|American intervention in Libya|
|Part of the International campaign against ISIL and the Second Libyan Civil War|
An AV-8B Harrier assigned to the 22nd MEU aboard the USS Wasp taking part in Operation Odyssey Lightning. 11 August 2016.
|Commanders and leaders|
Al-Mahdi Al-Barghathi (until 2018)
|Abu Hudhayfah al-Muhajir|
|Casualties and losses|
|1 killed||1,000+ fighters killed|
Since November 2015, the United States and allies have carried out a large series of both airstrikes and drone strikes to assist Libya in its revived conflict in support of the Tripoli-based Government of National Accord against the Islamic State presence in the region.
Military action against ISIL[edit | edit source]
On 13 November 2015, the United States launched an airstrike in Derna, Libya. Two U.S. F-15E fighter jets targeted senior ISIL leader Abu Nabil al-Anbari in the airstrike, who was the top ISIL commander in Libya. In January 2016, ISIL's Libyan faction confirmed Abu Nabil's death in a eulogy to him.
Administration officials are weighing a new campaign plan for Libya that would deepen the United States' military and diplomatic involvement, on yet another front against ISIL. The United States and its allies are increasing reconnaissance flights and intelligence collecting there—and even preparing for possible airstrikes and raids, according to senior American officials. Special Operations forces have met with various Libyan groups over the past months to vet them for possible action against ISIL.
On 19 February 2016, US warplanes carried out an airstrike on multiple ISIL targets in Libya, hitting an Islamic State training camp and a senior extremist leader, the training camp was near Sabratha, Libya, 60 people were present at the camp at the time of the strike, more than 40 people were killed with more wounded, some critically, On 14 February 2016, a U.N.-designated council presented a new 18-member Libyan cabinet in the Moroccan city of Skhirat, weeks after an earlier lineup was rejected. The internationally recognized parliament has to endorse the new unity cabinet. If approved, the new unity government could eventually seek international military intervention against Islamic State extremists who have taken advantage of the country's political vacuum since 2014.
On 1 August 2016, U.S. crewed and uncrewed aircraft carried out airstrikes on IS targets in Libya, responding to the U.N.-backed government's request to help push the militants from their former stronghold of Sirte (where several hundred IS fighters remain), in what U.S. officials described as the start of a sustained campaign against the extremist group in the city. President Barack Obama authorized the airstrikes after a recommendation by U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter; the strikes hit an IS tank and two vehicles that posed a threat to forces aligned with Libyan GNA (Government of National Accord). This was the third U.S. air strike against Islamic State militants in Libya, but this time U.S. officials said it marked the start of a sustained air campaign rather than another isolated strike, U.S. airstrikes will continue to target ISIL in Sirte in order to enable the GNA to make a decisive, strategic advance. U.S. AFRICOM command is overseeing the US effort, which is known as Operation Odyssey Lightning, AV-8B Harrier II assigned to the 22nd MEU flying off the USS Wasp conducted the airstrikes and uncrewed aircraft launched from undisclosed locations. Airstrikes continued, on 2 August, airstrikes hit a rocket launcher, an excavator and a pickup truck with a mounted recoilless rifle and on 3 August airstrikes struck a pickup truck with a mounted recoilless rifle; by 9 August the U.S. conducted 28 strikes against ISIS in Libya, with more than half of the strikes being conducted from uncrewed aircraft. By 16 August, U.S. airstrikes hit an IS vehicle and 4 militant positions in Sirte, bringing the number of U.S. airstrikes in Libya to 48. On 17 August, U.S. Africa Command officials announced on 16 August airstrikes on ISIS targets in Sirte struck 7 enemy fighting positions, 4 vehicle-borne bombs, 1 pickup truck with a mounted recoilless rifle, 12 enemy fighting positions and 1 command-and-control vehicle, bringing the total number of airstrikes in support of Operation Odyssey Lightning to 57. On 22 August, Stars and Stripes reported that U.S. Marine AH-1W SuperCobra helicopters participated in strikes against IS militants in Sirte on 20 and 21 August; a small detachment of US special forces in Sirte provided most of the targeting information for the airstrikes which were then relayed to U.S. forces through Libyan government troops. On 31 August, Stars and Stripes reported that in the past month, the U.S. military conducted 104 airstrikes against IS targets in Libya.
On 22 September, Stars and Stripes reported that the pace of US airstrikes against IS militants in Libya slowed in September as the number of insurgents holed up in a hard-to-target section of Sirte had shrunk, (the US conducted 50 airstrikes against IS targets, compared with 108 in August) with about 200 militants remaining. On 28 September, Fox News reported that as of 26 September, U.S. Marine Corps Harrier jets and attack helicopters as well as drones conducted 175 airstrikes against ISIS in Libya, according to the U.S. military's Africa Command. According to a U.S. official the number of ISIS fighters in Sirte was estimated to be "under 100" and that "ISIS is only in three neighborhoods."
On 3 October, Stars and Stripes reported that on 2 October the US conducted 20 airstrikes (bringing the total number of strikes to 201) in Libya: knocking out a command and control facility, nearly 70 IS fighting positions and several other sites in what was the heaviest day of bombing since the operation began, according to U.S. Africa Command data. The strikes were in support of an offensive by ground forces aligned with the internationally backed Libyan government. On 11 October, Stars and Stripes reported that U.S. warplanes conducted 51 airstrikes against IS targets in Libya, particularly in and around Sirte, between 7 and 10 October, marking it as some of the heaviest bombing since the start of the Operation; bringing the total number of U.S. airstrikes in Libya to 261. On 17 October, Fox news reported that US airstrikes against ISIS in Libya doubled in less than a month (bringing the number of airstrikes up to 324). On 21 October 2016, Stars and Stripes reported that USS San Antonio deployed to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Operation Odyssey Lightning to replace the USS Wasp that was carrying out operations against ISIS. The San Antonio will carry UH-1 Y Hueys and AH-1 W Cobras from the 22nd MEU's Aviation Combat Unit, VMM-264; Marine Harrier fighters were part of the operation aboard the Wasp, however the San Antonio does not host fighter jets.
On 4 November 2016, Fox News reported that the U.S. military ended its bombing campaign against ISIS in Sirte after three months of round-the-clock airstrikes the U.S. military conducted a total of 367 airstrikes since 1 August 2016, according to officials, no American airstrikes took place since 31 October; units taking part in the operation received orders on 1 November from AFRICOM to end offensive and collective self-defence airstrikes. A senior defense official said the U.S. military would "continue to provide military support to the GNA...ISIL-held territory in Sirte is down to a few hundred square meters. We'll continue to discuss with the GNA leadership what additional support they may need moving forward including air strikes."
Sirte was liberated by GNA forces in early December; on 20 December 2016, ABC news reported that AFRICOM said that it carried out 495 airstrikes against militant vehicles and positions in the former IS stronghold of Sirte, Operation Odyssey Lightning concluded on 19 December, following an announcement from the Libyan government of the end of offensive military operations in Sirte.
On 18 January 2017, ABC News reported that two USAF B-2 bombers struck two ISIS camps 28 miles south of Sirte, the airstrikes targeted between 80 and 100 ISIS fighters in multiple camps, an uncrewed aircraft also participated in the airstrikes. One official called the airstrikes "a huge success," with more than 80 ISIS fighters killed, one counterterrorism official told ABC News there were "zero survivors" at the camps. Many of the ISIS fighters in the camps had fled Sirte during the battle, according to another official; Pentagon press secretary Peter Cook said in a statement ISIS fighters had fled to the remote desert camps "in order to reorganize and they posed a security threat to Libya, the region, and U.S. national interests;" The militants were carrying weapons, wearing tactical vests and standing in formation. The airstrikes were authorised by President Obama and were carried out in coordination with GNA; they are considered to be an extension of Operation Odyssey Lightning. BBC News reported that the B-2s flew a round-trip of around 34 hours from Missouri and dropped around 100 bombs on their targets, US Defence Secretary Ash Carter said those targeted were "actively planning" attacks in Europe. NBC news later reported that the number of IS fighters killed was revised upward to 90; a U.S. defense official said that "This was the largest remaining ISIS presence in Libya," and that "They have been largely marginalised but I am hesitant to say they've been completely eliminated in Libya."
On 22 September 2017, the US military conducted 6 airstrikes with unmanned aircraft on an ISIS camp 150 miles southeast of Sirte, killing 17 ISIS militants and destroying three vehicles, CNN reported an AFRICOM statement that the strikes took place "In coordination with Libya's Government of National Accord and aligned forces" and that "The camp was used by ISIS to move fighters in and out of the country; stockpile weapons and equipment; and to plot and conduct attacks". The strikes marked the first time airstrikes had been carried out in the country under the Donald Trump administration.
Other actions[edit | edit source]
The U.S. military has been closely monitoring Islamic State movements in Libya, and small teams of U.S. military personnel has moved in and out of the country over a period of months. British, French, Italian and Jordanian special forces as well as the British RAF also have been in Libya helping with aerial surveillance, mapping and intelligence gathering in several cities, including Benghazi in the east and Zintan in the west, according to two Libyan military officials who were coordinating with them. British and American special forces have also been carrying out intelligence-gathering operations around Sirte.
Since the beginning of 2016, British Special forces have been escorting teams of MI6 agents to meet with Libyan officials and organise the supplying weapons and training to the Syrian army and to militias fighting against ISIS. On 27 February 2016, The Telegraph reported that British special forces had deployed alongside its U.S. counterparts in the city of Misrata to stop Islamist militants progress, their main role is to give tactical training to local militias and to build an army to fight ISIL. In May 2016, it was reported that British special forces have engaged in frontline combat against IS in Libya; in particular they destroyed two IS suicide vehicles that were targeting Libyan fighters. On 12 May, at the Shaddadah Bridge, 50 miles south of Misrata, the approach of a suicide vehicle sent Libyan forces fleeing in panic, British special forces intervened and destroyed the vehicle with a missile. An estimated dozen U.S. special forces have been operating out of a base near Misrata and have been in action near Tripoli, the U.S. publicly supports 3 groups who claim the right to govern the country in the fight against ISIS.
In a plan disclosed in late 2015, Britain was to offer the Libyan government 1,000 troops as part of a 5,000-strong combined with Italy, to train and equip the Libyan forces rather than take part in frontline fighting. In addition, British defence minister Michael Fallon announced that Britain is sending 20 troops from the 4th Infantry Brigade to Tunisia to help prevent Islamic State fighters from moving into the country from Libya.
In June 2016, it was reported that IS militants were retreating from Sirte and some fighters reportedly cutting off their beards and long hair to blend in with civilians as militia fighters allied to the unity government pushed into the city in tanks and armed trucks. The militias, mostly from Misrata, are allied to and are the main fighting force for the U.N.-brokered unity government installed in Tripoli the previous year. On 11 June, the BBC reported that Libyan forces claim they have retaken control of part of Sirte after fierce fighting with militants from Islamic State. In July 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said IS fighters in Libya are facing the "distinct possibility" of defeat in their last stronghold and are likely to scatter elsewhere in the country and the region; At the beginning of 2016, the Islamic State group was believed to have more than 5,000 fighters in Libya, by August 2016, estimating there could be less than 1,000 left, by 9 August, only 350 ISIS fighters remained in Sirte. US and British special forces were involved in the battle for Sirte: U.S. troops were operating out of a joint operations center on the city's outskirts, their role was limited to supporting forces unity government forces, providing direct, on-the-ground support. On 22 September, Stars and Stripes reported that Since the start of the Battle to retake Sirte by Libyan forces, many Islamic State members fled the city, "looking to hide among the population, relocate to other Libyan towns or attempting to leave Libya altogether."
Derna airstrike[edit | edit source]
On 15 November 2015, the US launched an airstrike in Derna, Libya killing senior ISIS leader Abu Nabil al-Anbari. Abu Nabil formerly led operations in Iraq alongside al-Qaeda from 2004 to 2010. This marked the first time United States military action was used against ISIS outside of Syria and Iraq. This was concurrent to the Battle of Derna.
February air raid[edit | edit source]
On 19 February 2016, the United States conducted a large series of bombings in Sabratha. The United States had claimed that ISIS training camps were the target. The strike killed Noureddine Chouchane, a Tunisian resident who was blamed for having links to the 2015 Sousse attacks in Tunisia. The Pentagon later released a statement in which it claims that the intention was to weaken the chances of ISIS continuing the construction of new training camps and the ability to recruit new members.
Operation Odyssey Lightning[edit | edit source]
On 2 August 2016 The Pentagon released a statement that the United States would begin to collaborate with Libya's GNA in an effort to free the city of Sirte from Islamic State affiliated groups that had captured the city in March 2015. The United States assured that this was done under the request of the Libyan government and that it was necessary to enable the Libyan forces to have strategic advantages for the offensive. The operations begsn a day before the announcements with precision airstrikes around Sirte.
Originally the Libyan forces were to lead the offensive, while support provided by U.S AV-8B Harrier jets and AH-1W Super Cobra attack helicopters striked militant strongholds inside the city. However, according to American field commanders, the GNA forces became "overwhelmed" attempting to enter Sirte and had become desperately in need of heavier support. The US granted then granted fighter jets permission to use defensive weapon strikes against militants.
January 2017 airstrikes[edit | edit source]
Through 1–2 January 2017, the US attacked multiple ISIL training camps west of Sirte. B-2 Spirit bombers were used for the bombing raids, which killed more than 80 militants. The strikes were intended to target senior members and external plotters. About 100 munitions were dropped on the camps.
Timeline of operations[edit | edit source]
2015[edit | edit source]
- 13 November – U.S airstrike in Derna kills senior ISIL leader Abu Nabil al-Anbari.
2016[edit | edit source]
- 19 February – 43–49 ISIS fighters killed in airstrikes.
Start of Operation Odyssey Lightning
- 1 August – U.S airstrike targets a T-72 tank, T-55 tank, two military support vehicles, and two pieces of heavy engineering equipment. An enemy position was also hit.
- 2 August – The U.S strikes a pick up truck destroying a mounted recoilless rifle as well as heavy engineering equipment.
- 3 August – U.S strikes one pickup truck with mounted recoilless rifle.
- 4–2 August trucks are hit in an air strike.
- 6–2 August enemy fighting positions are targeted.
- 7–3 August resupply trucks hit.
- 8–11 August fighting positions targeted as well as one truck.
- 9 August – One pick up truck targeted.
- 10–5 August supply trucks including one rigged with an improvised explosive device, as well as 10 enemy fighting positions.
- 11–2 August enemy vehicles and 5 fighting positions hit.
- 13 August – One enemy vehicle destroyed.
- 14–4 August enemy positions targeted.
- 15–4 August enemy positions targeted as well as one supply truck.
- 16–6 August vehicles hit including 4 mounted with improvised explosive devices (IED) as well as 7 fighting positions.
- 17–13 August fighting positions hit as well as an IED vehicle.
- 18–3 August fighting positions, a supply truck and an IED vehicle hit.
- 19–2 August supply trucks and 2 fighting positions.
- 20–15 August enemy positions targeted.
- 21–8 August enemy positions targeted.
- 22–10 August enemy positions as well as a supply truck targeted.
- 23–1 August enemy fighting position hit.
- 24–11 August enemy positions targeted including an IED vehicle.
- 26–2 August enemy positions hit.
- 27 August – One IED vehicle as well as a suspected IED position targeted.
- 28–6 August enemy positions as well as an IED vehicle hit.
- 29–16 August enemy positions as well as an IED vehicle hit.
- 30–5 August enemy positions as well as one IED vehicle hit.
- 31–5 August enemy positions, an IED vehicle and a weapons cache destroyed.
- 1–9 September enemy positions hit.
- 2–1 September enemy position hit.
- 3–11 September enemy positions hit.
- 4–4 September enemy positions hit.
- 5–5 September enemy positions as well as an IED vehicle destroyed.
- 6–6 September enemy positions hit.
- 7–2 September enemy positions as well as an IED vehicle destroyed.
- 8–3 September enemy positions hit.
- 9–2 September enemy positions as well as IED vehicle destroyed.
- 10–9 September enemy positions as well as a resupply vehicle destroyed.
- 11–9 September enemy positions hit.
- 12–3 September enemy positions as well as 2 vehicles targeted.
- 13 September – One enemy position hit.
- 14–6 September enemy positions as well as an IED vehicle hit.
- 15 September – IED vehicle destroyed.
- 18–9 September enemy positions hit.
- 20–7 September fighting positions hit.
- 21–3 September trucks hit including an IED rigged vehicle.
- 22–8 September enemy positions and an IED vehicle destroyed.
- 23–4 September enemy targets hit.
- 24 September – One resupply zone neutralized.
- 28 September – Resupply zone neutralized.
- 29 September – Armored truck destroyed.
- 30–7 September fighting positions as well as an IED vehicle.
- 1–6 October enemy positions hit.
- 2 October – 69 enemy positions, a command and control facility, an operations facility, and 2 IED vehicles neutralized.
- 3–27 October enemy positions hit.
- 4–3 October IED vehicles targeted.
- 5–11 October enemy positions.
- 7–17 October enemy positions and a resupply route targeted.
- 8 October – 60 enemy positions hit.
- 9 October – 51 enemy positions hit.
- 10–23 October enemy positions hit.
- 11–22 October enemy positions hit.
- 12–28 October enemy positions hit.
- 13–16 October enemy positions hit.
- 14 October – 60 enemy positions hit.
- 15–18 October enemy positions hit.
- 16–11 October enemy positions as well as an IED vehicle hit.
- 17–2 October enemy positions hit.
- 18–10 October enemy fighting positions hit.
- 21–2 October enemy positions and 2 IED vehicles hit.
- 22 October – One enemy fighting position.
- 23–3 October enemy fighting positions hit.
- 24–5 October enemy positions hit.
- 25–5 October IED vehicles destroyed.
- 26–5 October IED vehicles destroyed.
- 31 October— 33 enemy positions, one storage facility, and 2 IED vehicles targeted.
- 8–9 November enemy positions hit.
- 10–14 November enemy positions and one IED vehicle hit.
- 11–2 November IED vehicles destroyed.
- 12–14 November enemy fighting positions hit.
- 13–17 November enemy positions hit.
- 15–4 November enemy positions hit.
- 18 November – One enemy position hit.
- 19–6 November enemy positions hit.
- 21 November – 47 enemy positions hit.
- 22–29 November enemy positions hit.
- 23–14 November enemy positions hit.
- 24–24 November enemy positions hit.
- 25–14 November enemy positions hit.
- 26–30 November enemy positions hit.
- 27–24 November enemy positions hit.
- 28–14 November enemy positions hit.
- 29–8 November enemy positions hit.
- 30–14 November enemy positions hit.
- 1–3 December enemy positions hit.
- 2–22 December enemy positions hit.
- 3 December – 49 enemy positions hit.
- 5–7 December enemy fighting positions hit.
End of the Operation Odyssey Lightning
2017[edit | edit source]
- 18–19 January – US B-2 bombers target and neutralize 80–90 ISIS affiliates.
- 22–6 September strikes on an ISIS camp killing over 17 militants and destroying 3 vehicles.
- 26 September – Multiple ISIS militants targeted during precision strikes.
- 17 November – One airstrike on ISIS affiliates.
- 19–2 November airstrikes near Fuqaha.
2018[edit | edit source]
- 30 March – First airstrike conducted against AQIM. The strike kills "two al Qaeda terrorists, including Musa Abu Dawud, a high ranking al-Qa'ida in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) official."
2019[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
- Libyan crisis
- 2011 military intervention in Libya
- Factional violence in Libya (2011–2014)
- Second Libyan Civil War
- International military campaign against ISIS
- Spillover of the Syrian Civil War
- Drone strikes in Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia
References[edit | edit source]
- "Libya: international airstrikes and alleged civilian casualties". https://airwars.org/libya-airstrike-reports-and-alleged-civilian-casualties/.
- "Exclusive: U.S. Targets ISIS in Libya Airstrike". The Daily Beast. 14 November 2015. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/11/14/exclusive-u-s-targets-isis-in-libya-airstrike.html. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Martin Pengelly (14 November 2015). "Islamic State leader in Libya 'killed in US airstrike'". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/14/us-airstrike-isis-leader-libya. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Eulogy to Abu Nabil al-Anbari: Islamic State leader in Libya". Middle East Forum. http://jihadintel.meforum.org/194/eulogy-to-abu-nabil-al-anbari-islamic-state. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- "U.S. Broadens Fight Against ISIS With Attacks in Afghanistan". The New York Times. 31 January 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/01/us/politics/us-broadens-fight-against-isis-with-attacks-in-afghanistan.html.
- "U.S. admiral warns Asia-Pacific may be next front in ISIS fight". Navy times. 4 August 2016. http://www.navytimes.com/story/military/2016/08/03/isis-asia-islamic-state-philippines-indonesia-malaysia-bangladesh/87999820/.
- "Pentagon: Islamic State down to 350 fighters in Sirte, Libya". Stars and Stripes. 9 August 2016. http://www.stripes.com/news/pentagon-islamic-state-down-to-350-fighters-in-sirte-libya-1.423138.
- "US airstrikes enter 3rd day in Libya". Stars and Stripes. 4 August 2016. http://www.stripes.com/news/us-airstrikes-enter-3rd-day-in-libya-1.422424.
- "New Videos Show First US Airstrikes Against ISIS in Libya". ABC news. 4 August 2016. http://abcnews.go.com/International/videos-shows-us-airstrikes-isis-libya/story?id=41140453.
- "US Conducts New Round of Airstrikes Against ISIS in Libya". defence news. 1 August 2016. http://www.defensenews.com/story/breaking-news/2016/08/01/libya-airstrikes-isis-us/87914526/.
- "U.S. Airstrikes Support Government of National Accord in Libya". department of defence. 4 August 2016. http://www.defense.gov/News/Article/Article/905197/us-airstrikes-support-government-of-national-accord-in-libya.
- "U.S. warplanes launch bombing campaign on Islamic State in Libya". 1 August 2016. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-security-idUSKCN10C2NF.
- "U.S. conducts new round of airstrikes against ISIS in Libya". military.com. 1 August 2016. http://www.militarytimes.com/story/military/war-on-is/2016/08/01/us-air-strikes-sirte-libya-islamic-state/87909908/. [dead link]
- "US Airstrikes Hit IS in Libya, Marking 48 Strikes in August". abc news. 16 August 2016. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/us-airstrikes-hit-libya-marking-48-strikes-august-41420865.
- "U.S. Airstrikes Hit ISIL Targets in Libya". Department of Defense. 17 August 2016. http://www.defense.gov/News/Article/Article/917245/us-airstrikes-hit-isil-targets-in-libya.
- "Marine gunships enter the fight against the Islamic State in Libya". Stars and Stripes. 22 August 2016. http://www.stripes.com/news/us/marine-gunships-enter-the-fight-against-the-islamic-state-in-libya-1.425064.
- "More than 100 US airstrikes against Islamic State in Libya in August". Stars and Stripes. 31 August 2016. http://www.stripes.com/news/more-than-100-us-airstrikes-against-islamic-state-in-libya-in-august-1.426465.
- "US airstrikes in Libya slow as targets shrink". Stars and Stripes. 22 September 2016. http://www.stripes.com/news/us-airstrikes-in-libya-slow-as-targets-shrink-1.430392.
- "Obama expected to extend airstrikes against ISIS in Libya another month". Fox News Channel. 28 September 2016. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2016/09/28/obama-expected-to-extend-airstrikes-against-isis-in-libya-another-month.html.
- "US bombing in Libya intensifies". Stars and Stripes. 3 October 2016. http://www.stripes.com/news/us-bombing-in-libya-intensifies-1.432151.
- "US bombing picks up against Islamic State militants in Libya". Stars and Stripes. 11 October 2016. http://www.stripes.com/news/us-bombing-picks-up-against-islamic-state-militants-in-libya-1.433560.
- "US airstrikes against ISIS in Libya doubled in less than a month". Fox News Channel. 17 October 2016. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2016/10/17/us-airstrikes-against-isis-in-libya-doubled-in-less-than-month.html.
- "USS San Antonio joins Libya operation". stars and stripes. 21 October 2016. http://www.stripes.com/news/uss-san-antonio-joins-libya-operation-1.435175.
- "US quietly ends Libya bombing campaign against ISIS". Fox News Channel. 4 November 2016. http://www.foxnews.com/us/2016/11/04/us-quietly-ends-libya-bombing-campaign-against-isis.html.
- "US Says It Concluded Its Anti-IS Campaign in Libya". ABC news. 20 December 2016. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/us-concluded-anti-campaign-libya-44302624.
- "AFRICOM concludes Operation Odyssey Lightning". AFRICOM. 20 December 2016. http://www.africom.mil/media-room/pressrelease/28564/africom-concludes-operation-odyssey-lightning.
- "B-2 Bombers Strike ISIS Camps in Libya". ABC news. 19 January 2017. http://abcnews.go.com/International/bombers-strike-isis-camps-libya/story?id=44882627.
- "Islamic State conflict: US strikes in Libya 'kill 80 rebels'". BBC News. 19 January 2017. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-38685203.
- "Did Obama Defeat ISIS in Libya?". NBC news. 28 January 2017. http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/did-obama-defeat-isis-libya-n709001.
- "US strikes Libya for first time under Trump". CNN. 24 September 2017. http://edition.cnn.com/2017/09/24/politics/us-strikes-libya-trump/index.html.
- "Officials: US Warplanes Strike IS Facility in Libya". ABC News. 19 February 2016. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory/official-us-warplanes-hit-multiple-targets-libya-37050030.
- "RAF flying Libyan missions in preparation for helping unity government". The Guardian. 9 February 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/feb/09/raf-in-libyan-missions-in-preparation-for-helping-unity-government.
- "Britain and Jordan's secret war in Libya". Middle East Eye. 25 March 2016. http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/revealed-britain-and-jordan-s-secret-war-libya-147374304. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
- "Gaddafi loyalists join West in battle to push Islamic State from Libya". the telegraph. 7 May 2016. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/07/gaddafi-loyalists-join-west-in-battle-to-push-islamic-state-from/.
- "SAS deployed in Libya since start of year, says leaked memo". The Guardian. 25 March 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/25/sas-deployed-libya-start-year-leaked-memo-king-abdullah.
- "UK special forces' operations in Libya confirmed by leaked briefing". the independent. 25 March 2016. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/uk-special-forces-sas-operations-in-libya-confirmed-by-leaked-briefing-a6952821.html.
- "British 'advisers' deployed to Libya to build anti-Isil cells". The Telegraph. 27 February 2016. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/12176114/British-advisers-deployed-to-Libya-to-build-anti-Isil-cells.html.
- "British special forces destroyed Islamic State trucks in Libya, say local troops". the telegraph. 26 May 2016. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/26/british-special-forces-destroyed-islamic-state-trucks-in-libya-s/.
- "British special forces praised for stopping IS suicide attack in Libya". BT. 26 May 2016. http://home.bt.com/news/uk-news/british-special-forces-praised-for-stopping-is-suicide-attack-in-libya-11364064379301.
- "U.S. Special Forces take the fight to ISIS in Libya". CNN. 18 May 2016. http://edition.cnn.com/2016/05/18/middleeast/libya-isis-us-special-forces/.
- "UK to send troops to Tunisia to help stop ISIS crossing Libyan border". 1 March 2016. http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-tunisia-libya-idUKKCN0W33OY.
- "Setbacks seen for Islamic State in Syria, Iraq, Libya". 9 June 2016. http://www.msn.com/en-gb/news/uknews/setbacks-seen-for-islamic-state-in-syria-iraq-libya/ar-AAgPHVh?li=BBoPOOl.
- "Libyan forces 'retake Sirte port from IS militants'". BBC News. 11 June 2016. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-36505935.
- "UN: ISIS Fighters Face Possible Defeat in Libya". military.com. 20 July 2016. http://www.military.com/daily-news/2016/07/20/un-isis-fighters-face-possible-defeat-libya.html.
- "U.S. Special Operations troops aiding Libyan forces in major battle against Islamic State". The Washington Post. 9 August 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2016/08/09/u-s-special-operations-forces-are-providing-direct-on-the-ground-support-for-the-first-time-in-libya/.
- "U.S. Kills Leader of ISIS in Libya". 14 November 2015. https://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/11/14/exclusive-u-s-targets-isis-in-libya-airstrike.
- Pengelly, Martin; Stephen, Chris (14 November 2015). "Islamic State leader in Libya 'killed in US airstrike'". https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/14/us-airstrike-isis-leader-libya.
- Elumami, Ahmed. "U.S. air raid hits Islamic State in Libya, 43 dead". https://www.reuters.com/article/libya-security/u-s-air-raid-hits-islamic-state-in-libya-43-dead-idUSKCN0VS1A5.
- Stephen, Chris; Ackerman, Spencer (19 February 2016). "US airstrikes target Islamic State militants in Libya". https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/19/us-airstrikes-target-islamic-state-militants-in-libya.
- "Statement from Pentagon Press Secretary Peter Cook on Libya Airstrike". https://www.defense.gov/News/News-Releases/News-Release-View/Article/658458/statement-from-pentagon-press-secretary-peter-cook-on-libya-airstrike/.
- "Libya effort named 'Operation Odyssey Lightning'". 2 August 2016. https://insidedefense.com/insider/libya-effort-named-operation-odyssey-lightning.
- "Counter-ISIL operation moves into Libya". 1 August 2016. https://insidedefense.com/insider/counter-isil-operation-moves-libya.
- "Libyan unity forces fight IS in Sirte". https://www.enca.com/africa/libyan-unity-forces-fight-is-in-sirte.
- "Providing freedom from terror: RPAs help reclaim Sirte". http://www.acc.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/1265247/providing-freedom-from-terror-rpas-help-reclaim-sirte/.
- Amara, Hani. "Libyan forces clear last Islamic State holdout in Sirte". https://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-security-sirte/libyan-forces-clear-last-islamic-state-holdout-in-sirte-idUSKBN13V15R.
- Schmitt, Eric; Gordon, Michael R. (8 April 2018). "U.S. Bombs ISIS Camps in Libya". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/19/us/politics/united-states-bombs-isis-camps-in-libya.html.
- Ali, Idrees. "U.S. strikes in Libya kill more than 80 Islamic State fighters". https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-libya-strike/u-s-strikes-in-libya-kill-more-than-80-islamic-state-fighters-idUSKBN15320U.
- "United States Africa Command". http://www.africom.mil/media-room/article/28322/u-s-airstrikes-support-gna-in-libya.
- "United States Africa Command". http://www.africom.mil/media-room/article/28323/gna-supported-u-s-airstrikes-for-aug-4.
- "US conducts more air strikes against Islamic State in Libya". http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/us-conducts-air-strikes-libya-2139745429.
- "US drone strike kills ISIS militants in central Libya desert – The Libya Observer". https://www.libyaobserver.ly/inbrief/us-drone-strike-kills-isis-militants-central-libya-desert.
- "The US conducted another drone strike targeting ISIS in Libya on Sunday near Fuqaha, Libya, officials tell CNN. Sunday's strike follows a similar US strike on Friday in the same area - Map of news of Libya conflict - libya.liveuamap.com". https://libya.liveuamap.com/en/2017/20-november-the-us-conducted-another-drone-strike-targeting/.
- Browne, Ryan. "US conducts first airstrike against al Qaeda in Libya". https://www.cnn.com/2018/03/28/politics/us-airstrike-al-qaeda-libya/index.html.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|