaeda recruiter and military strategist for Shabaab. Before joining, he participated in the simultaneous attacks on the U.S. embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam in 1998. He has been described as a central player in the simultaneous attacks on the Paradise Hotel in Kikambala, Kenya, in 2002, and the attempt that year to down an Israeli airliner in Mombasa.
Countries and organizations below have officially listed Al-Shabaab as a terrorist organization.
|New Zealand||10 February 2010|||
History and activitiesEdit
While Al-Shabaab previously represented the hard-line militant youth movement within the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), it is now described as an extremist splinter group of the ICU. Since the ICU's downfall, however, the distinction between the youth movement and the so-called successor organization to the ICU, the PRM, appears to have been blurred. Al-Shabaab had recently begun encouraging people from across society, including elders, to join their ranks. In February 2012, Sheikh Fu'ad Mohamed Khalaf Shongole, the chief of awareness raising of al-Shabaab, said that "At this stage of the jihad, fathers and mothers must send their unmarried girls to fight alongside the (male) militants". The addition of elders and young girls marks a change in the movement, which had previously involved only men, particularly young boys.
Their core consisted of veterans who had fought and defeated the secular Mogadishu warlords of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (ARPCT) at the Second Battle of Mogadishu. Their origins are not clearly known, but former members say Hizbul Shabaab was founded as early as 2004. The membership of Al-Shabaab also includes various foreign fighters from around the world, according to an Islamic hardliner Sheikh Mukhtar Robow Abu Manssor.
In January 2009, Ethiopian forces withdrew from Somalia and Al-Shabaab carried on its fight against former ally and Islamic Courts Union leader, President Sharif Ahmed, who was the head of the Transitional Federal Government. Al-Shabaab saw some success in its campaigns against the weak Transitional Federal Government, capturing Baidoa, the base of the Transitional Federal Parliament, on January 26, 2009, and killing three ministers of the government in a December 3, 2009 suicide bomb attack on a medical school graduation ceremony.
Before the drought in 2010, Somalia, including the Al-Shabaab controlled areas, had its best crop yield in seven years. Al-Shabaab claimed some credit for the success, saying that their reduction of over-sized cheap food imports allowed Somalia's own grain production, which normally has high potential, to flourish. They asserted that this policy had the effect of shifting income from urban to rural areas, from mid-income groups to low-income groups, and from overseas farmers to local farmers. However, in response to the drought, Al-Shabaab announced in July 2011 that it had withdrawn its restrictions on international humanitarian workers.
In 2011, according to the head of the U.N.'s counter-piracy division, Colonel John Steed, Al-Shabaab increasingly sought to cooperate with other criminal organizations and pirate gangs in the face of dwindling funds and resources. Steed, however, acknowledged that he had no definite proof of operational ties between the Islamist militants and the pirates. Detained pirates also indicated to UNODC officials that some measure of cooperation on their part with Al-Shabaab militants was necessary, as they have increasingly launched maritime raids from areas in southern Somalia controlled by the insurgent group. Al-Shabaab members have also extorted the pirates, demanding protection money from them and forcing seized pirate gang leaders in Harardhere to hand over 20% of future ransom proceeds.
Despite routinely expelling, attacking and harassing aid workers, Al-Shabaab permits some agencies to work in areas under its control. At the height of its territorial control it implemented a system of aid agency regulation, taxation and surveillance. Where agencies are allowed to operate, this is often due to the desire of Al-Shabaab to coopt and materially and politically benefit from the provision of aid and services. Senior aid agency representatives often strongly rejected claims that they talked with Al-Shabaab, while aid workers working in Al-Shabaab controlled areas often reported they directly negotiated with the group out of necessity.
While Al-Shabaab has been reduced in power and size since the beginning of the coordinated operation against it by the Somalian military and the Kenyan army, the group has continued its efforts at recruitment and territorial control. The group maintains training camps in areas near Kismayo in the southern regions of Somalia. One such camp was constructed in Laanta Bur village near Afgooye, which is also where the former K-50 airport is located. On July 11, 2012, Somali federal troops and their AMISOM allies captured the area from the militants.
The U.S. has asserted that al-Shabaab and al-Qaeda pose a global threat. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta stated that "U.S. operations against al-Qaida are now concentrating on key groups in Yemen, Somalia and North Africa."
Complaints made against the group include its attacks on aid workers and harsh enforcement of Sharia law. According to journalist Jon Lee Anderson:
The number of people in Somalia who are dependent on international food aid has tripled since 2007, to an estimated 3.6 million. But there is no permanent foreign expatriate presence in southern Somalia, because the Shabaab has declared war on the UN and on Western non-governmental organizations. International relief supplies are flown or shipped into the country and distributed, wherever possible, through local relief workers. Insurgents routinely attack and murder them, too; forty-two have been killed in the past two years alone.
Shabaab have persecuted Somalia's small Christian minority, sometimes affixing the label on people they suspect of working for Ethiopian intelligence. The group has also desecrated the graves of prominent Sufi Muslims in addition to a Sufi mosque and university, claiming that Sufi practices conflict with their strict interpretation of Islamic law. This has led to confrontations with Sufi organized armed groups who have organized under the banner of Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a.
Echoing the transition from a nationalistic struggle to one with religious pretenses, Al Shabaab’s propaganda strategy is starting to reflect this shift. Through their religious rhetoric Al Shabaab attempts to recruit and radicalize potential candidates, demoralize their enemies, and dominate dialogue in both national and international media. According to reports Al Shabaab is trying to intensify the conflict: "It would appear from the alleged AMISOM killings that it is determined to portray the war as an affair between Christians and Muslims to shore up support for its fledgling cause... The bodies, some beheaded, were displayed alongside Bibles and crucifixes. The group usually beheads those who have embraced Christianity or Western ideals. Militants have begun placing beheaded corpses next to bibles and crucifixes in order to intimidate local populations.” In April 2010 Al Shabaab announced that it would begin banning radio stations from broadcasting BBC and Voice of America, claiming that they were spreading Christian propaganda. By effectively shutting down the Somali media they gain greater control of the dialog surrounding their activities.
- June 10, 2006—The Guardian reports "An unnamed network run by one of Aweys's proteges, Aden Hashi Farah "Ayro" is linked to the murder of four western aid workers and over a dozen Somalis who allegedly cooperated with counter-terror organisations."
- June 15, 2006—Al-Shabaab leader Aden Hashi Farah "Eyrow", was said to have taken arms sent from Eritrea (see page 12).
- July 26, 2006—Sheikh Mukhtar Robow Mansur or "Abu-Mansur" was reported accepting another load of arms from Eritrea (see page 15).
- July—720 Somali volunteers were selected by Aden Hashi Farah "Eyrow" to travel to Lebanon to fight against the Israelis. Of those, only 80 returned to Mogadishu. In September, another 20 returned, along with five members of Hizbollah. (see page 24).
- The bankruptcy of a remittance company, Dalsan International, whose staff included the brother of Aden Hashi Farah "Eyrow", involved the suspicious disappearance of $10 million. It was alleged, "an ICU military leader managed to divert a large amount of money to help financially support the organization in their fight for the control of Mogadishu during the June 2006 confrontation with the former counter terrorism alliance" (see page 39). (Also see ARPCT, Second Battle of Mogadishu)
- As of January 6, 2007, after the Fall of Mogadishu and Kismayo to the TFG, the leaders of the Shabaab were in hiding still at large. A member of the disbanded group said they once numbered about 1,000 (lower than other claims by former members), but they do not have any weapons any more. Still, there was support for the call of leaders to maintain jihad against the Ethiopians and secular government.
- January 19, 2007—Pro-Islamic Courts Union website featured a video describing the reformation of the ICU into the "Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations" (PRM), alternatively translated and referred to in press reports as the "Somali People's Insurgent Movement" (SPIM) or "Somali People's Resistance Movement" (SPRM). On January 24, Sheikh Abdikadir was announced to be its commander of the Banadir region.
- January 31, 2007—Al-Shabaab made a video warning African Union peacekeepers to avoid coming to Somalia, claiming "Somalia is not a place where you will earn a salary — it is a place where you will die."
- February 9, 2007—800 Somali demonstrators in north Mogadishu, where Islamist support was strongest, burned U.S., Ethiopian, and Ugandan flags in protest of the proposed African Union (AU) led and United Nations endorsed peacekeeping mission, known as AMISOM. "Abdirisaq", a masked representative of the resistance group, the PRM, said Ethiopian troops would be attacked in their hotels.
- February 28: United States Department of State designates al-Shabaab as a Foreign Terrorist Organization in accordance with section 219 of the U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).
- August: Al-Shabaab achieve a military victory in the Battle of Kismayo. After several days of fighting in which scores of deaths are reported, Al-Shabaab fighters defeat the militia of Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale and took control of the port city. Kismayo had been held by the TFG since January 2007. The fighting in Kismayo is reported to have displaced an estimated 35,000 people. After the withdrawal of Hiiraale's fighters, Al-Shabaab commence a peaceful disarmament process targeting local armed groups that had been contributing to insecurity in Kismayo. The group has been blamed or claimed responsibility for, among other attacks, the February 2008 Bosaso bombings and the 2008 Hargeisa–Bosaso bombings. By late 2008, it was estimated that the group controlled the whole of southern Somalia, except for some pockets of Mogadishu. This was more territory than that controlled by the Islamic Courts Union at the height of their power.
- October 27: After being sentenced to public execution by Al-Shabaab courts, Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow is stoned to death by around 50 militants in the southern port town of Kismayo. Initial reports of the killing stated that she was a 23-year-old woman found guilty of adultery. However, Duhulow's father asserted that she was only 13, under the age of marriage eligibility, and that she was arrested and executed after trying to report that she had been raped. The stoning took place in a public stadium with roughly 1,000 bystanders in it, several of whom attempted to intervene but were in the process shot by the militants.
- December: Anwar al-Awlaki sends a communique to Al-Shabaab, congratulating them. He thanks them for "giving us a living example of how we as Muslims should proceed to change our situation. The ballot has failed us, but the bullet has not". In conclusion, he writes: "if my circumstances would have allowed, I would not have hesitated in joining you and being a soldier in your ranks".
- January: UN-sponsored peace talks conclude in Djibouti with Ethopians agreeing to withdraw from Somalia and Islamist leader Sheikh Sharif Ahmed "agreed to stop fighting."
- January 31: Shiekh Sharif Ahmed is elected present of the Transitional Federal Government. Opposing any negotiatied settlement with Ethiopia, al-Shabaab "declares war on him."
- February 22: 2009 African Union base bombings in Mogadishu: al-Shabaab carried out a suicide car bomb attack against an African Union military base in Mogadishu, killing at least six Burundian peacekeepers.
- May: al-Shabaab, along with allied group Hizbul Islam, launched a major offensive in the city of Mogadishu to take over the city, leaving hundreds killed and injured and tens of thousands displaced. The group made large gains, taking over most of the capital.
- June 18: Al-Shabaab claimed the 2009 Beledweyne bombing, which killed 35 people including Somali security minister Omar Hashi Aden.
- June 18: U.S. Diplomatic Security Daily cable, 09STATE63860, includes the death of Omar Hashi Aden and al Shabaab's shift of tactics to include suicide bombings.
- July 8: A video message featuring an American commander in al-Shabaab, Abu Mansur al-Amriki, is released in which he responds and denounces U.S. President Barack Obama's June 2009 Cairo speech to Arabs and Muslims.
- August 4: Four men allegedly connected with al-Shabaab in Melbourne, Australia were charged over the Holsworthy Barracks terror plot, a plan to storm the Holsworthy Barracks with automatic weapons; and shoot army personnel or others until they were killed or captured. Al-Shabaab has denied any connection with the men. It has subsequently been listed as a terrorist organisation in Australia.
- August 11: Reuters reports residents in Marka complain "al Shabaab has been rounding up anyone seen with a silver or gold tooth and taking them to a masked man who then rips them out using basic tools." Residents told Reuters that al Shabaab declared that since gold and silver teeth "are used for fashion and beauty," they are against Islam.
- September 14: Members of the group were killed in a raid targeting Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, who was also killed.
- September 17: The group claims a second bombing of an AU base, which kills 17 peacekeepers.
- September 20: Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen released a 48-minute video, "Labayka Ya Usama," ("Here I am at Your Service, Usama") on transnational jihadi web sites. The video is framed around Usama bin Laden's March 2009 audio message "Fight On, O' Champions of Somalia," and features footage of African Union "atrocities" in Somalia and Harakat al-Shabaab units undergoing military training. Bin Laden and the Amir (leader) of Harakat al-Shabaab, Shaykh Ahmed Abdi Godane, also known as Abu al-Zubayr, criticize Somalia's interim president, Sheikh Sharif Ahmed, and the religious scholars of Somalia ('ulama al-Sumaal) for apostasy. Abu Mansoor Al-Amriki, the American field commander in the group, is also briefly featured.
- October 15: Al-Shabaab began publicly whipping women for wearing bras that they claim violate Islam as they are deceptive. They sent gunmen into the streets of Mogadishu to round up any women who appear to be being deceptive. The women were then inspected by other women to see if they are being deceptive, if they are then they are ordered to stop.
- November 1: Al-Shabaab announced the establishment of Al Quds Brigade, a military unit specifically tasked with attacking Israel and Jewish interests in Africa. In a rally held the previous week in Mogadishu, a top Al Shabaab official said, "It is time to go for open war against Israel in order to drive them from the holy cities."
- December 3: Suspected of being behind the 2009 Hotel Shamo bombing, which kills 24, including three government ministers.
- January 2: A man linked to al-Shabaab tried to kill Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard at his home in Aarhus, Denmark. Westergaard was not hurt and the assailant was shot, wounded, and arrested.
- February 1: al-Shabaab declares for the first time that it maintains strong ties with al-Qaeda.
- February 7: The militant group declares jihad on Kenya over allegations that it is training Somali troops although Kenya denied involvement.
- February 15: an al-Shabab suicide car bomber attempted to assassinate Somalia's state minister for defence, Yusuf Mohamed Siyad when he drove his explosive-laden vehicle towards Mr Siyad's car and detonated, injuring two of his security guards.
- March 5: The Government of Canada lists Al Shabaab as a terrorist group.
- March 26: al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for a roadside bomb that exploded in Mogadishu killing a Somali government official and injuring the deputy DC for security.
- March 27: al-Shabaab destroys grave sites of foreign soldiers and a prominent Sufi scholar and hides the body of the scholar.
- April 15: The group bans the ringing of school bells as un-Islamic since bell ringing is, in the words of Sheik Farah Kalar, "a sign of the Christian churches."
- June 5: Two New Jersey men, Mohamed Mahmood Alessa and Carlos Eduardo Almonte, who were bound for Somalia seeking to join Al Shabab were arrested at Kennedy International Airport in New York City. The men, who have been charged with conspiring to kill, maim, and kidnap persons outside the United States, allegedly planned to kill American troops who they thought would soon be deployed to Somalia to help fight Al Shabaab.
- July 11: Al-Shabaab claims responsibility for the July 2010 Kampala attacks, which killed 74 people. The Wall Street Journal quotes an International Crisis Group analyst as saying, [Al-Shabaab is] "sending a message: Don't come here propping up the Somalia government ... It's a message of deterrence."
- July 21: Zachary Chesser, the Virginia man who threatened the creators of South Park for satirizing issues surrounding the depiction of the Prophet Muhammad, was arrested and charged in July 2010 for providing material support to Al Shabaab. Chesser was originally apprehended in New York as he attempted to board an Africa-bound plane. He later told federal authorities that he had attempted to join Al Shabaab in Somalia on two previous occasions.
- July 22: African Union ministers agree to expand AMISOM's mandate from a peacekeeping focus to a peace-enforcement focus that would engage al-Shabaab more directly. The decision was to be discussed at upcoming meetings of the AU Security Council and the UN Security Council for final approval.
- August 23–24: Al Shabaab is accused of launching attacks in the Somali capital Mogadishu that kill over 300.
- October 28: Al-Shabaab publicly executed two teenage girls, by firing squad, on charges of spying. Residents gave conflicting information regarding the girls' ages, but they were believed to have been 17 and 18 years old.
- December 20: Hizbul Islam and the Somali Islamic party merged with Al-Shabaab, retaining the name 'Al-Shabaab'.
- February 4: Al-Shabaab launch terrestrial news channel "Al-Kata'ib" to broadcast propaganda. The first footage shown is a recording of confessions of an alleged foreign spy captured in Somalia
- March 5: Al-Shabaab loses control of the border town of Bulo Hawo in a joint offensive conducted by government forces working with AMISOM; the militia had controlled the city for two years beforehand. It was also reported that al-Shabaab was resisting against UN/Government forces for control of three of Mogadishu's sixteen districts, with six still remaining in their control.
- March 16: Abdikadir Yusuf Aar aka Sheikh Qalbi a senior Al-Shabab official serving as the groups leader in Juba and Gedo region was killed in Mogadishu.
- April 3: Al-Shabaab loses control of the town Dhobley near the Kenyan boarder. TFG forces together with Raskamboni movement had been fighting for several days before they took control of the town with support from helicopters of the Kenya Air Force. The same day as Al-Shabab lost control of the town Hassan Abdurrahman Gumarey, an Al-Shabaab official was killed in action (KIA) in Dhobley.
- June 11: Wanted Al-Shabaab operative and Al-Qaeda collaborator Fazul Abdullah Mohammed is killed by security forces of the SNA in Afgooye northwest of Mogadishu; one other terrorist was killed and $40,000 worth of U.S. dollars are recovered.
- July 5: Al-Shabaab officially lifts its ban on some aid agencies, but upholds it later in the month vis-a-vis certain organizations. As an explanation for this discrepancy, the group's spokesman Sheikh Ali Dhere indicates that the group has no issue with allowing both Muslim and non-Muslim individuals from helping the drought-impacted people as long as those groups harbor no ulterior motives in doing so. Dhere adds that his organization believes that many aid agencies are exaggerating their relief requirements so as to satisfy their own selfish objectives. He also suggests that the actual nature of many of the relief operations are twofold: first, some of the aid workers are in effect attacking as "spies", while others, including the UN, he charges have a tacit political agenda not in keeping with what they claim to be doing. In addition, Dhere alleges that aid agencies that are providing assistance in neighboring countries are attempting to siphon away the various Muslim peoples of Somalia in order to more easily indoctrinate them into Christianity. Al-Shabaab members are reported to have intimidated, kidnapped and killed some aid workers, leading to a suspension of humanitarian operations and an exodus of relief agents. As a result, AU troops step up efforts in late July 2011 to protect civilians and aid workers from attacks.
- July 26: Al-Shabaab members ban samosas (sambusas) in regions they control, deeming the snack too Christian on account of its triangular, allegedly Holy Trinity-like shape.
- August 6: The Transitional Federal Government's troops and their AMISOM allies reportedly manage to capture all of Mogadishu from the Al-Shabaab militants. Witnesses report Al-Shabaab vehicles abandoning their bases in the capital for the south-central city of Baidoa. The group's spokesman Sheikh Ali Mohamud Rage describes the exodus as a tactical retreat, and vows to continue the insurgency against the national government. Observers suggest that the pullout may at least in part have been caused by internal ideological rifts in the rebel organization.
- August 9: An ideological split reportedly emerges within Al-Shabaab's leadership. Muktar Ali Robow, Sheikh Hassan Dahir and other southern commanders who hail from the areas of the country worst-hit by the effects of the drought, reportedly want to extend relief efforts to the impacted peoples. However, they are overruled by Ahmed Abdi Godane, a northern commander credited with strengthening the group's ties with Al-Qaeda. Observers suggest that the move is a manifestation of Godane's increasing paranoia since the assassination of his close ally Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, the latter of whom Godane suspects was set up by his foes within the organization. Sheikh Hassan Dahir also proposes that the group change its tactics by "abandoning Mogadishu to launch Taliban style attacks in Pakistan and Afghanistan", but is rebuffed by leaders within the organization.
- October 4: A truck carrying explosive was driven into a government ministry in Somalia killing 139 and injuring 93. The group has claimed responsibility for these attacks.
- October 16: A coordinated operation against Al-Shabaab begins between the Somali military and the Kenyan military, as Kenyan troops cross over into Somalia after having met with Somali military officials.
- October 20: Two women, Amina Farah Ali and Hawo Mohamed Hassan, both from Rochester, Minnesota were arrested for sending money and fighters to aid the group.
- November 26: Martyrship video of Mansur Nasir al Bihani, an al Qaeda veteran of Afghanistan, who trained al Shaabab fighters, is "killed in a clash with American forces off the coast of Somalia."
- December 31: The Transitional Federal Government retakes control of the central town of Beledweyne from the Al-Shabaab militants. Somali National Army (SNA) soldiers and around 3,000 allied Ethiopian army troops attacked the city in the early morning, capturing it after hours of fighting. Around 20 people were killed in the battle, mainly consisting of Ethiopian soldiers and Al-Shabaab insurgents.
- January 6: US Army veteran Craig Baxam is charged in Maryland with attempting to lend material support to Al-Shabaab. Baxam had been en route to Somalia when he was detained in Kenya on December 23 and repatriated to the United States.
- January 20: TFG forces and their AU allies launch a successful offensive against Al-Shabaab positions on the northern outskirts of Mogadishu. The move was intended to secure the city's outer perimeters from external attack. Two AMISOM soldiers were wounded in the ensuing battle.
- January 9: Reports indicate that Al-Shabaab leader Moallim Jinwa is sacked from his leadership position. Over 1,000 frontline troops loyal to the commander subsequently follow him to his home town of Ramcadey in the southern Bay region.
- January 22: Bilal el-Berjawi, a British national and alleged Al-Qaida member and Al-Shabaab trainer, is killed in a U.S. drone attack. The car he was traveling in was struck by three missiles on the outskirts of Mogadishu.
- February 9: Al-Shabaab's leader, Mukhtar Abu al-Zubair, announces that the group would be joining al-Qaeda.
- February 19: The Somalian embassy in Yemen indicates that 500 Al-Shabaab militants have fled to Yemen to join forces with Al-Qaeda operatives in the region.
- February 22: TFG and Ethiopian forces capture the strategic southern town of Baidoa, an Islamist stronghold. Al-Shabaab confirm that it had made a "tactical retreat", vowing a guerrilla war in retaliation.
- February 25: Reports indicate that hundreds of Al-Shabaab militants, including many foreigners, are fleeing Kismayo and other southern towns for Yemen so as to escape drone attacks and an on-land offensive by allied Somali, Ethiopian, Kenyan and AMISOM forces. Al-Shabaab members deny that they are fleeing and indicate instead that they are regrouping in nearby islands. They also charge that the rumours of their flight are intended to demoralize their fighters.
- March 9: Schoolteacher Shabaaz Hussain convicted of sending over £9,000 in 2010 to three Somalia-bound friends who had left the UK to allegedly join Al-Shabaab.
- March 11: Al-Shabaab is blamed for a grenade attack which killed 4 people at a bus station and injured dozens others in Nairobi, Kenya. The grenade was hurled from a vehicle passing the bus station.
- March 17: Abu Mansur Al Amriki (Omar Hammami) releases a new video intimating that he fears fellow Al-Shabaab members may assassinate him due to differences in opinion over strategy and sharia law.
- May 25: Somali government troops and their AMISOM allies capture the strategic town of Afgoye from Al-Shabaab.
- May 31: Somali government forces and African Union troops from Kenya capture Afmadow from Al-Shabaab, a southern town considered important in the military campaign owing to its network of roads that grant access to many different parts of the country. Prime Minister Ali also announces that Kismayo, situated 115 km (71 miles) to the south and the seat of Al-Shabaab's headquarters, would be the next likely target, followed by other towns and cities in the larger region.
- June 26: Somali government forces assisted by AMISOM soldiers and tanks capture the Al-Shabaab stronghold of Balad, situated 30 km (20 miles) to the north of Mogadishu, in addition to the surrounding villages. The insurgents reportedly fled the area prior to the arrival of the allied troops. Securing Balad gives the Somali authorities and AMISOM control of a key bridge over the Shebelle River leading toward Jowhar and more northerly areas.
- July 11: Somali government troops and their AMISOM allies capture the town of Lanta Buuro from Al-Shabaab. Situated approximately 40 km west of Mogadishu, the area had been used as a training base for the militant group. 11 Al-Shabaab fighters were killed in the battle; a few allied casualties were also reported.
- August 27: Somali government forces assisted by AMISOM troops capture the port town of Merca from Al-Shabaab. Residents indicate that the militants had fled a few hours earlier to Kismayo, which represents the group's last major stronghold.
- August 29: Somali government forces backed by African Union troops battle Al-Shabaab militants in the villages of Aglibah, Janaay, Abdulle and Birta Dheer, situated between Afmadow and Kismayo. According to General Ismail Sahardiid, the commander in charge of Somali Army troops in the Lower Jubba region, over 60 insurgents died in the crossfire. Al-Shabaab claims in turn to have killed dozens of government soldiers in the ensuing gun battle. With the allied forces reportedly around 50 kilometers (31 miles) near Kismayo, General Sahardiid indicates that his men are advancing toward the stronghold with caution but expect to capture it within a period of seven days. According to a local resident, Al-Shabaab have also positioned armored vehicles on the circumference of the town and are patrolling the area in heavy battle gear and wagons.
- September 1: Somali government forces assisted by African Union troops continue their march toward Kismayo, capturing the southern town of Miido, situated 86 km from the Al-Shabaab stronghold. As many as 36 insurgents were reportedly slain in the assault. AMISOM also deny claims that the insurgents had seized back Afmadow, and dismiss as "untrue Al Shabaab propaganda" reports that the militant group had gunned down an AU helicopter. Additionally, an AMISOM spokesman characterizes as a "very despicable and a shameful act" photos released by Al-Shabaab showing bodies of four allied soldiers being dragged through the Kismayo streets.
- September 28: According to AMISOM official Col. Cyrus Oguna, the Somali National Army and Kenyan AU naval, air and ground forces launched a surprise attack on Kismayo, capturing the city with little resistance mounted by Al-Shabaab. The spokesman asserts that the insurgents incurred "heavy losses" during the offensive, whereas no allied soldiers were wounded or killed. Fighters from the Ras Kamboni militia also reportedly assisted the SNA and AU troops, who led the charge. Al-Shabaab's military operations spokesman Sheikh Abdiasis Abu Musab states that "fierce fighting" is underway between his comrades and the Somali and AMISOM forces. Local residents similarly indicate that the allied troops have seized the port, but the militants are still present elsewhere in the town and are quickly making their way toward the frontlines in vehicles. The Islamist group's propaganda radio station is also still reportedly broadcasting material and allegedly attempting to trick residents into fleeing toward the oncoming Somali government and AMISOM troops. Kismayo is regarded as Al-Shabaab's last major stronghold on account of the revenue that the group has been able to generate for itself through exporting charcoal and levying port taxes on imported goods. Col. Oguna indicates that capturing the city "may signal the end of al-Shabab because Kismayo has been the bastion which has financed activities of the al-Shabab in other regions of Somalia". Owing to uncertainty as to who will administer the town after the Islamists have been completely ousted, the AU spokesman adds that the offensive was "meticulously planned".
- October 14: Somali government soldiers assisted by AMISOM troops capture the strategically important town of Wanla Weyn, located 93 km south of Mogadishu. The victory permits a direct route connecting the capital with the recently secured city of Baidoa. According to Somali government and AU officials, it also cuts off Al-Shabaab's access to other regions, and denies the militants another key source of funds. Additionally, the allied forces seize control of a former Somali Air Corps (SAC) base, situated within 15 km of Wanla Weyn.
- October 23: Al-Shabaab posts a series of 11 messages on Twitter condemning the United Kingdom for the extradition of radical Muslim cleric Abu Hamza to the United States, threatening a terrorist attack in Britain which would be "bound to eclipse the horrors of 7/7 and 21/7 combined".
- October 29: Somali military sources report that General Mohamed Ibrahim Farah (Gordan) is killed in an ambush attack by Al-Shabaab insurgents. The surprise assault occurred in the town of El Waregow, near the port of Marko (Merca). Al-Shabaab did not comment on the assassination.
- December 9: Somali government forces assisted by AMISOM troops capture the Al-Shabaab stronghold of Jowhar, situated 90 kilometres (60 miles) north of Mogadishu.
- December 17: Al-Shabaab posts a message on Twitter publicly chatising the group's senior American commander Abu Mansuur al-Amriki (Omar Shafik Hammami) for releasing videos in a "narcissistic pursuit of fame." The tweet also asserts that attempts behind the scenes by the group to talk to Al-Amriki were in vain, so Al-Shabaab was morally obligated to divulge his "obstinacy".
- January 4: Al-Shabaab issue an ultimatum to estranged American commander Abu Mansoor Al-Amriki (Omar Hammami) to either turn himself in to his comrades by Saturday, January 19, or face execution. The move came after Al-Amriki had issued a series of criticisms of the group's leaders via several online videos and his abumamerican Twitter account. He accused senior Al-Shabaab commanders of keeping the spoils of war for themselves while not sharing it with the rank-and-file insurgents who fought for it, and instead imprisoning them for touching it. He also charged the group's senior commanders of focusing too much on internal struggles in Somalia rather than the global jihad, and of assigning assassins to kill fellow militants.
- January 5: Somali military troops and their Ethiopian army allies fend off an Al-Shabaab ambush attempt in an area between the southern towns of Luuq and Garbaharey. According to Somali military representatives, two of their men were killed in the ensuing battle, with seven other soldiers injured. Insurgent casualties are unconfirmed. The allied forces are marching towards the rebel group's last remaining strongholds in the southern Gedo region, including Bardhere.
- January 11: Al-Shabaab fighters kill intelligence officer Denis Allex and two other French soldiers in a botched rescue attempt by French forces. A DGSE operative, Allex had been held since 2009, when he was taken hostage by the insurgents while training Somali government troops. In exchange for his release, Al-Shabaab had demanded cessation of French support for the Somali authorities and the complete withdrawal from Somalia of AMISOM forces. According to the French Ministry of Defence, 17 militants were also slain in the crossfire.
- June 20: al-Shabab members loyal to Godane clashed with rival factions in the southern port of Barawe. Among the dead were two leaders and co-founders of the group, Ibrahim Haji Jama Mee'aad and Abul Hamid Hashi Olhayi.
- June 28: UN reports that the Al-Shabaab spiritual leader Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys has turned himself in to pro-government officials in the central town of Adado. Local elders assert that he and his militia are stationed in the central Galmudug region, having fled from their own comrades in Al-Shabaab-controlled territory after a bout of infighting. According to the Shabelle Media Network, legislators and elders flew in to the town in an attempt to persuade Aweys to negotiate with the government. However, the elders indicate that their efforts were unsuccessful.
- June 30: Aweys is arrested by Somali government forces, after flying in to Mogadishu for talks with the federal authorities.
- September 4: In a phone interview with VOA, Omar Hammami (Abu Mansour al-Amriki) announces that he has renounced links with both Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda. He cites Al-Shabaab commander Godane's assassination attempt against him, as well as the murder by Godane's faction of an individual who reportedly offered shelter to his two wives as the main reasons for his severing of ties with the insurgent group. Hammami also asserts that he still regards himself as a jihadist, and indicates that he is hiding in parts of the southern Bakool and Bay regions.
- September 12: Al-Shabaab member Sheik Abu Mohammed announces that Omar Hammami (Abu Mansour Al-Amriki) is killed in an ambush in the southern Bay region. Mohammed asserts that his associates carried out the assassination on the orders of the militant group's leader. However, the insurgents did not offer any evidence of Hammami's death.
- September 19: Somali National Army forces assisted by AMISOM troops seize the Middle Shebelle provincial town of Mahadeey from Al-Shabaab. The militants withdrew from the area following an early morning raid by the allied forces, with no casualties reported. It was one of the last urban centers that the insurgent group controlled. The raid is the first major territorial gain by the allied forces in several months after a hiatus in military operations. According to government officials, the offensive represents the start of a mobbing out operation intended to eliminate remnants of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda.
- September 21: Al-Shabaab claims responsibility over Twitter for the Westgate centre shooting, an armed attack in a Nairobi shopping mall. The insurgent group asserts that its militants shot around 100 people in retaliation for the deployment of Kenyan troops in Somalia, with the Kenyan Red Cross confirming 62 fatalities and over 120 injuries.
- September 25: Somali government forces assisted by AMISOM troops capture the town of Biyo Adde from Al-Shabaab. Remnants of the insurgent group withdrew from the Middle Shebelle settlement following a march toward the city by the allied soldiers and their armed trucks. According to local reports, three militants were killed during the skirmish.
- October 5: Al-Shabaab spokesman Sheikh Abdiasis Abu Musab announces that Western naval forces launched an assault on a house in the insurgent stronghold of Barawe, a town situated around 180 km south of Mogadishu. He states that the foreign soldiers had silencer guns, and exchanged gunfire and grenades with the militants before being driven away. Musab later asserts that the attack was launched by the UK SAS unit as well as Turkish special forces, and that one British commander was killed during the raid and four other SAS operatives were fatally wounded. Additionally, a Somali intelligence official indicates that a Chechen Al-Shabaab leader was the target of the mission, and that the insurgent commander was wounded during the offensive and one of his guards was killed. Somali police also state that the operation had the approval of the Somali government, and that seven individuals were killed during the mission. Both NATO and EU Navfor deny involvement in the raid, as does a Turkish Foreign Ministry representative. A spokeswoman for the British Defence Ministry also says that she and her colleagues are not aware of any British involvement in the operation. According to another Somali intelligence official, the target of the raid was Al-Shabaab leader Ahmed Godane (Mukhtar Abu Zubeyr). A senior US military representative also indicates that Seal Team Six, the special force unit responsible for killing Osama bin Laden in Pakistan in 2011, launched the offensive but later abandoned the mission after coming under more fire than expected. Speaking about the aborted mission, US Secretary of State John Kerry says that the insurgents "can run but they can't hide". A spokesman for the Pentagon likewise asserts that US soldiers had been involved in a counter-terrorism mission in Somalia against a known Al-Shabaab member, but does not elaborate. He also indicates that there were no US fatalities during the operation. US officials later confirm that the target of the raid was Al-Shabaab commander Abdikadar Mohamed Abdikadar "Ikrima".
- November 10: As an initiative sponsored by Prince Charles and Prince William, the British Army sends 25 members of the 3rd Battalion, Parachute Regiment to Kenya to be based 200 miles north of Nairobi, where they are to train Kenyan rangers engaged in elephant conservation efforts in the face of poaching by Al-Shabaab.
- November 16: The Elephant Action League, an independent organization fighting elephant exploitation and wildlife crime, asserts that the illegal export in poached ivory by Al-Shabaab via ports in southern Somalia provides the group a monthly income of between $200,000 to $600,000 USD. The tusks are cut into blocks and hidden in crates of charcoal, the latter of which is under a UN-imposed embargo. Al-Shabaab is also accused of killing 60 wardens and 30,000 elephants in 2012 alone, and reportedly hiring poachers to kill the elephants and remove the tusks, for which the group pays the poachers $50–100 per kilogram. The majority of the ivory is shipped to customers in China, where it is sold for $3,000 per kilogram.
- January 8: Al-Shabaab announces that it is banning the Internet in the areas of Somalia that it controls. Internet Service Providers were given 15 days to terminate their service and warned of sanctions for non-compliance. The insurgent group is on Reporters Without Borders' list of "Predators of Freedom of Information".
- January 26: Sahal Iskudhuq, a senior Al-Shabaab commander and confidant of the militant group's spiritual leader, is killed between Barawe and Sablale in Somalia's southern Lower Shabelle region. Abu Mohamed, a leader within the insurgent outfit, indicates that Iskudhuq and his driver died when the vehicle they were in was struck by a drone missile. Mohamed blames U.S. authorities for the attack, with two American military officials later in the day confirming the missile strike. However, the representatives do not specify the target of the operation, and one of the officials indicates that U.S. intelligence was still ascertaining just how efficacious the strike had been. Somalia's Presidential office concurrently issues a press statement welcoming the drone attack by its U.S. partner. Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed also suggests via Twitter that the missile strike would serve as an effective deterrent against the arrival of additional jihadists, and would impede attempts by the militants to impose a blockade locally.
- February 21: Al-Shabab militants launch a surprise attack on Villa Somalia, when a car loaded with heavy explosives rams into the concrete barrier surrounding the perimeter of the palace. A group of ten armed men penetrate the area where the first bomb hit. All of the attackers are carrying suicide vests and fight a lengthy gun-battle with presidential guards inside the compound. The assault ends when Somali government troops and AMISOM forces reinforce the presidential guards in retaking several key buildings. President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud is unarmed. Government casualties are estimated at five palace guards killed, including the deputy intelligence chief Mohamed Nur Shirbow and Mohamed Abdulle, a close aide to the prime minister. All nine of the attackers were later found and confirmed dead.
- March 6: Somali forces and their Ethiopian AMISOM allies capture Rabdhure in the southwestern Bakool region, a key Al-Shabaab stronghold. Witnesses report the arrival in the town of Ethiopian infantrymen and battle tanks, as residents vacate their households ahead of the allied offensive. According to Somali federal government officials, dozens of Al-Shabaab insurgents are killed in the ensuing battle, with early reports putting the figure at 12 dead militants. Casualty figures for the Somali army soldiers and AMISOM troops are as yet unconfirmed. The insurgent group had previously used the town and its environs as a base from which to launch attacks. Additionally, an Al-Shabaab spokesman confirms that an intense battle for control of Rabhure took place, but does not elaborate on the seizure of the town. He also asserts that the militants managed to fight off an attack on their bases. The allied forces continue their march toward Hudur.
- March 7: Somali government forces assisted by Ethiopian troops capture Hudur, the capital of the southern Bakool province, from Al-Shabaab militants. The insurgent group had seized control of the town about a year earlier, following a surprise withdrawal by Ethiopian troops. Hudur since that time served as the militant outfit's largest remaining stronghold. Additionally, AMISOM confirms on Twitter that the allied forces have seized the town. According to AMISOM spokesman Colonel Ali Aden Houmed, the Al-Shabaab militants retreated after attempting to engage the allied forces, with three Somali army soldiers incurring minor injuries and no AMISOM casualties. Hudur's Mayor Mohamed Moallim Ahmed also announces that Somali soldiers and Ethiopian AMISOM troops are conducting door-to-door investigations in a joint security operation, with a number of suspects apprehended.
- March 9: Somali government forces assisted by an Ethiopian battalion with AMISOM captured Wajid District in the southern Bakool province. According to the district Governor Abdullahi Yarisow, the siege took a few hours and local residents welcomed the allied forces. He did not specify any casualties. Somali government troops assisted by AMISOM soldiers concurrently engage Al-Shabaab militants in a gun battle on the outskirts of Burdhubo in the southern Gedo province. It is the second largest of the remaining towns in the region that are under Al-Shabaab control. According to a senior Somali military officer stationed in the province, Col. Abdi Bule Abdi, the allied forces captured three of the insurgents during the operation. The official also indicates that they killed at least six other fighters, but declines to comment on casualties by the joint Somali and AMISOM troops. Within a few hours, the allied forces capture Burdhubo. According to the Gedo region Governor Mohamed Abdi Kali, the Somali and AMISOM troops are now marching toward Bardera, Al-Shabaab's largest remaining stronghold and a place of residence of several of its senior commanders.
- March 13: Somali army forces backed by AMISOM troops capture Bulobarte from Al-Shabaab. Situated in the Hiran region, the town was the insurgent group's strongest base in central Somalia. According to the tenth Somali national army contingent commissioner, Colonel Mohamed Ammin, the militants vacated Bulobarte thereby allowing the allied forces to seize control of the area. He adds that Somali government soldiers and AMISOM forces are now headed toward the other parts of the region under insurgent control, with the joint troops expecting to remove the militants altogether from Hiran over the next few days. Additionally, the allied forces seize control of Buqdaaqable; the insurgents mount no resistance. The town is located around 90 km from Beledweyne, Hiran's capital.
- May 24: Al-Shabaab militants traveling in a Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device (VBIED) attempt to trespass the entrance to the parliamentary compound in Mogadishu. After the VBIED explodes, the uniformed gunmen in it enter an unoccupied portion of the building. They are immediately counter-attacked by Somali National Army soldiers assisted by AMISOM security personnel, who have been deployed to the area. The ensuing gunfight lasts five hours. All legislators are in the meantime safely evacuated from the premises. Three MPs, Omar Mohamed Finish, Abdalla Boos and Mohamed Moallim, sustain minor injuries from the blast and are taken to local hospitals for treatment. Medical teams are also dispatched onto the scene, and other wounded parties, most of whom are security guards, are receiving treatment at the AMISOM hospital. All of the attackers are killed.
- May 24: A pair of suicide bombers launch an attack on a restaurant popular with foreigners in downtown Djibouti. 20 deaths and 15 wounded individuals are reported. Al-Shabaab claims responsibility for the incident four days later, asserting that the attack was in retaliation for the Djiboutian military's participation in AMISOM, the French military's operations against Islamists in the Sahara, and the American military presence in Djibouti.
- May 31: Somali National Army soldiers and AMISOM troops launch a morning raid on Ceel-Waare and Dhabadey, two towns situated about 18 km from Buloburte on the main road from Beledweyne. According to SNA Colonel Mohamed Ali, the allied forces have liberated the villages from Al-Shabaab, confiscated three rifles from the militants, and killed a number of insurgents while others fled ahead of the offensive. The joint forces have in the process freed a dozen civilian-owned trucks carrying commercial goods to Buloburte, one of several supply routes that Al-Shabaab had attempted to block.
- July 8: Al-Shabaab militants attempt to breach the gated perimeter of the Villa Somalia presidential compound in Mogadishu with a car bomb. At a joint press conference on the abortive terrorist attack, Information Minister Mustafa Dhuhulow indicates that government soldiers assisted by AMISOM troops managed to repel the raid, with no public officials injured. He adds that security forces killed three of the insurgents in the car park during the Iftar assault, while the fourth was taken into custody. Bomb disposal specialists also reportedly managed to deactivate a suicide vest that one of the attackers had on, which had failed to go off, in addition to several other explosive devices. Dhuhulow likewise states that a thorough investigation into the attack would be launched. Al-Shabaab spokesman Sheikh Abdiasis Abu Musab claims that the militant group's fighters killed 14 soldiers during the raid. Additionally, police Colonel Abdullahi Aden indicates that there was an earlier gunfight near an underground cell holding insurgents. Residents also report hearing intermittent bursts of gunfire into the night. Dhuhulow indicates that chief of intelligence Bashir Gobe and police commander Abdihakim Saaid have been immediately replaced. As part of a broader security reform, Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed also announces that a new national security minister has been named. Speaking from Villa Somalia, President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, who was at another location at the time of the attack, dispels as wild rumours suggestions that the insurgents controlled state buildings and of ongoing gunfights. He confirms that state forces assisted by AMISOM troops have secured the compound, and urges the citizenry to work with the government to further strengthen security.
- July 13: Somali national security forces assisted by AMISOM troops capture Saydhelow and Labatan from Al-Shabaab. The two villages are situated around 60 km from the Bay region center of Baidoa. According to the Berdaale district governor Mohamed Issack (Caracase), fatalities vis-a-vis the insurgents are unreported, while two government soldiers were wounded during the gunfight. He also indicates that the allied forces seized several armed vehicles from the militants.
In 2009, Al-Shabaab witnessed a number of its fighters, including several leaders, defect to Somalia's Transitional Federal Government. One such high profile defection was that in early November 2009 of Sheikh Mohamed Abdullahi (also known as "Sheikh Bakistani"), who commanded the Maymana Brigade. Sheikh Bakistani told Voice of America (VOA) Somali Services that he found the group's suicide missions and executions unbearable. He also indicated that his father, a well-known local religious leader, had visited him several times and helped convince him to defect. However, a spokesman for Al-Shabaab denied that Sheikh Bakistani was a member of the group. During the same month, in an interview with Agence France-Presse (AFP) in Villa Somalia arranged by the Somali federal government, one former Al-Shabaab fighter reported being disillusioned with the group's direction, indicating that while he began fighting in 2006 "to kick out the Ethiopian invaders", he defected a month ago, "disgusted by the false interpretations Al-Shabaab give of Islam". Similarly, a former Hizbul Islam commander recently defected to the Somali government; one of his family members (another Hizbul Islam commander) had been murdered by Al-Shabaab militants as punishment for having escorted a UN convoy. He said in the VOA interview that "if you don't want to fight anymore, there's no point. That's why I quit". In December 2009, Sheikh Ali Hassan Gheddi, who at the time served as Deputy Commander in-Chief of Al-Shabaab militants in the Middle Shabele region, also defected to the government, indicating that "Al-Shabaab's cruelty against the people is what forced me to defect to the government side. They extort money from the people and deal with them against the teaching of Islam". Another reason he gave for defecting was Al-Shabaab's then prohibition on the UN World Food Programme (WFP) because he felt that it directly affects civilians.
With money from extortion dwindling in areas like Mogadishu, defections in the face of AMISOM forces, among other internal issues, Al-Shabaab is turning to other militant Islamic groups for support. Al Shabaab has declared their support in order to bolster their numbers and has made a number of strategic operational ties to both Al Qaeda and AQAP in Yemen. In some cases Al Shabaab has begun flying the Al Qeada-Iraq banner at some of its rallies in order to demonstrate solidarity with the group. There are signs that Al-Shabaab militants are learning from Al Qaeda's propaganda methods. "Shabaab's propaganda has increasingly been slicked up to resemble messages produced by Al Qaeda's 'As-Sahab' ('The Clouds') media wing and AQAP's Inspire magazine, including the release of rap songs by Omar Hammami." It is unclear how the death of AQAP leader Anwar al-Aulaqi and others has affected this bourgeoning relationship between the two. As is evident by their merger with Hizb-ul-Islam in December 2010, Al-Shabaab is turning to former rivals for assistance as their numbers decrease due to defections and casualties directly resulting from battles with AMISOM forces.
In June 2012, TFG spokesman Abdirahman Omar Osman announced that around 500 militants had already defected from Al-Shabaab to fight alongside government forces. He added that the defections were reportedly increasing on a daily basis since TFG forces had captured the strategically important town of Afgooye from the insurgent group. AMISOM spokesman Lt. Col. Paddy Ankunda similarly indicated that AU commanders were witnessing more defections than at any previous time, a fact which he suggested was "a sign al-Shabab is losing cohesion, losing command and control." Al-Shabaab's increasingly strident rules, compounded by extortion, harsh punishments, indiscriminate killings and forced conscription of young men and boys, had also reportedly alienated local residents, encouraging a wave of defections.
On September 5, 2012, a further 200 Al-Shabaab militants and a few senior commanders in Afmadow surrendered to the coalition forces. The defections were interpreted as substantially enhancing the allied offensive since the insurgents could provide details on the Islamist group's combat strategy.
On September 22, 2012, an additional 200 Al-Shabaab insurgents in the town of Garsale near Jowhar surrendered to allied troops. This followed a round of internal battles between rival militants, which left eight of the group's fighters dead, including two top commanders. AMISOM announced in a press statement that it expects the total number of Al-Shabaab defections in the area to reach 250 men.
"Send me a cruise like Maa’lam Adam al Ansari
And send me a couple of tons like Zarqawi
And send me a drone like Abu Layth al Libi
And Special Forces like Saalih an Nabhani.”
“Send me all four and send me much much more
I pray for that on my way to heavens door
Send me four and send me more, that what I implore
An amazing martyrdom I strive for and adore."
|— "Send Me A Cruise" |
by Abu Mansoor Al-Amriki
Al Shabaab uses various media in order to proliferate their propaganda. Al Shabaab operates its own radio station, Radio Andalus, and has acquired relay stations and seized other equipment from private radio stations including some from the BBC. Presenters broadcast in Somali, Arabic, Swahili and English. Besides radio, the internet is the most heavily utilized by Al Shabaab and other militant Islamic groups such as Al Qaeda because it is the easiest and most cost-effective way to reach a large audience. As the internet is especially popular with today's youth, organizations such as Al Shabaab are using online forums and chat rooms in order to recruit young followers to their cause. Al Shabaab's official website, which has since been taken-down, featured posts, videos and official statements in English, Arabic and Somali, as well as online classrooms to educate followers.
Prior to its expulsion from Mogadishu in mid-2011, Al-Shabaab had also launched the Al-Kataib propaganda television station the year before. The channel's pilot program aired the confessions of Ahmed Kisi, an alleged CIA spy, who had been executed earlier in the week.
In addition, Al-Shabaab is also using music to influence and appeal to their young followers. According to Robin Wright, "by 2010, almost eight out of every ten soldiers in Somalia's many rebel forces were children", which are especially influenced and susceptible messages conveyed to modern, western-themed music. One of Al Shabaab's foreign-born leaders, American Omar Hammami aka Abu Mansoor Al-Amriki, gained notoriety after an April 2009 video of him rapping about jihad. Hammami's most recent song, "Send Me a Cruise", debuted online on April 9, 2011.
In October 2013 Al-Shabaab issued a propaganda video targeting several British Muslims who had spoken out against Islamist extremism, some of them explicitly against the murder of Lee Rigby. The video urged jihadists in the UK to follow the example of Rigby's killers, to arm themselves if necessary with knives from B&Q. The Muslims named in the video for "selling out" included Mohammed Shafiq, Mohammed Ansar, Usama Hasan and Ajmal Masroor.
On December 7, 2011, Al-Shabaab also reportedly began using the Twitter social media network. The move is believed to be an attempt by the group to counteract tweets by allied officials, and to serve as a venue for the dissemination of information on alleged casualties as well as a way to interact with the press. The account, HSMPress, has attracted over eight thousand followers for its witty taunts of the KDF in general and its official spokesman, Maj. Emmanuel Chirchir, with whom it has frequent exchanges, in particular.
For example, after Chirchir upbraided the Shabaab for not letting women in the areas under their control wear bras, saying life had more to offer, HSMPress retorted "Like bombing donkeys, you mean!" referring to a recent announcement by Chirchir that any large group of loaded donkeys would be considered a target. "Your eccentric battle strategy has got animal rights groups quite concerned, Major." Later, responding to Chirchir's claim that Kismayo had been captured by the KDF, HSMPress said the Kenyan "boys are a grotesque parody of an army! They can outpace ur world-class runners by far. Indeed, they 'Run like a Kenyan'". The account shows a less belligerent side with others, telling a UN official who queried "it is good when extremists or perceived extremists come out and talk[..] can we have a coffee with them too?" that "a caramel macchiato would do!"
While it is not known for certain if the HSMPress account is sanctioned by the Shabaab, both Western and African Union officials believe that it is. It has relayed information about battle outcomes that has sometimes been more accurate than its opponents, and posted pictures of authentic identity cards of missing AMISOM peacekeepers that were presumably killed in combat. The account itself is operated by a man with the nom de guerre Sheik Yoonis, who has in the past responded to press questions during telephone interviews in a "clipped British accent".
Most of Al-Shabaab's messages on Twitter are in English, with authorities suggesting that they are intended for an outside audience and potential recruits in the West. Officials in the United States, where Twitter is based, are exploring legal ways to terminate the account, although they acknowledge that doing so might raise free speech concerns. Chirchir commented in a tweet of his own that such a move would be counterproductive, as "Al Shabaab needs to be engaged positively and twitter is the only avenue".
In January 2013, Twitter suspended Al-Shabaab's English account. This was apparently in response to the account having issued death threats against Frenchman "Denis Allex" and subsequently posted photos of his corpse after the botched Bulo Marer hostage rescue attempt, as well as tweeting threats to kill Kenyan hostages. Al-Shabaab later opened a new Twitter account on February 4, 2013. Twitter closed the account again on September 6, 2013 for unspecified reasons. A few days earlier, on September 3, the insurgent group had used the service to claim responsibility for an unsuccessful ambush attempt against a convoy carrying Somalian President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. The militants also tweeted after the attack that the group had no other active Twitter feeds in English, and cautioned users against "parody accounts". The insurgent group also messaged that "next time, you won't be as lucky," in apparent violation of Twitter's user policies against issuing threats of violence and using the service for illicit purposes or activities. However, Al-Shabaab's Arabic account remained open. The group later relaunched its English Twitter account on September 11, 2013.
In September 2013, Twitter suspended at least six Al-Shabaab accounts after the outfit ridiculed the Kenyan government's response to the Westgate shopping mall attack in Nairobi, an attack which Al-Shabaab had claimed responsibility for. The group later re-opened a Twitter account in December, with the explanation that "the aim is to vigorously challenge defamatory reports in the media by presenting an accurate portrayal of the current state of Jihad in Somalia and countering Western, state-sponsored propaganda machines that are paid to demonise the Mujahideen." A Somali government spokesman stated that the Somali authorities were opposed to Al-Shabaab's presence on the social media website, as the group "should not be given the platform to mislead the youth."
Following the 2011 Eastern Africa drought, Al Shabaab adapted its propaganda strategy to accommodate the changing circumstances. In some cases, group members employed humanitarian aid as a recruitment tool, using relief supplies as bribes and as an incentive to join the militants, whose numbers had decreased due to casualties and defections. Group members dismissed the UN declaration of famine in various regions as grossly exaggerated and banned various organizations from providing aid to those regions.
In response, the Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Mohamed Ali in July 2011 appointed a national committee to tackle the severe drought affecting the southern part of the country, and the following month announced the creation of a new 300-man security force. Assisted by African Union peacekeepers, the military unit had as its primary goal to protect convoys and aid from the Al-Shabaab rebels, as well as to secure the IDP camps when the relief supplies are being distributed.
Although fighting disrupted aid delivery in some areas, a scaling up of relief operations in mid-November prompted the UN to downgrade the humanitarian situation in several regions from famine to emergency levels. Humanitarian access to Al-Shabaab-controlled areas had also improved and rainfall had surpassed expectations, improving the prospects of a good harvest in early 2012. In February 2012, the UN declares that Somalia has produced a bumper harvest, and that the famine is over.
Operation Linda NchiEdit
Since the TFG-led Operation Linda Nchi between the Somalian National Army (SNA) and the Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) against Al-Shabaab militants in southern Somalia began, Al Shabaab has been intensifying its propaganda effort – a signal perhaps that militant forces is growing desperate as it suffers heavy losses. Group members have started to diversify their tactics, engaging in various methods in order to demoralize the allied forces. According to the Associated Press, Al Shabaab has resorted to dressing up some of its own casualties in TFG and AU uniforms, although an African Union spokesman indicated that only two corpses of AU soldiers were unaccounted for. About half of the dead bodies were also visibly Somali, prompting eyewitnesses to suggest that they were fallen Somali government soldiers. The remainder were dressed in Burundi military uniforms and resembled non-Somali foreigners, with Al-Shabaab militants displaying a Bible and some crucifixes reportedly taken from the deceased. Additionally, Al-Shabaab has been conducting militia parades as a show of force in cities such as Marka.
As Al Shabaab is suffering heavy military losses, the effectiveness of their propaganda campaign to date is somewhat inconclusive. What is apparent, however, is that they are increasing their propaganda efforts without corresponding response from TFG, AMISOM and KDF forces. Al-Shabaab retreats from regions in southern Somalia and areas around Mogadishu are falsely heralded as tactical maneuvers by the militants who are facing defeat – while the allied forces remain largely muted on the success that they have made in the region.
The propaganda techniques employed by Al-Shabaab show the stark contrast between militant forces and the conventional armies of AMISOM. While Shabaab forces act with impunity in regards to their guerrilla tactics, the allied forces are obligated to comply with articles of the Geneva Convention which require them to warn civilians of air raids and troop movements – oftentimes informing the very militants they intend to strike and leaving them unable to act when they observe flagrant militant activities. According to Al-Jazeera, Al-Shabaab have also attempted to capitalize on the coordinated incursion by depicting itself as a resistance force fighting foreign occupiers and urged local residents to take up arms against the Kenyan soldiers.
Merger with Al-QaedaEdit
On February 9, 2012, Mukhtar Abu al-Zubair 'Godane' announced in a fifteen-minute video message that Al-Shabaab would be joining the Islamist militant terrorist organization al-Qaeda, under the leadership of Ayman al-Zawahiri. Al-Zubair stated, "On behalf of the soldiers and the commanders in al-Shabaab, we pledge allegiance to you. So lead us to the path of jihad and martyrdom that was drawn by our imam, the martyr Osama." Al-Zawahiri approved and welcomed Al-Shabaab as al-Qaeda's Somalia-based terrorist cell in a 15-minute video response, stating "Today, I have glad tidings for the Muslim Ummah that will please the believers and disturb the disbelievers, which is the joining of the Shabaab al-Mujahideen Movement in Somalia to Qaeda al-Jihad, to support the jihadi unity against the Zio-Crusader campaign and their assistants amongst the treacherous agent rulers." The merger follows reports about a rift in the leadership, and it coincides with reports about large factions breaking away from Al Shabaab, and up to 500 Al Shabaab fighters fleeing or leaving southern Somalia for Yemen, where a full Al Qaeda branch AQAP is stepping up operations, under perceived increased military pressure since a new president took office. Somalia's Transitional Federal Government officially recognized the two Islamist groups as one group.
A poll conducted between 8–16 April 2012 by the international market research company YouGov examined the views of MENA region residents with regard to the news of the merger. The combined group evoked fear in most respondents, with 42% believing that the merger announcement ought to be a source of alarm for the international community; 23% of polltakers felt very strongly about this. 45% of respondents believed that the fusion of the two groups would enhance Al-Qaeda's attempts at recruiting new operatives, with 12% indicating that the merger would strengthen the latter group's capabilities and another 11% believing that it would result in more terrorist attacks on the continent. A further 55% of pollsters did not know how the Somalian leadership would respond to news of the merger, though 36% suggested that it would lead to more movements against Al-Shabaab by the Somalian military. 34% of respondents also indicated that announcement of the merger constituted a propaganda effort aimed at securing more coverage for the two Islamist groups, with 30% of polltakers believing that the decision to merge shows that both Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda are under duress.
In response to Godane's announced name change and merger with al-Qaeda, all other Shabaab top leaders called a conference in Baidabo. They refused to adopt the new name (al-Qaeda in East Africa) and they agreed on a new policy, focusing entirely on domestic issues and with no mention any more of international struggle. One significant policy proposal was to form a national, independent Shuria of Islamic clerics, which means also independent of al-Qaeda. With it, they seem to try to remove some obstacles for reaching an entente with their Sufi opponents, and to avoid getting targeted by US drones. Aweys later declared that: "Al-Shabaab and al-Qaeda are merely a small part of the larger Islamic group and al-Qaeda's ideology should not be viewed as the sole, righteous path for Islam."
This open revolt against al-Qaeda made it more likely that Al-Shabaab would slowly become ready for some sort of negotiated entente. On February 23, 2012, while Shabaab was pushed out of several strongholds, Radio Magadishu reported that 120 al-Qaeda leaders and followers fled from Kismayo to Yemen. Aweys was appointed military commander of Kismayo and the south.
By 2013, the internal rifts within Al-Shabaab erupted into all-out warfare between Godane's faction and those of other leaders in the organization. In late June, four senior Shabaab commanders were executed under the orders of Godane. One of these commanders was Ibrahim al-Afghani, who had complained about the leadership style of Godane in a letter to Ayman al-Zawahiri. Sixteen others were arrested, and Aweys fled. He was later taken into custody in Mogadishu by Somali government forces. On 12 September, Omar Hammami, who had left the group due to significant disagreements with Godane, was killed by Al-Shabaab forces. The Westgate shopping mall shooting in September was said by Simon Tisdall to be a reflection of the power struggle within the insurgent group, with Godane's hardline global jihadi faction seeking to exert its authority.
Collaboration with AQIM and Boko HaramEdit
According to U.S. Army General Carter Ham, Al-Shabaab, Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and the Nigeria-based Boko Haram (BH) were as of June 2012 attempting to synchronize and coordinate their activities in terms of sharing funds, training and explosives. Ham added that he believed that the collaboration presented a threat to both U.S. homeland security and the local authorities. However, according to counter-terrorism specialist Rick Nelson with the Washington-based Center for Strategic International Studies, there was little evidence that the three groups were targeting U.S. areas, as each was primarily interested in establishing fundamentalist administrations in their respective regions. In May 2014, Senior Al-Shabab member Fuad Shongole stated that al-Shabab fighters would carry out jihad, or holy war, in Kenya and Uganda "and afterward, with God's will, to America."
Split with Hizbul IslamEdit
On September 24, 2012, Hizbul Islam spokesman Mohamed Moallim announced that his group was discontinuing its association with Al-Shabaab, a group that he asserted his organization had only nominally united with. Moallim cited the significant political changes happening in Somalia as well as Al-Shabaab's reported issuance of propaganda against Hizbul Islam as the primary reasons for his group's decision to leave the coalition. He added that his organization did not share Al-Shabaab's political philosophy, and that he felt the militant group had been considerably "weakened". Moallim also indicated that Hizbul Islam was open to talks with any political actors in the country working for a common good.
In 2012, the United States government began a new policy of offering financial rewards in exchange for information as to the whereabouts of Al-Shabaab members. On June 7, the U.S. Department of State put forth an offer totaling $33 million for the capture of seven of Al-Shabaab's senior commanders, including a reported $3–$7 million (£2-£4.5 million) per leader. $7 million of the total funds were set aside for information regarding the insurgent group's Amir or Spiritual Leader, Ahmed Godane (Abu Zubayr), with another $5 million bounty on Al-Shabaab's Deputy Leader, Sheikh Mukhtar Robow (Abu Mansur).
On June 8, Somalia's Transitional Federal Government (TFG) released an official statement expressing support for the initiative.
In response, senior Al-Shabaab commander Fu'ad Mohamed Khalaf (Sheikh Shongole) issued a mock offer of his own the same day, promising 10 camels to anyone possessing information on U.S. President Barack Obama. Shongole also mockingly offered a less valuable bounty of 10 cocks and 10 hens for information concerning American Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.
During an official state visit to Mogadishu, top U.S. envoy Johnnie Carson dismissed Al-Shabaab's counter-offer as "absurd". He also indicated that the American government would impose sanctions on all spoilers attempting to thwart the ongoing political process, including invoking visa and travel bans and freezing assets.
On March 21, 2013, the U.S. Department of State announced another bounty of $5 million for information on two American senior Al-Shabaab commanders, Abu Mansour al-Amriki (Omar Shafik Hammami) and Jehad Serwan Mostafa.
On March 15, 2014, the U.S. Department of State also began offering bounties of up to $3 million apiece for information leading to the arrest or conviction of the Al-Shabaab senior members Abdikadir Mohamed Abdikadir, Yasin Kilwe and Jafar. According to State Department officials, Abdikadir coordinates Al-Shabaab's recruitment activities in Kenya, with Jafar acting as his deputy; Kilwe serves as Al-Shabaab's Emir for the northeastern Puntland region. The bounties are part of the "Rewards for Justice" program, wherein money is issued for leads on terror suspects.
In December 2009, the United Nations Security Council imposed sanctions on Eritrea, accusing the Horn of Africa country of arming and providing financial aid to militia groups in southern Somalia's conflict zones, including Al-Shabaab. Plane loads of weapons said to be coming from Eritrea were sent to anti-government rebels in southern Somalia. AU peacekeepers also reportedly captured some Eritrean soldiers and prisoners of war. In 2010, the UN International Monitoring Group (IMG) also published a report charging the Eritrean government of continuing to offer support to rebel groups in southern Somalia, despite the sanctions already placed on the nation. The Eritrean administration emphatically denied the accusations, describing them as "concocted, baseless and unfounded" and demanding concrete evidence to be made publicly available, with an independent platform through which it may in turn issue a response. In November 2011 the UN Monitoring Group repeated claims that Eritrea would support al-Shabaab. The report says that Eritrea gives US$80,000 each month to al-Shabaab linked individuals in Nairobi.
On July 5, 2012 the Obama administration announced sanctions on Eritrea's intelligence chief and on a high-ranking military officer related to allegations of their support of Al-Shabaab. Col. Tewolde Habte Negash is accused of providing training and support while Col. Taeme Abraham Goitom is alleged to organize armed opposition to the Somalian government. The sanctions freeze any of the individual's U.S. assets and prohibits Americans from conducting business with them. On July 16, 2012, a United Nations Monitoring Group report stated that "it had found no evidence of direct Eritrean support for al Shabaab in the past year."
In 2010, reports surfaced linking the secessionist government of the northwestern Somaliland region with the Islamist extremists that are currently waging war against the Transitional Federal Government and its African Union allies. The International Strategic Studies Association (ISSA) published several reports shortly after the 2010 presidential elections in Somaliland, accusing the enclave's newly elected president Ahmed M. Mahamoud Silanyo of having strong ties with Islamist groups, and suggesting that his political party Kulmiye won the election in large part due to support from a broad-based network of Islamists, including Al-Shabaab. The ISSA also described Dr. Mohamed Abdi Gaboose, Somaliland's new Interior Minister, as an Islamist with "strong personal connections with al-Shabaab", and predicted that the militant group would consequently be empowered.
In January 2011, Puntland accused Somaliland of providing a safe haven for Mohamed Said Atom, an arms smuggler believed to be allied with al-Shabaab. Somaliland strenuously denied the charges, calling them a smokescreen to divert attention from Puntland's own activities.
Atom and his men were reportedly hiding out and receiving medical attention in Somaliland after being pursued by Puntland forces in late 2010. The Puntland Intelligence Agency also claimed that over 70 Somaliland soldiers had fought alongside Atom's militiamen, including one known intelligence official who died in battle. Somaliland media reported in January that Atom's representative requested military assistance from the Somaliland authorities, and that he denied that Atom's militia was linked to al-Shabaab.
Puntland government documents claim that Atom's militia were used as proxy agents in 2006. They accuse Somaliland of offering financial and military assistance to destabilize Puntland and distract attention from attempts to occupy the disputed Sool province.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Special Report: In Africa, a militant group's growing appeal". 30 May 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/30/us-shabaab-east-africa-idUSBRE84T0NI20120530.
- ↑ BBC News - Somalia's al-Shabab militants in 'deadly feud'. Bbc.co.uk (2013-06-20). Retrieved on 2013-10-29.
- ↑ 
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Al-Shabaab joining al Qaeda, monitor group says". CNN. February 9, 2012. http://www.cnn.com/2012/02/09/world/africa/somalia-shabaab-qaeda/. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- ↑ Somalia troops boosted as al-Shabaab fights on retrieved 9 December 2013
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Jon Lee Anderson, Letter from Mogadishu, "The Most Failed State," The New Yorker, December 14, 2009, p. 64 abstract
- ↑ Who are al-Shabaab retrieved 9 December 2013
- ↑ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/22/opinion/divisive-alliance.html?_r=2&ref=alshabab and http://somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2896/23_February_2012_Daily_Media_Roundup
- ↑ "Al-Shabaab Withdraws From Hudur". SomaliaReport. 2012-02-23. http://somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2889/Al-Shabaab_Withdraws_From_Hudur_. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- ↑ Abdisaid M. Ali 2008, 'The Al-Shabaab Al-Mujahidiin: A profile of the first Somali terrorist organisation', Institut für Strategie Politik Sicherheits und Wirtschaftsberatung (ISPSW), Berlin, Germany, June. Retrieved on August 26, 2008.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 "Somalia's Al-Shabaab Rebels Ban Some Aid Groups From Territories". Allafrica.com. July 22, 2011. http://allafrica.com/stories/201107260329.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 "Designation of Al-Shabaab". United States Department of State. March 18, 2008. Archived from the original on March 19, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080319184009/http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2008/mar/102338.htm. Retrieved March 18, 2008. [dead link]
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Bye Skille, Øyvind (March 8, 2008). "Hold dere unna Al-Shabaab" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on March 13, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080313164009/http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/1.5046460. Retrieved March 18, 2008.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 "Somali Al Shabaab camel reward for Barack Obama 'absurd'". BBC. http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/?articleID=2000059651&story_title=Somali-Al-Shabaab-camel-reward-for-Barack-Obama-%27absurd%27. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 "UPDATE 3-Somali government declares Islamist rebellion defeated". August 6, 2011. http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFL6E7J601H20110806?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Chothia, Farouk (August 9, 2011). "Could Somali famine deal a fatal blow to al-Shabab?". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14373264. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "page 12" (PDF). http://somalitalkradio.com/2010/mar/un_report_somalia.pdf. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ Alisha Ryu (September 15, 2010). "Sufi Militia Says Al-Shabab Planning to Attack Galgadud Region". Voanews.com. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/Sufi-Militia-Says-Al-Shabab-Planning-to-Attack-Galgadud-102969249.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Somali deal to tackle militants". BBC News. March 15, 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8568913.stm.
- ↑ October 7, 2011 (October 7, 2011). "An act of desperation by Al-Shabaab". Somali Think Tank. http://somalithinktank.org/746/. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ Winter, Stuart. "British troops drafted in to save elephants from Al Shabaab terrorists | UK | News | Daily Express". Express.co.uk. http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/442115/British-troops-drafted-in-to-save-elephants-from-Al-Shabaab-terrorists. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- ↑ "Africa’s White Gold of Jihad: al-Shabaab and Conflict Ivory - Elephant Action League" (in it). Elephantleague.org. 2010-07-11. http://elephantleague.org/project/africas-white-gold-of-jihad-al-shabaab-and-conflict-ivory/. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Mia De Graaf (2013-11-10). "British troops deployed to save Kenyan elephants from illegal slaughter trade that is funding terrorist attacks | Mail Online". London: Dailymail.co.uk. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2498178/British-troops-deployed-save-Kenyan-elephants-illegal-slaughter-trade-funding-terrorist-attacks.html. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 Catrina Stewart (2013-10-06). "Illegal ivory trade funds al-Shabaab's terrorist attacks". London: The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/illegal-ivory-trade-funds-alshabaabs-terrorist-attacks-8861315.html. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- ↑ http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/03/somali-farmers-benefit-from-al-shabab-reforms-201431053038814400.html
- ↑ "Washington's Self-Defeating Somalia Policy" Matt Bryden, CSIS Policy Forum
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 "Diplomats stress need for all-inclusive talks on the future of Somalia". USA Today. February 9, 2007. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2007-02-09-somalia_x.htm. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 "Al Shabaab tries to take control in Somalia". fpri.org. http://www.fpri.org/enotes/201011.shinn.somalia.html#note10.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 "Al-Shabaab". National Counterterrorism Center. http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/al_shabaab.html. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 Schaefer,, Ahren; Andrew Black. [tt_news=38628 "Clan and Conflict in Somalia: Al-Shabaab and the Myth of "Transcending Clan Politics""]. Jamestown Foundation. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=38628. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 31.2 Fred, Fred (28 October 2011). "A new breed of terrorist is born". http://www.nation.co.ke/News/The-new-face-of-Al-Shabaab--/-/1056/1263654/-/nttm5xz/-/index.html. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- ↑ "Somalia: Al-Qaeda fires Al-Shabaab leader". Sunatimes. 25 December 2010. http://www.sunatimes.com/view.php?id=644. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
- ↑ Cleris, Johannes (July 2, 2009). "Terrorutpekad till Göteborg" (in Swedish). Göteborgs-Posten. http://www.gp.se/gp/jsp/Crosslink.jsp?d=113&a=504118. Retrieved July 5, 2009. [dead link]
- ↑ "The Rise and Fall of Mogadishu's Islamic Courts". Informaworld.com. January 1, 1970. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a780828216&fulltext=713240928. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Who are al-Shabab?". Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2009/08/20098432032479714.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "APNewsBreak: Somali militant group could split". Fox News. April 7, 2010. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/10/08/feud-somali-militant-group-al-shabab-split/. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 37.6 Dahir Abdulle Asalow (May 5, 2011). "Al-Qaeda foreign operatives dominate Al-Shabaab executive council". Sunatimes. http://sunatimes.com/view.php?id=392. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 Al-Shabaab’s problems over the future of Colonel Hassan Dahir 'Aweys'[dead link]
- ↑ "Schism in Al-Shabaab leadership in Somalia follows failed Ramadan offensive". jamestown.org. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/gta/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=37055&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=457&no_cache=1.
- ↑ "Somalia Islamists splinter in major rift". Upi.com. October 25, 2010. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Special/2010/10/25/Somalia-Islamists-splinter-in-major-rift/UPI-18881288029099/. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Somalia: Al Shabaab Leaders Condemn Each Other Publicly". allAfrica.com. December 18, 2010. http://allafrica.com/stories/201012180008.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 "United Nations Security Council Somalia Report (page 14)" (PDF). http://somalitalkradio.com/2010/mar/un_report_somalia.pdf. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Nation's Army in New Battles As Advance Resumes". Allafrica.com. November 17, 2011. http://allafrica.com/stories/201111180120.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Somalia: UN Envoy Visits Mogadishu, Suicide Bomber Was Al Shabaab". allAfrica.com. May 25, 2009. http://allafrica.com/stories/200905260030.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ Top Somali militant, wanted by U.S., killed in infighting. CNN.com. Retrieved on 2013-10-29.
- ↑ "Somalia: Al-Shabaab Forms Islamic Administration in Strategic Town". allAfrica.com. May 20, 2009. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100420064409/http://allafrica.com/stories/200905200681.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Somalia: Notorious Islamist Guerrilla Leader Joins Al Shabaab". allAfrica.com. February 1, 2010. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100206201312/http://allafrica.com/stories/201002020211.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Security Council Committee on Somalia and Eritrea Issues List of Individuals". Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110628235741/http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2010/sc9904.doc.htm. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- ↑ Ibrahim, Mohammed (August 9, 2010). "Government Forces Fight Militants in Northeast Somalia". Archived from the original on August 9, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100809190910/http://www.nytimes.com//2010//08//10//world//africa//10somalia.html. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 50.4 "Al-Qaeda foreign operatives dominate Al-Shabaab executive council". http://www.sunatimes.com/view.php?id=392. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- ↑ "The rise of the Shabab—The Economist Dec 18th 2008". The Economist. December 18, 2008. http://www.economist.com/world/mideast-africa/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12815670. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ Suicide bombs kill 22 in northern Somalia, UN hit[dead link]
- ↑ "Al-Shabaab led by "dozens of foreign jihadists, most from Arab nations"". Mcclatchydc.com. November 18, 2008. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/world/story/56098.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Egypt and the Hydro-Politics of the Blue Nile River". Muse.jhu.edu. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/northeast_african_studies/v006/6.1kendie.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Nile River Politics: Who Receives Water?". Globalpolicy.org. August 10, 2000. http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/natres/nile.htm. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ Kron, Josh (October 21, 2011). "African Union Peacekeepers Killed in Somalia Battle". http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/22/world/africa/african-union-takes-casualties-in-somalia-but-numbers-vary.html. Retrieved November 10, 2011.
- ↑ 57.0 57.1 Horowitz, Alana (July 27, 2011). "Al Qaeda Group Al Shabaab Recruited Muslims Americans: U.S. Report". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/27/al-qaeda-american-recruits_n_911432.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ Schmitt, Eric (June 6, 2010). "Al Shabab Recruits Americans for Somali Civil War". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/07/nyregion/07shabaab.html?src=mv. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- ↑ 59.0 59.1 59.2 "Al Shabaab: Recruitment and Radicalization within the Muslim American Community and the Threat to the American Homeland". U.S. House of Representatives. http://homeland.house.gov/hearing/al-shabaab-recruitment-and-radicalization-within-muslim-american-community-and-threat. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- ↑ "Militant Recruitment Of Somali-American Youth Appears Halted, Says US Congressman". 10 April 2013. http://www.voanews.com/content/congressman-ellison-militant-recruitment-somali-american-youth-halted/1638722.html. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- ↑ Ghaith Abdul-Ahad in Mogadishu (June 7, 2010). "How Somalia's civil war became new front in battle against al-Qaida". The Guardian. London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jun/07/somalia-civil-war-al-qaida. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ Evans, Jonathan (September 17, 2010). "Speech delivered by Jonathan Evans, head of MI5 to the Worshipful Company of Security Professionals". London: The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/terrorism-in-the-uk/8008252/Jonathan-Evans-terrorism-speech.html. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- ↑ 63.0 63.1 Burleigh, Michael (March 3, 2012). "The 7/7 widow and a boom in British jihad". London. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/somalia/9118784/The-77-widow-and-a-boom-in-British-jihad.html. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- ↑ Gadher, Dipesh (January 8, 2012). "Britons 'spearhead Kenya terror wave'". http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/National/Terrorism/article852615.ece. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- ↑ Gardham, Duncan (16 September 2010). "Britain facing a new wave of terrorist attacks, MI5 warns". London. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/terrorism-in-the-uk/8008033/Britain-facing-a-new-wave-of-terrorist-attacks-MI5-warns.html. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- ↑ "MI5 fears over 60 Somali jihad plotters in UK". 29 September 2013. http://shabelle.net/?p=4795. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 Chorley, Matt (January 8, 2013). "On-the-run terror suspect Ibrahim Magag escaped surveillance by 'by jumping into a cab'". London. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2259059/Terror-suspect-Ibrahim-Magag-went-missing-Boxing-Day-jumping-cab.html. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- ↑ Anderson, QC, David. "First Report of the Independent Reviewer on the operation of the Terrorist Prevention and Investigation Measures Act 2011". The Stationery Office. https://terrorismlegislationreviewer.independent.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/first-report-tpims.pdf. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- ↑ Dodd, Vikkram (November 8, 2013). "Burqa fugitive Mohammed Ahmed Mohamed 'faced 20 charges'". http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2013/nov/08/burqa-fugitive-mohammed-ahmed-mohamed-20-charges. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- ↑ Aronson, Samuel (November 1, 2013). "Kenya and the Global War on Terror". African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies. http://www.umes.edu/cms300uploadedFiles/AJCJS/Volume_7_Issue_1_and_2/VOL7.1%20ARONSON%20FINAL.pdf.
- ↑ By Bill RoggioAugust 1, 2010 (August 1, 2010). "Al Qaeda leaders play significant role in Shabaab". The Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2010/08/al_qaeda_leaders_pla.php. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Somalia kills Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, widening Al Qaeda power vacuum". 8 June 2011. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/terrorism-security/2011/0612/Somalia-kills-Fazul-Abdullah-Mohammed-widening-Al-Qaeda-power-vacuum. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- ↑ Anti-Defamation League: “Profile: Omar Hammami” February 9, 2010
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 "Rapping American jihadi killed: reports". 12 September 2013. http://www.smh.com.au/world/rapping-american-jihadi-killed-reports-20130912-2tnsd.html. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- ↑ "FBI — Most Wanted Terrorists". Fbi.gov. 2001-09-11. http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/wanted_terrorists/@@wanted-group-listing. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- ↑ http://www.rewardsforjustice.net/index.cfm?page=Wanted_Terrorist&language=english
- ↑ "U.S. raid in Somalia targeted al Shabaab commander Ikrima -officials". 6 October 2013. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/06/security-africa-raids-target-idUSL1N0HW0NR20131006. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- ↑ 78.0 78.1 78.2 Austin, Henry (7 October 2013). "SEAL Somalia target named as 'Ikrima' as questions remain about aborted mission". http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/10/07/20855239-seal-somalia-target-named-as-ikrima-as-questions-remain-about-aborted-mission?lite. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- ↑ Grace, Nick (21 November 2008). "Shabaab Leader Sanctioned as Zawahiri Responds to Group's Oath of Loyalty". http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2008/11/shabaab_leader_sanct.php. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- ↑ Roggio, Bill (1 August 2010). "Al Qaeda leaders play significant role in Shabaab". http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2010/08/al_qaeda_leaders_pla.php. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- ↑ "Alan Johnson bans Somali 'terrorist' group Al-Shabaab". BBC News. March 1, 2010. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100304035628/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8543347.stm. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ Althia Raj (March 7, 2010). "Al-Shabaab listed as terrorist group". Toronto Sun. http://www.torontosun.com/news/canada/2010/03/07/13145681.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. 20 July 2014. http://www.police.govt.nz/advice/personal-community/counterterrorism/designated-entities/lists-associated-with-resolution-1373. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- ↑ [dead link]
- ↑ "Al-Shabaab Wants Girls to Join Warfront Against Govt". All Africa. http://allafrica.com/stories/201202220071.html.
- ↑ "Extremist" Splinter Group Of Somali Islamic Courts Formed Somaliland Times
- ↑ Somalia: Foreigners fighters in the network of Al-Shabaab Archived February 3, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ "Three ministers killed in Somalia attack, December 3, 2009". Newvision.co.ug. December 3, 2009. http://www.newvision.co.ug/D/8/12/703172. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Shabab credit for Somali food boom". Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2010/03/2010324103733512123.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ United Nations (July 13, 2011). "Aid effort for drought-hit Horn of Africa must include long-term measures". UN News Centre. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=39028&Cr=horn+of+africa&Cr1=. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ↑ Lough, Richard (July 6, 2011). "Piracy ransom cash ends up with Somali militants". http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/07/06/somalia-piracy-idUSLDE7650U320110706. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
- ↑ Ashley Jackson and Abdi Aynte, 2013, Al-Shabaab engagement with aid agencies, http://www.odi.org.uk/publications/8060-humanitarian-negotiations-al-shabaab-somalia
- ↑ Ahsley Jackson, March 2014, Humanitarian negotiations with armed non-state actors: key lessons from Afghanistan, Sudan and Somalia, http://www.odi.org.uk/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/8847.pdf
- ↑ Mitchell Sipus (December 12, 2011). "Finding an al-Shabaab Training Camp on Google Earth". http://www.thehumanitarianspace.com/2011/12/finding-al-shabaab-training-camp-on.html.
- ↑ 96.0 96.1 "Allied forces make advancements in southern Somalia". 11 July 2012. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Allied_forces_make_advancements_in_southern_Somalia.shtml. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- ↑ [dead link]
- ↑ "Almost expunged: Somalia's Embattled Christians". The Economist. October 22, 2009. Archived from the original on October 25, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20091025043912/http://www.economist.com/world/middleeast-africa/displaystory.cfm?story_id=14707279. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
- ↑ "Shabaab rebels destroy grave and mosque in Somalia". Alertnet.org. October 19, 2009. http://alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/LJ085722.htm. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Grave sites destroyed in Somalia". Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2010/03/201032621225341415.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Somali rage at grave desecration". BBC News. June 8, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/8077725.stm.
- ↑ "Kenya: A Weakening Al Shabaab Escalates Its Propaganda". October 22, 2011. http://allafrica.com/stories/201110240870.html. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- ↑ "AL-SHABAAB USES TERROR TO STOP LOCAL STATIONS FROM RETRANSMITTING BBC AND VOA". Reporters Without Borders. April 9, 2010. http://en.rsf.org/somalia-al-shabaab-uses-terror-to-stop-09-04-2010,36985. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- ↑ Fall of Mogadishu leaves US policy in ruins The Guardian
- ↑ 105.0 105.1 105.2 105.3 Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council resolution 1676, November 2006 Monitoring Group on Somalia,UN (PDF Format)
- ↑ Ethiopian troops to leave Somalia 'within weeks' The Guardian
- ↑ Disbanded Militant Youth Group in Somalia Support Al-Qaida Message[dead link]
- ↑ "Somalia Enters a Devolutionary Cycle". Power and Interest News Report (PINR). February 2, 2007. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070208160716/http://www.pinr.com/report.php?ac=view_printable&report_id=612&language_id=1. Retrieved February 9, 2007. [dead link]
- ↑ "Somali extremists post video warning to peacekeepers". January 31, 2007. http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article20040.
- ↑ "Somalia: New group claims Mogadishu attacks". somalinet.com. February 9, 2007. http://somalinet.com/news/world/Somalia/7381. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
- ↑ "Somalia's army commander sacked as new ambassadors are appointed". Shabelle Media Network. February 10, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927200623/http://www.shabelle.net/news/ne2279.htm. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
- ↑ Al Jazeera 2008, 'Scores dead in Somalia fighting', Al Jazeera English, August 23. Retrieved on August 24, 2008.
- ↑ "Somalia: Thousands displaced as insurgents take control of Kismayo". IRIN News. August 25, 2008. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20081005215244/http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportID=79977. Retrieved August 25, 2008.
- ↑ [dead link]
- ↑ "Home". Garowe Online. February 6, 2008. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_Al_Shabaab_claim_responsibility_for_Puntland_bombings.shtml. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ Somalia: ends and beginnings, Georg-Sebastian Holzer, December 18, 2008
- ↑ "Stoning victim 'begged for mercy'". BBC News. November 4, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7708169.stm. Retrieved September 3, 2013.
- ↑ "Somalia: Girl stoned was a child of 13". Amnesty International. October 31, 2008. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. https://archive.is/aA91. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
- ↑ "Anwar al-Awlaki, "Salutations to Al-Shabaab of Somalia" (PDF). The NEFA Foundation. December 21, 2008. http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/FeaturedDocs/awlakishebab1208.pdf. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "AU base in Mogadishu attacked". BBC News. February 22, 2009. Archived from the original on February 22, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090222214940/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7904613.stm. Retrieved February 22, 2009.
- ↑ "American Abu Mansur al-Amriki Responds to President Obama's Cairo Speech" Views from the Occident. July 9, 2009.
- ↑ Cameron Stewart and Milanda Rout, August 5, 2009. "Somali extremists on a 'fatwa order' from God". The Australian, Retrieved on August 5, 2009
- ↑ Melissa Iaria, August 4, 2009. "Terror suspects 'sought holy approval'". News.com.au, Retrieved on August 4, 2009
- ↑ "US uses Aussie terror plot to warn of Somali threat". news.com.au. August 7, 2009. Archived from the original on September 6, 2012. https://archive.is/rhks. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
- ↑ Al-Shabaab placed on terrorism list ABC Online August 21, 2009
- ↑ Somali islamists forcibly remove teeth August 11, 2009 Source: Reuters
- ↑ "Shabab to avenge US raid in Somalia". Al-Jazeera. September 16, 2009. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2009/09/200991512323045221.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ [dead link]
- ↑ "Leaps and Bounds: The Rapid Development of Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujahideen's Media, September 21, 2009". occident.blogspot.com. September 21, 2009. http://occident.blogspot.com/2009/09/leaps-bounds-rapid-evolution-of-harakat.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ Mail Foreign Service (October 16, 2009). "Whipped for wearing a 'deceptive' bra: Hardline Islamists in Somalia publicly flog women in Sharia crackdown, October 16, 2009". Daily Mail. London. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100212083028/http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1220864/Whipped-wearing-deceptive-bra-Hardline-Islamists-Somalia-publicly-flog-women-sharia-crackdown.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Al Shabaab Threatens Attacks on Israel". adl.org. November 9, 2009. Archived from the original on March 13, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100313151713/http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/Shabaab_Threatens_Israel.htm. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Assassination attempt on Mohammed cartoonist". Cphpost.dk. http://www.cphpost.dk/news/national/88-national/47853-assassination-attempt-on-mohammed-cartoonist.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Somali Islamists al-Shabab 'join al-Qaeda fight'". BBC News. February 1, 2010. Archived from the original on February 13, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100213005742/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8491329.stm. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ BBC News Somalia and Yemen 'swapping militants', January 17, 2010
- ↑ "Somalia: Al-Shabaab Declares Jihad on Kenya". AllAfrica Global Media. February 7, 2010. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100211113405/http://allafrica.com/stories/201002080323.html. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- ↑ "Somali minister survives bombing". BBC News. February 15, 2010. Archived from the original on February 18, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100218051113/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/8516752.stm. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Currently listed entities". Publicsafety.gc.ca. March 5, 2010. Archived from the original on March 18, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100318063840/http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/prg/ns/le/cle-eng.aspx. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Grave sites destroyed in Somalia". March 27, 2010. Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100401035124/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2010/03/201032621225341415.html. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- ↑ "Somali hardline militia ban school bell ringing". Google News. April 16, 2010. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iTHNIUn-WN3bRzsEaxnS5PrGzisg. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- ↑ Rashbaum, William K. (June 6, 2010). "Two Arrested at Kennedy Airport on Terror Charges". Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100618014404/http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/07/nyregion/07terror.html?fta=y. Retrieved June 7, 2010.
- ↑ Anti-Defamation League: "New Jersey Residents Arrested for Attempting to Join Somali-Based Terrorist Group" June 7, 2010
- ↑ Bariyo, Nicholas (July 12, 2010). "Deadly Blasts Rock Uganda's Capital". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 15, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100715060402/http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704288204575362400675683926.html. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- ↑ Anti-Defamation League: "Abu Talhah al-Amrikee: An Extensive Online Footprint" April 22, 2010
- ↑ Kazooba, Charles (July 26, 2010). "Somalia: AU Ministers Agree to 'Take On' Al Shabaab". allMusic. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100727215804/http://allafrica.com/stories/201007250021.html. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
- ↑ Location Settings (October 28, 2010). "Shabaab executes 2 girls for 'spying'". News24. http://www.news24.com/Africa/News/Shabaab-executes-2-girls-for-spying-20101028. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ [dead link]
- ↑ "Somali Islamic party joins more hard-line group". CNN. December 20, 2010. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/africa/12/20/somalia.party/.
- ↑ "Somalia's al-Shabaab launch TV channel". Mg.co.za. February 5, 2011. http://mg.co.za/article/2011-02-05-somalias-alshabaab-launch-tv-channel/. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Somalia: Government captures Al-Shabab militia bases". BBC. March 5, 2011. Archived from the original on March 6, 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110306113545/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12657466. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- ↑ Aweys Mohamed (March 19, 2011). "Burundi sends 1,000 extra AU troops to Somalia". Suna Times. http://sunatimes.com/view.php?id=914. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- ↑ "TFG forces make additional gains and strength". Walta Info. March 26, 2011. http://www.waltainfo.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=25858&Itemid=47. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- ↑ Hiiraan Online. "Government Forces Capture Dhobley Town". http://hiiraan.com/news2/2011/Apr/government_forces_capture_dhobley_town.aspx. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
- ↑ Shabelle Media Network. "Somali govt confiscates Dhobley after days of fighting". http://shabelle.net/article.php?id=5178. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
- ↑ Shabelle Media Network. "Somalia: Injured Al shabaab fighters brought to Kismayo". http://shabelle.net/article.php?id=5233. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
- ↑ "Street battles in Somali capital amid famine help". Heraldsun.com. http://www.heraldsun.com/view/full_story/14878146/article-Street-battles-in-Somali-capital-amid-famine-help. Retrieved 2012-08-04. [dead link]
- ↑ MacLean, Stewart (July 26, 2011). "Islamist group in Somalia bans samosas after deciding they're too Western". Daily Mail. London. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2018858/Islamist-group-Somalia-bans-samosas-deciding-theyre-Western.html. Archived 28 July 2011 at WebCite
- ↑ "Al shabaab’s withdrawal precipitated by internal rift: An official". Shabelle.net. http://www.shabelle.net/article.php?id=9634. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Somalia 'suicide' car bomb kills dozens in Mogadishu". BBC. October 4, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15166107?OCID=fbwin. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- ↑ "Kenya launches offensive in Somalia". National Post. 16 October 2011. http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/10/16/kenya-launches-offensive-in-somalia/. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- ↑ "U.S. Woman Facing Somalia Terror Case Arrested". Fox. October 20, 2011. http://www.foxnews.com/us/2011/10/03/us-woman-facing-somalia-terror-case-arrested/. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- ↑ Thomas Joscelyn (2011-12-30). "Son of infamous al Qaeda family killed by Ethiopian forces". Long War Journal. Archived from the original on 2012-08-27. http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.longwarjournal.org%2Farchives%2F2011%2F12%2Fson_of_infamous_al_q.php&date=2012-08-27. Retrieved 2012-08-27. "Al Bihani traveled to Somalia to fight alongside Shabaab, al Qaeda's affiliate in the Horn of Africa. Once in Somalia, al Bihani trained Shabaab's fighters, including Omar Hammami, an American who serves as a Shabaab commander, propagandist, and recruiter. Al Bihani was subsequently killed in a clash with American forces off the coast of Somalia."
- ↑ "Ethiopian troops capture Beledweyne from Somalia militants". BBC News. December 31, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-16372453. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
- ↑ Ex-US soldier charged with trying to join Shebab AFP January 9, 2012
- ↑ "Amisom troops drive Shabaab out of suburbs". Nation.co.ke. http://www.nation.co.ke/News/africa/Amisom+troops+drive+Shabaab+out+of+suburbs++/-/1066/1311036/-/v1f373z/-/index.html. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
- ↑ Television, Nbs (January 20, 2012). "Amisom,Tfg Forces Secure Northern Edges Of Somalia’S City". Nbs.ug. http://www.nbs.ug/2012/01/20/amisomtfg-forces-secure-northern-edges-of-somalias-city/. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
- ↑ Leadership Change Divides al-Shabaab[dead link]
- ↑ Cobain, Ian (January 22, 2012). "British 'al-Qaida member' killed in US drone attack in Somalia". The Guardian. London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jan/22/british-al-qaida-suspect-drone-somalia.
- ↑ 500 Al-Qaeda linked Al-shabab militants flee to Yemen[dead link]
- ↑ Will Ross (2012-02-22). "Somalia al-Shabab militant base of Baidoa captured". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17127353. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- ↑ "Foreign Fighters Fleeing Kismayo or Regrouping". Somaliareport.com. 2012-02-25. http://somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2900/_Foreign_Fighters_Fleeing_Kismayo_or_Regrouping. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- ↑ "Shabaaz Hussain: Somalia terrorism funder jailed". 9 March 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-17310858. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- ↑ "Kenya blames al-Shabab for deadly Nairobi grenade attack". BBC News. March 11, 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17326086.
- ↑ "Abu Mansur Al Amriki, U.S. Jihadi In Somalia, Reportedly Claims Comrades Want To Kill Him (VIDEO)". Huffingtonpost.com. 17 March 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/17/abu-mansur-al-amriki-video_n_1355387.html. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- ↑ "Somalia forces capture key al-Shabab town of Afmadow". 31 May 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-18288639. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- ↑ "Somali forces capture rebel stronghold". 27 June 2012. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iKD5l6zR7FZVn0CFZ_rXxVRl3rkQ?docId=CNG.230fb41fb750512c22ca1a4a23183378.821. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- ↑ Alan Boswell, Abdi Ibrahim (27 August 2012). "Al Shabab flees Somali port of Merca ahead of African Union troops". http://www.thenewstribune.com/2012/08/26/2270029/al-shabab-flees-somali-port-of.html. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- ↑ Omar, Hamsa (30 August 2012). "Somali Forces Advance on al-Qaeda-Linked Militia’s Stronghold". http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-08-30/somali-forces-advance-on-al-qaeda-linked-militia-s-stronghold.html. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- ↑ "Somalia: Somali and African Union forces claim victory in two day battle". 1 September 2012. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_Somali_and_African_Union_forces_claim_victory_in_two_day_battle.shtml. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- ↑ "Kenyan forces attack last remaining stronghold of al-Qaeda-linked militants in Somalia". 28 September 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/kenyan-forces-attack-last-remaining-stronghold-of-al-qaida-linked-militants-in-somalia/2012/09/28/c6905994-0937-11e2-9eea-333857f6a7bd_story.html. Retrieved 28 September 2012. [dead link]
- ↑ Chonghaile, Clar Ni (28 September 2012). "Kenyan troops launch beach assault on Somali city of Kismayo". London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/sep/28/kenyan-soldiers-capture-kismayo-somalia. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- ↑ "Somali, AU forces secure more southern towns from rebels". 14 October 2012. http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/738178.shtml. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- ↑ Somalian al-Shabaab group in new attack threat to Britain. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2013-10-29.
- ↑ "A Senior Somali Military Commander Killed in ambush attack". 29 October 2012. http://shabelle.net/a-senior-somali-military-commander-killed-in-ambush-attack/. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- ↑ "In Somalia, African Union and gov't troops take town from Islamist extremists of al-Shabab". 9 December 2012. http://www.montrealgazette.com/life/Somalia+African+Union+govt+troops+take+town+from+Islamist/7673067/story.html. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- ↑ "Somalia militant group publicly rebukes American member for obstinacy, 'pursuit of fame'". 17 December 2012. http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/world/Somalia+militant+group+publicly+rebukes+American+member/7708678/story.html. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- ↑ Williams, Matt (19 January 2013). "Mother of US-born militant confronts al-Shabaab threat: 'It's in God's hands'". London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jan/19/omar-hammami-mother-al-shabaab. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- ↑ "Somalia: Heavy fighting in Gedo region between govt forces and Al Shabaab". 5 January 2013. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_Heavy_fighting_in_Gedo_region_between_govt_forces_and_Al_Shabaab_printer.shtml. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- ↑ John Irish, Abdi Sheikh (12 January 2013). "France says hostage killed during rescue bid in Somalia". http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCABRE90B06H20130112. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- ↑ "Somali Shebab extremists kill two of their own chiefs: spokesman". 29 June 2013. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gM9Wk4gV0HvUOoCIOwzLKJ2PGXdA?docId=CNG.3d37aa60e57810b34cd41d8c96b39aff.4d1. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- ↑ "Elders say al-Shabaab leader Sheik Hassan Aweys has not surrendered". 28 June 2013. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2013/06/28/Elders-say-al-Shabaab-leader-Sheik-Hassan-Aweys-has-not-surrendered/UPI-63261372426435/. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- ↑ 191.0 191.1 "Somali forces arrest Islamist leader in Mogadishu". 30 June 2013. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/afp/130630/somali-forces-arrest-islamist-leader-mogadishu-1. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- ↑ "'I have come out from Shebeb' says Omar Hammami, American Jihadist in Somalia". 4 September 2013. http://www.mustaqbalradio.com/2013/09/04/i-have-come-out-from-shebeb-says-omar-hammami-american-jihadist-in-somalia/. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- ↑ 193.0 193.1 Al-Shabaab's resurgence in Kenya | The World Outline. Theworldoutline.com. Retrieved on 2013-10-29.
- ↑ "Somali, AU troops retake central Somali town". 19 September 2013. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/africa/2013-09/20/c_132734714.htm. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ↑ "Somalia's al-Shabaab claims responsibility for Nairobi mall attack". 21 September 2013. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/africa/2013/09/21/-At-least-25-dead-in-mall-attack-in-Kenya-s-capital.html. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- ↑ "Somalia: Allied forces seize new town from militants, killings occur in Mogadishu". 25 September 2013. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_Allied_forces_seize_new_town_from_militants_killings_occur_in_Mogadishu_printer.shtml. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ↑ 197.0 197.1 Feisal Omar, Abdi Sheikh (5 October 2013). "Somali militants say Western forces raid base and kill fighter". http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/05/us-somalia-rebels-idUSBRE99401S20131005. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- ↑ "Al Shabaab: US Forces Abort Somalia Terror Raid". 6 October 2013. http://news.sky.com/story/1150703/al-shabaab-us-forces-abort-somalia-terror-raid. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- ↑ "How al-Shabaab is keeping the black-market African ivory trade alive » Spectator Blogs". Blogs.spectator.co.uk. 2013-11-16. http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/coffeehouse/2013/11/how-al-shabaab-is-keeping-the-african-ivory-market-alive/. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- ↑ "How al-Shabaab is keeping the black-market African ivory trade alive", The Spectator, in: http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/coffeehouse/2013/11/how-al-shabaab-is-keeping-the-african-ivory-market-alive/
- ↑ "Africa’s White Gold of Jihad: al-Shabaab and Conflict Ivory", Elephantleague.org, at: http://elephantleague.org/project/africas-white-gold-of-jihad-al-shabaab-and-conflict-ivory/#
- ↑ "Al-Shabaab bans Internet in areas it controls", Reporters Without Borders, 9 January 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- ↑ "SOMALIA: Government officials support U.S air strike against Al Shabab commander". 27 January 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/01/somalia-government-officials-support-u-s-air-strike-against-al-shabab-commander/. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- ↑ 204.0 204.1 Guled, Abdi (26 January 2014). "Somali militant killed in missile attack". Archived from the original on 28 January 2014. https://archive.is/3yeaG. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- ↑ "Somalia: PM voices support for US airstrike on Al Shabaab". 27 January 2014. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Wararka_19/Somalia-PM-voices-support-for-US-airstrike-on-Al-Shabaab_printer.shtml. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- ↑ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-26288846
- ↑ http://news.yahoo.com/presidential-palace-somalia-hit-car-bomb-gun-attack-103203360.html
- ↑ 208.0 208.1 "Somalia: Ethiopian troops in deadly battle with Al Shabaab, Rabdhure town liberated". 6 March 2014. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia-Ethiopian-troops-in-deadly-battle-with-Al-Shabaab-Dhabdhure-town-liberated_printer.shtml. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- ↑ 209.0 209.1 "SOMALIA: Xudur administration talks about today's fight at district's outskirts". 7 March 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/03/somalia-xudur-administration-talks-about-todays-fight-at-districts-outskirts/. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- ↑ "Ethiopian, Somali Forces Liberate Rabdhure Town". 6 March 2014. http://allafrica.com/stories/201403070140.html. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- ↑ 211.0 211.1 "Somalia: Federal Govt, Ethiopian forces liberate strategic town of Hudur". 7 March 2014. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia-Federal-Govt-Ethiopian-forces-liberate-strategic-town-of-Hudur_printer.shtml. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- ↑ Mohamed, Hamza (8 March 2014). "Al-Shabab 'retreats' in battle for town". http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2014/03/al-shabab-retreat-battle-town-201437145216588883.html. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- ↑ "SOMALIA: Al-shabab loses control of Wajid to Somali government forces backed by AMISOM troops". 9 March 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/03/somalia-al-shabab-loses-control-of-wajid-to-somali-government-forces-backed-by-amisom-troops/. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- ↑ 214.0 214.1 "SOMALIA: Al Shabab vacates Burdhubo, fierce gunbattle erupts on the outskirts". 9 March 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/03/somalia-al-shabab-vacates-burdhubo-fierce-gunbattle-erupts-on-the-outskirts/. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- ↑ "SOMALIA: Security forces capture three Al Shabab fighters near Burdhubo amid heavy confrontation". 9 March 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/03/somalia-security-forces-capture-three-al-shabab-fighters-near-burdhubo-amid-heavy-confrontation/. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- ↑ "Somalia: PM speaks on military offensives against Al Shabaab". 10 March 2014. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia-PM-speaks-on-military-offensives-against-Al-Shabaab_printer.shtml. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- ↑ "SOMALIA: Al-shabab loses their strongest military base in the central of Somalia to SNA and AU troops". 13 March 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/03/somalia-al-shabab-loses-their-strongest-military-base-in-the-central-of-somalia-to-sna-and-au-troops/. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- ↑ "Somalia: Security forces repulse Al-Shabaab attack". 24 May 2014. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia-Security-forces-repulse-Al-Shabaab-attack_printer.shtml. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- ↑ "SOMALIA: Two lawmakers confirmed wounded in today’s parliament attack". 24 May 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/05/somalia-two-lawmakers-confirmed-wounded-in-todays-parliament-attack/. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- ↑ 
- ↑ 
- ↑ "SOMALIA: Joint forces free civilian trucks with commercial goods near Buloburte town". 31 May 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/05/somalia-joint-forces-free-civilian-trucks-with-commercial-goods-near-buloburte-town/. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- ↑ 223.0 223.1 "SOMALIA: Joint Press Conference on Failed Terrorist Attack on Villa Somalia". 9 July 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/07/somalia-joint-press-conference-on-failed-terrorist-attack-on-villa-somalia/. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- ↑ 224.0 224.1 "Somali presidential compound attacked, president safe". 9 July 2014. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/07/08/us-somalia-attack-idUSKBN0FD1YR20140708. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- ↑ "Somali Leader Fires Police, Intelligence Chiefs". 9 July 2014. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/militants-attack-somalia-presidential-palace-24471064. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- ↑ "SOMALIA: SNA and AU Joint forces seize villages in Bay region". 13 July 2014. http://www.raxanreeb.com/2014/07/somalia-sna-and-au-joint-forces-seize-villages-in-bay-region/. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- ↑ "Somali Government Displays Defecting Al-Shabab Commander". Voanews.com. November 9, 2009. http://www1.voanews.com/somali/news/news-makers-in-english/Top-Al-Shabab-Commander-Said-Defected-to-Government-Al-Shabab-Denies-News-69585817.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "If you don't want to fight anymore, there's no point". mg.co.za. http://www.mg.co.za/article/2009-11-24-if-you-dont-want-to-fight-anymore-theres-no-point. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Senior Al-Shabab Commander Defects to Govt". Allafrica.com. December 2, 2009. http://allafrica.com/stories/200912020945.html. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ Planz, Mike (August 9, 2011). "Somalia famine could cause militant Al Shabab group to splinter". http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/2011/0809/Somalia-famine-could-cause-militant-Al-Shabab-group-to-splinter. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- ↑ "Shabaab al-Mujahideen Announces merger with Hizb-ul-Islam". http://nefafoundation.org//file/ShabaabMerger0111.pdf. NEFA Foundation. http://nefafoundation.org//file/ShabaabMerger0111.pdf. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- ↑ Guled, Abdi (15 June 2012). "Militants defecting to Somali side after losses". http://washingtonexaminer.com/news/world/2012/06/militants-defecting-somali-side-after-losses/733571.
- ↑ "Defections put militant al-Shabab on the run in Somalia". 8 June 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-18364762.
- ↑ Mayoyo, Patrick (5 September 2012). "Shabaab fighters surrender". http://www.nation.co.ke/News/Shabaab+fighters+surrender/-/1056/1497576/-/1d3c63z/-/index.html. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- ↑ "Al Shabaab suffer significant setback as over 200 militants disengage near Jowhar". 22 September 2012. http://amisom-au.org/2012/09/al-shabaab-suffer-significant-setback-as-over-200-militants-disengage-near-jowhar/. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- ↑ 236.0 236.1 "A Song by Omar Hammami: "Send Me A Cruise"" (PDF). NEFA Foundation. http://nefafoundation.org//file/HammammiSong0411.pdf. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
- ↑ "How Somalia’s al-Shabab militants hone their image". BBC. 5 June 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-27633367. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- ↑ Ploch, Lauren. "Countering Terrorism in East Africa: The U.S. Response". Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/R41473.pdf. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- ↑ "mg.co.za". mg.co.za. February 5, 2011. http://mg.co.za/article/2011-02-05-somalias-alshabaab-launch-tv-channel. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ Wright, Robin (2011). Rock the Casbah: Rage and Rebellion across the Islamic World (1st Simon & Schuster hardcover ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-4391-0316-6.
- ↑ Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed (2011). Bin Laden's Legacy: Why We're Still Losing the War on Terror. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. p. 149. ISBN 1-118-09494-8.
- ↑ 242.0 242.1 242.2 Simon Hooper. "British Muslims defiant over al-Shabab threat". Al Jazeera English. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2013/10/british-muslims-defiant-over-al-shabab-threat-2013102591313719196.html. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- ↑ Lisa Gray (19 October 2013). "Extremism opponent targeted on terrorist hit list". Manchester Evening News. http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/extremism-opponent-mohammed-shafiq-targeted-6207149. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- ↑ "Al Shabaab Launches Apparent Twitter Campaign". Anti-Defamation League. December 20, 2011. http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/twitter-shabaab-somalia-terror.htm.
- ↑ 245.0 245.1 Gettleman, Jeffrey (December 15, 2011). "Somalia's Insurgents Embrace Twitter as a Weapon". http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/15/world/africa/somalias-rebels-embrace-twitter-as-a-weapon.html. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
- ↑ HSMPress (December 11, 2011). "Twitter / @MajorEChirchir Like bombing donkeys ...". Twitter. https://twitter.com/#!/HSMPress/status/145821019737833473. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
- ↑ HSMPress (December 16, 2011). "Twitter / @MajorEChirchir Your boys are a ...". Twitter. https://twitter.com/#!/HSMPress/status/147776993566535680. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
- ↑ HSMPress (December 15, 2011). "Twitter / @gerardvanmourik @JeromeTaylor A ...". Twitter. https://twitter.com/#!/HSMPress/status/147279660135354368. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
- ↑ Gettleman, Jeffrey (December 20, 2011). "U.S. Considers Combating Somali Militants' Twitter Use". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/20/world/africa/us-considers-combating-shabab-militants-twitter-use.html. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
- ↑ HSMPress (December 15, 2011). "Twitter / @alykhansatchu @HSMPress The US is ...". Twitter. https://twitter.com/#!/MajorEChirchir/status/149057952999940096. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
- ↑ "Somalia's al-Shabab Twitter account suspended". 25 January 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-21196279. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- ↑ 252.0 252.1 252.2 "Somalia's al-Shabab Twitter account stopped again". 6 September 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-23987802.
- ↑ 253.0 253.1 "Al Qaeda Group Is Back on Twitter After Ban". 4 February 2013. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/al-qaeda-group-back-twitter-ban/story?id=18400844.
- ↑ "Somalia's al-Shabaab back on Twitter after suspension". 11 September 2013. http://in.finance.yahoo.com/news/somalias-al-shabaab-back-twitter-074833819.html. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- ↑ Mohamed, Hamza (16 December 2013). "Al-Shabab say they are back on Twitter". http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/12/al-shabab-claim-they-are-back-twitter-2013121610453327578.html. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- ↑ Heilprin, John (August 5, 2011). "Somalia: Famine Helps Al-Shabaab To Find New Recruits". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/05/somalia-famine-helps-alsh_n_919163.html. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- ↑ Peachy, Paul (July 23, 2011). "UN lying over Somalia famine, say Islamits; Aid agencies blocked from helping millions". London. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/un-lying-over-somalia-famine-say-islamists-2319060.html. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- ↑ SOMALIA: Government names national drought committee (July 4, 2011). "SOMALIA: Government names national drought committee". Raxanreeb.com. http://www.raxanreeb.com/?p=102255. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- ↑ Somalia famine: PM Ali sets up aid protection force, Mary Harper, BBC News, August 13, 2011.
- ↑ "Famine receding in Somalia but war blocks aid". November 18, 2011. http://af.reuters.com/article/kenyaNews/idAFL5E7MI2OJ20111118. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
- ↑ Gettleman, Jeffrey (February 3, 2012). "U.N. Says Somalia Famine Has Ended, but Crisis Isn't Over". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/04/world/africa/un-says-famine-in-somalia-is-over-but-risks-remain.html.
- ↑ "Joint Communique – Operation Linda Nchi". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kenya. http://www.mfa.go.ke/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=399:joint-communique&catid=35:news. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ Guled, Abdi (October 21, 2011). "AU: Somali militants 'dressed up' bodies for stunt". http://news.yahoo.com/au-somali-militants-dressed-bodies-stunt-133818144.html. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- ↑ Ndegwa, Alex (November 17, 2011). "Al Shabaab’s propaganda war". http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/InsidePage.php?id=2000046627&cid=4. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- ↑ Oloya, Opiyo (August 16, 2011). "Uganda: Al-Shabaab Progpaganda Can’t Change the Truth On the Ground". http://allafrica.com/stories/201108170891.html. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- ↑ Makokha, Kwamchetsi. "Nation Teaches the Shabaab a Thing or Two About Fighting a Proper War". allAfrica.com. http://allafrica.com/stories/201111070078.html. Retrieved November 10, 2011.
- ↑ "Al-Shabaab threatens to attack Kenya". AlJazeera. October 17, 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/20111017171543493140.html. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- ↑ McConnell, Tristan (February 10, 2012). "Al Shabaab and Al Qaeda co-produce video". Global Post. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatches/globalpost-blogs/africa/al-shabaab-and-al-qaeda-post-joint-video.
- ↑ "Where in the World is Sheikh Aweys?". SomaliaReport. 1 February 2012. http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2675/Where_in_the_World_is_Sheikh_Aweys. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- ↑ [dead link]
- ↑ [dead link]
- ↑ "Dozens of Yemen troops die in clashes with al-Qaeda". Bbc.co.uk. March 5, 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-17251661.
- ↑ "Somali leader vows to "cleanse country of Al-Qaeda"". MMegi online. http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php?sid=11&aid=589&dir=2012/February/Friday17.
- ↑ "YouGov Opinion Poll across MENA region regarding al-Shabaab & al-Qaeda merger". 17 April 2012. http://research.mena.yougov.com/en/news/2012/04/17/al-shabab-al-qaeda-merger-alarms-mena-residents/. Retrieved 2008-05-15.
- ↑ "Al-Shabaab to Change Name to Imaarah Islamiyah". SomaliaReport. 5 December 2011. http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2212. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- ↑ Bruton, Bronwyn (February 21, 2012). "Divisive Alliance". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/22/opinion/divisive-alliance.html?_r=1&ref=alshabab.
- ↑ Bronwyn Bruton and J. Peter Pham (2012-02-02). "The Splintering of Al Shabaab". Foreign Affairs. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/137068/bronwyn-bruton-and-j-peter-pham/the-splintering-of-al-shabaab?page=show. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- ↑ "Somali observers: internal divisions widening within al-Shabaab". Sabahionline.com. 5 April 2012. http://sabahionline.com/en_GB/articles/hoa/articles/features/2012/04/05/feature-01. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- ↑ "Can the U.S. Negotiate Somalia to Peace?". SomaliaReport. 9 February 2012. http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2745. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- ↑ "section RADIO ROUNDUP". Somaliareport.com. 23 February 2012. http://somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2896/23_February_2012_Daily_Media_Roundup. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- ↑ "Aweys Named Shabaab's Southern War Commander". SomaliaReport. 2012-02-22. http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2878/Aweys_Named_Shabaabs_Southern_War_Commander. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- ↑ Mugisha, Richard (8 September 2013). "Uganda: Is Al-Shabab Disintegrating?". allAfrica.com. http://allafrica.com/stories/201309090073.html. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- ↑ Tisdall, Simon (22 September 2013). "Kenya attack is product of brutal power struggle within al-Shabaab". Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/22/kenya-attack-power-struggle-al-shabaab. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- ↑ 284.0 284.1 "African Terrorist Groups Starting to Cooperate, U.S. Says". 25 June 2012. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-06-25/african-terrorist-groups-starting-to-cooperate-u-dot-s-dot-says.
- ↑ "Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, and Al-Shabaab 'merge'". 26 June 2012. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/al-qaeda-boko-haram-and-al-shabaab-merge.aspx?pageID=238&nID=24095&NewsCatID=357.
- ↑ Fox news: "Somali extremist leader threatens US, Kenya, Uganda with more attacks" May 22, 2014
- ↑ "Somalia: Hizbul Islam group withdraws allegiance, says 'Al Shabaab is weakened'". 25 September 2012. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_Hizbul_Islam_group_withdraws_allegiance_says_Al_Shabaab_is_weakened.shtml. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- ↑ "Hizbul Islam splits with al-Shabaab". 24 September 2012. http://sabahionline.com/en_GB/articles/hoa/articles/newsbriefs/2012/09/24/newsbrief-01. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- ↑ 289.0 289.1 289.2 289.3 Khalif, Abdulkadir (11 June 2012). "Somalia's Al-Shabaab offer 10 camels for Obama's 'capture'". http://www.africareview.com/News/Somalia+Al+Shabaab+puts+bounty+on+Obama/-/979180/1423690/-/15sgcrk/-/index.html. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- ↑ Joselow, Gabe (21 March 2013). "US Posts Bounty on American Militants in Somalia". http://www.voanews.com/content/us-posts-bounty-on-american-militants-in-somalia/1625905.html. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- ↑ "US offers $3 million bounties for 3 Somali extremists linked to al-Qaida". 15 March 2014. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/US-offers-3-million-bounties-for-3-Somali-extremists-linked-to-al-Qaida_printer.shtml. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- ↑ 292.0 292.1 "Eritrea rejects U.N. report it backs Somali rebels". Reuters. March 16, 2010. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2010/03/16/idUKLDE62F297. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- ↑ Cornwell, Susan (July 29, 2009). "AU, Somalia and UN accuse Eritrea of armed shabab". http://www.reuters.com/article/africaCrisis/idUSN29287781. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ↑ "Eritrean prisoners of war "in the custody of AU"". Independent.co.ug. July 21, 2009. http://www.independent.co.ug/index.php/cover-story/cover-story/82-cover-story/1290-eritreas-entry-changes-face-of-somalia-conflict. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Eritrea denies sending arms to al-Shabab". Al Jazeera. November 2, 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/11/201111220131334165.html. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- ↑ "US hits 2 Eritrean army officers with sanctions for supporting radical Somali Islamists". The Washington Post. 2012-07-05. http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/us-hits-2-eritrean-army-officers-with-sanctions-for-supporting-radical-somali-islamists/2012/07/05/gJQAL2ckPW_story.html. Retrieved July 6, 2012. [dead link]
- ↑ "Eritrea reduces support for al Shabaab - U.N. report". Reuters. July 16, 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/16/uk-eritrea-somalia-un-idUKBRE86F0AI20120716. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- ↑ "Horn, Red Sea Braces for Instability as Somaliland Moves Toward Islamist Reunification With Somalia". Oilprice.com. July 14, 2010. http://oilprice.com/Geo-Politics/Africa/Horn-Red-Sea-Braces-for-Instability-as-Somaliland-Moves-Toward-Islamist-Reunification-With-Somalia.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Somaliland Predictions Bearing Out: al-Shabaab Terrorist Group Empowered; Ethiopia May React". Oilprice.com. July 30, 2010. http://oilprice.com/Geo-Politics/Africa/Somaliland-Predictions-Bearing-Out-al-Shabaab-Terrorist-Group-Empowered-Ethiopia-May-React.html. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Somaliland says Shabaab ties claim a smokescreen". somalilandpress.com. http://somalilandpress.com/somaliland-says-shabaab-ties-claim-a-smokescreen-19678.
- ↑ 301.0 301.1 "Garowe Online". Garowe Online. October 23, 2010. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somali_Al_Shabaab_member_Atom_hiding_in_Somaliland_Report.shtml. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Garowe Online". Garowe Online. November 9, 2010. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_70_Somaliland_soldiers_fought_alongside_Al_Shabaab_in_Galgala_Puntland.shtml. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ↑ "Garowe Online". Garowe Online. January 6, 2011. http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_Haatuf_newspaper_reports_Somaliland_link_with_Al_Shabaab.shtml. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- Ryu, A. 2007, 'Somali government calls for peacekeepers', Voice of America News, February 13.
- Walker, R. 2008, 'Meeting Somalia's Islamist insurgents', BBC News, April 28. Retrieved on June 8, 2008. (Interview with Al Shabaab member.)
- "First Stop Addis" on YouTube – song by Al-Shabaab member Omar Hammami/Abu Mansoor Al-Amriki
- Elephant Action League (EAL), 2012, Africa’s White Gold of Jihad: al-Shabaab and Conflict Ivory 
- Al-Shabaab: How Great a Threat?: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session, October 3, 2013
|War in Somalia (2009–present)|
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|