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Andrey Ivanovich Yeryomenko
Andrey Yeryomenko in 1938.
Native name Russian: Андре́й Ива́нович Ерёменко
Ukrainian language: Андрій Іванович Єрьоменко
Born (1892-10-14)October 14, 1892
Died November 19, 1970(1970-11-19) (aged 78)
Place of birth Markovka, Kharkov Governorate, Russian Empire (now Ukraine)
Place of death Moscow, Soviet Union
Buried at Kremlin Wall Necropolis
Allegiance  Russian Empire (1913–1918)
 Soviet Union (1918–1958)
Service/branch Russian Imperial Army
Red Army
Years of service 1913–1958
Rank Marshal of the Soviet Union
Commands held North Caucasus Military District
4th Shock Army
Stalingrad Front
1st Baltic Front
2nd Baltic Front
Carpathian Military District
Battles/wars World War I
Russian Civil War
Great Patriotic War
Awards Hero of the Soviet Union
Hero of Czechoslovakia
Order of Lenin (5)
Order of the Red Banner (4)
Order of the October Revolution
Order of Suvorov, 1st Class (3)
Order of Kutuzov, 1st Class[1]

Andrey (Andrei) Ivanovich Yeryomenko (or Yeremenko, Eremenko; Russian: Андре́й Ива́нович Ерёменко; Ukrainian language: Андрій Іванович Єрьоменко

October 14 [O.S. October 2] 1892 – November 19, 1970) was a Soviet general during World War II and, subsequently, a Marshal of the Soviet Union.

Military career[edit | edit source]

Draft and early service[edit | edit source]

Born in Markovka in the province of Kharkov in Ukraine to a peasant family, Yeryomenko was drafted into the Imperial Army in 1913, serving on the Southwest and Romanian Fronts during World War I. He joined the Red Army in 1918, where he served in the legendary Budyonny Cavalry (First Cavalry Army). He attended the Leningrad Cavalry School and then the Frunze Military Academy, graduating in 1935.

World War II[edit | edit source]

In 1940, Yeryomenko was placed in command of the 6th Cavalry Corps, which was responsible for invading Eastern Poland following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The operation was characterized by poor organization and command. Yeryomenko had to request an emergency airlift of fuel so as to continue his advance. Afterwards, he held a number of commands, ending up in control of the Transbaikal Military District, the post he held when Operation Barbarossa began in June 1941. Eight days after the invasion began, Yeryomenko was recalled to Moscow, where he was made the Acting Commander of the Soviet Western Front, two days after its original commander, General of the Army Dmitri Pavlov, was dismissed (and later convicted and executed) for incompetence. Yeryomenko was thrust into a very precarious position. Ironically, during a political purge, Stalin had executed the most experienced army officers just prior to the German invasion. Stalin did not expect Hitler to invade the Soviet Union until 1942 at the earliest. The Nazi Blitzkrieg approach to warfare quickly dominated the Western Front, but Yeryomenko motivated the remaining troops, and halted the German offensive just outside of Smolensk. During this vicious defensive Battle of Smolensk, Yeryomenko was wounded. Because of his injuries, he was transferred to the newly created Bryansk Front. In August 1941, Yeryomenko was ordered to launch an offensive along the Bryansk Front, despite the obvious superiority of the German forces. The offensive failed to accomplish its objective despite a valiant effort. In October the Germans launched Operation Typhoon, which was an offensive aimed at capturing Moscow. Yeryomenko's forces were pushed back, but eventually a number of counterattacks were able to halt the German push. On October 13, Yeryomenko was once again wounded, this time severely. He was evacuated to a military hospital in Moscow, where he spent several weeks recovering. In January 1942, Yeryomenko was appointed commander of the 4th Shock Army, part of the North-Western Front. During the Soviet Winter Counteroffensive, Yeryomenko was again wounded; this time on January 20, when German planes bombed his headquarters. Yeryomenko refused to evacuate to a hospital until the battle surrounding him finished. Stalin gave Yeryomenko the command of the Southeastern Front, on August 1, 1942,[2] where he proceeded to launch vicious counterattacks against the German offensive into the Caucasus, Fall Blau. Yeryomenko and Commissar Nikita Khrushchev planned the defense of Stalingrad. When his subordinate, Gen. Lopatin, doubted his ability to defend Stalingrad, Yeryomenko replaced him with lieutenant general Vasily Chuikov as 62nd Army commander on September 11, 1942.[3] On September 28, the Southeastern Front was renamed the Stalingrad Front. During Operation Uranus, November 1942, Yeryomenko's forces helped surround the German 6th Army, which was eventually destroyed or captured in the Battle of Stalingrad. After German General Erich von Manstein attempted to counterattack the Soviet forces and break through the line to relieve the surrounded Germans. Yeryomenko's successfully repelled the attack. On January 1, 1943, the Stalingrad Front was renamed Southern Front. After the end of the winter offensive, in March 1943, Yeryomenko was transferred north to the Kalinin Front, which remained relatively quiet until September, when Yeryomenko launched a small, but successful offensive. In December, Yeryomenko was once again sent south, this time to take command of the Separate Coastal Army, which was put together to retake Crimea, which was accomplished with assistance from Fyodor Tolbukhin's 4th Ukrainian Front. In April, Yeryomenko once again was sent north, to command the 2nd Baltic Front. During the summer campaign, 2nd Baltic was very successful in crushing German opposition, and was able to capture Riga, helping to bottle up some 30 German divisions in Latvia. On March 26, 1945, Yeryomenko was transferred to the command of the 4th Ukrainian Front, the unit he controlled until the end of the war. Fourth Ukrainian was positioned in Eastern Hungary. Yeryomenko's subsequent offensive helped capture the rest of Hungary, and paved the way for the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia. His army occupied many cities and towns in Czechoslovakia, most notably Ostrava. Today, many streets in the Czech Republic bear his name.

After the war[edit | edit source]

After the war, Yeryomenko had three major commands: between 1945–1946, he was the Commander in Chief of the Carpathian Military District, from 1946-1952 he was the Commander in Chief of the Western Siberian Military District, and from 1953-1958 he was the Commander in Chief of the North Caucasus Military District. On March 11, 1955, Yeryomenko, along with five other noteworthy commanders, was given the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. He was made Inspector General for the Ministry of Defense in 1958, a largely ceremonial role that allowed him to retire that same year.

He died November 19, 1970. The urn containing his ashes is buried in the Kremlin.

Honours and awards[edit | edit source]

Soviet Union
Foreign Awards
  • Honorary Citizen of Volgograd (4 May 1970), Smolensk, Daugavpils (27 July 1964) and Ostrava (Czech Republic)

Commands [4][edit | edit source]

Military offices
Preceded by
Unidentified
Commanding Officer of the 79th Cavalry Regiment
1929 - 1936
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Unidentified
Commanding Officer of the 22nd Cavalry Regiment
1937
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Unidentified
Commanding Officer of the 14th Cavalry Division
1937 - 1938
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Unidentified
Commanding General of the 6th Cavalry Corps
1938 - 1940
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Unidentified
Commanding General of the 3rd Mechanized Corps
1940
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Unidentified
Commanding General of the North Caucasus Military District
1940 - 1941
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Unidentified
Commanding General of the 1st Red Banner Army
Jan 1941 - Jun 1941
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Army General Dumitry Pavlov
Commanding General of the Western Front
28 June 1941 – 2 July 1941
Succeeded by
Marshal Timoshenko, Yeryomenko as vice commander of Western Front
Preceded by
Newly Formed
Commanding General of the Bryansk Front
16 Aug 1941 – 13 Oct 1941
Succeeded by
Major General Georgiy Fedorovich Zakharov
Preceded by
27th Army renamed as 4th Shock Army
Commanding General of the 4th Shock Army
December 25th 1941 – February 13th 1942
Succeeded by
Lieutenant General Filipp Golikov
Preceded by
Unidentified
Commanding General of the Southwestern Front
1942 - 12 Jul 1942
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Newly Formed
Commanding General of the Stalingrad Front
12 Jul 1942 - 7 Aug 1942
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Newly Formed by splitting the Stalingrad Front
Commanding General of the Southeastern Front
7 Aug 1942 - 28 Sep 1942
Succeeded by
Disbanded
Preceded by
Reformed from Southeastern Front
Commanding General of the Stalingrad Front
28 Sep 1942 - 1 Jan 1943
Succeeded by
Unidentified
Preceded by
Reformed from Stalingrad Front
Commanding General of the Southern Front
1 Jan 1943 - Feb 1943
Succeeded by
General Lieutenant Rodion Malinovsky
Preceded by
Army General Maksim Purkayev
Commanding General of the Kalinin Front
April 7 - October 12, 1943
Succeeded by
Renamed 1st Baltic Front
Preceded by
Renamed from Kalinin Front
Commanding General of the 1st Baltic Front
October 12 - November 19, 1943
Succeeded by
Army General Hovhannes Bagramyan
Preceded by
Army General Ivan Yefimovich Petrov
Commanding General of the Separate Coastal Army
Feb 3, 1944 – Apr 18, 1944
Succeeded by
Lieutenant General Kondrat Semenovich Melnik
Preceded by
Army General Markian Popov
Commanding General of the 2nd Baltic Front
April 23, 1944 - Feberuary 1945
Succeeded by
2nd Baltic Front was merged into Leningrad Front
Preceded by
Army General Ivan Yefimovich Petrov
Commanding General of the 4th Ukrainian Front
26 Mar 1945 - 25 Aug 1945
Succeeded by
Redisgnated as Carpathian Military District
Preceded by
Newly Formed from 4th Ukrainian Front
Commanding General of the Carpathian Military District
25 Aug 1945 - October 1946
Succeeded by
Colonel General K.N. Galytskyy
Preceded by
General Lieutenant V.I. Kurdyumov
Commanding General of the Western Siberian Military District
Oct 1946 - Nov 1953
Succeeded by
Disbanded to form Siberian Military District
Preceded by
Colonel General S G Trofimenko
Commanding General of the North Caucasus Military District
November 1953 - April 1958
Succeeded by
Army General Issa Alexandrovich Pliyev
Preceded by
Unidentified
Inspector General of the Ministry of Defense
April 1958
Succeeded by
Unidentified

References[edit | edit source]

  1. (Russian) Biography on War Heroes site.
  2. Craig, William (1973). Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad. Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky and Konecky. p. 25. ISBN 1-56852-368-8. 
  3. Craig, William (1973). Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad. Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky and Konecky. p. 83. ISBN 1-56852-368-8. 
  4. http://generals.dk/general/Eremenko/Andrei_Ivanovich/Soviet_Union.html

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