Arlington National Cemetery and the Netherlands Carillon in December 2012.
|Year established||May 13, 1864|
|Location||Arlington County, Virginia|
|Owned by||U.S. Department of the Army|
|Size||624 acres (253 ha)|
|Number of graves||400,000|
|Find a Grave||www.findagrave.com|
Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington County, Virginia, directly across the Potomac River from the Lincoln Memorial, is a United States military cemetery beneath whose 624 acres (253 ha) have been laid casualties, and deceased veterans, of the nation's conflicts beginning with the American Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars. It was established during the Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, which had been the estate of the family of Confederate general Robert E. Lee's wife Mary Anna (Custis) Lee (a great-granddaughter of Martha Washington).
- 1 History
- 2 Sections
- 3 Grave markers, niches and headstones
- 4 Arlington Memorial Amphitheater
- 5 Memorials
- 6 Burial procedures
- 7 Notable burials
- 8 2010 mismanagement controversy
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
History[edit | edit source]
George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of Martha Washington, acquired the land that now is Arlington National Cemetery in 1802, and began construction of Arlington House. The estate passed to Custis' daughter, Mary Anna, who had married United States Army officer Robert E. Lee. Custis' will gave a "life inheritance" to Mary Lee, allowing her to live at and run Arlington Estate for the rest of her life but not enabling her to sell any portion of it. Upon her death, the Arlington estate passed to her eldest son, George Washington Custis Lee.
When Virginia seceded from the Union at the start of the American Civil War, Robert E. Lee resigned his commission on April 20, 1861, and took command of the armed forces of the Commonwealth of Virginia, later becoming commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. On May 7, troops of the Virginia militia occupied Arlington and Arlington House. With Confederate forces occupying Arlington's high ground, the capital of the Union was left in an untenable military position. Although unwilling to leave Arlington House, Mary Lee believed her estate would soon be invested with federal soldiers. So she buried many of her family treasures on the grounds and left for her sister's estate at Ravensworth in Fairfax County, Virginia, on May 14. On May 3, General Winfield Scott ordered Brigadier General Irvin McDowell to clear Arlington and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, of all troops not loyal to the United States. McDowell occupied Arlington without opposition on May 24.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, most military personnel who died in battle near Washington, D.C., were buried at the United States Soldiers' Cemetery in Washington, D.C., or Alexandria Cemetery in Alexandria, Virginia, but by late 1863 both were nearly full. On July 16, 1862, Congress passed legislation authorizing the U.S. federal government to purchase land for national cemeteries for military dead, and put the U.S. Army Quartermaster General in charge of this program. In May 1864, Union forces suffered large numbers of dead in the Battle of the Wilderness. Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs ordered that an examination of eligible sites be made for the establishment for a large new national military cemetery. Within weeks, his staff reported that Arlington Estate was the most suitable property in the area. The property was high and free from floods (which might unearth graves), it had a view of the District of Columbia, and it was aesthetically pleasing. It was also the home of the leader of the armed forces of the Confederate States of America, and denying Robert E. Lee use of his home after the war was a valuable political consideration. The first military burial at Arlington (a white soldier, William Henry Christman) was made on May 13, 1864. close to what is now the northeast gate in Section 27. However, Meigs did not formally authorize establishment of burials until June 15, 1864. The date or name of the first African American burial cannot be precisely determined, but occurred on either July 2 or July 3, 1864, in Section 27. Arlington did not desegregate its burial practices until President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948.
The government acquired Arlington at a tax sale in 1864 for $26,800, equal to $400,000 today. Mrs. Lee had not appeared in person but rather had sent an agent, attempting to pay the $92.07 in property taxes (equal to $1,400 today) assessed on the estate in a timely manner. The government turned away her agent, refusing to accept the tendered payment. In 1874, Custis Lee, heir under his grandfather's will passing the estate in trust to his mother, sued the United States claiming ownership of Arlington. In December, 1882, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 in Lee's favor in United States v. Lee, deciding that Arlington had been confiscated without due process. After that decision, Congress returned the estate to him, and on March 3, 1883, Custis Lee sold it back to the government for $150,000 (equal to $3,221,364 in 2021) at a signing ceremony with Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln.
The southern portion of the land now occupied by the cemetery was used during and after the Civil War as a settlement for freed slaves. More than 1,100 freed slaves were given land at Freedman's Village by the government, where they farmed and lived during and after the Civil War. They were evicted in 1888 when the estate was repurchased by the government and dedicated as a military installation.
Beginning in 1992, Morill Worcester donated thousands of wreaths around the end-of-year holiday season to be placed on graves at Arlington. He has since expanded his effort, now known as Wreaths Across America, and supplies wreaths to over 230 state and national cemeteries and veterans monuments across the country.
Recent expansion[edit | edit source]
With limited space but large numbers of World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War, and other veterans dying and wanting to be buried at Arlington, the need for additional burial space at the cemetery became a pressing issue. In 1990, cemetery superintendent John C. Metzler, Jr., implemented a $1.4 million plan to clear a former 13 acres (5.3 ha) parking lot to create space for new graves.
The cemetery received the authority to transfer 12 acres (4.9 ha) of woodland from the NPS-controlled Arlington House in 1996 and 2001, 37 acres (15 ha) of land in 1999 from the Department of Defense (DOD) that was the site of the Navy Annex building, 8 acres (3.2 ha) of land in 1999 from the Department of the Army that was part of Fort Myer, 4 acres (1.6 ha) of land from Arlington County's Southgate Road right-of-way in 2004, and just under 10 acres (4.0 ha) of land from Fort Myer in 2005.
In 2007, Metzler implemented the Millennium Project, a $35 million expansion plan to begin utilizing the Arlington woodland, Ft. Myer, and Navy Annex land. The project also included converting 40 acres (16 ha) of unused space and 4 acres (16,000 m2) of maintenance property on the cemetery grounds into burial space in 2006 and 2007 to allow an additional 26,000 graves and 5,000 inurnments. The Millennium Project expanded Arlington's physical boundaries for the first time since the 1960s, and was the largest expansion of burial space at the site since the American Civil War. Metzler's plans were criticized and opposed by several environmental and historical preservation groups, as well as by the NPS and the manager of Arlington House.
In January 2013, Arlington County, Virginia, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Arlington Cemetery officials to expand the cemetery even further. Under the tentative plan, Arlington County will give up the easement for Southgate Road (which lies between the Navy Annex property and the cemetery's 2012 boundary), and obtain a narrow easement along the southwest border of the Navy Annex site for a new Southgate Road. In exchange, the Department of Defense will give the Navy Annex parking lot to the county. Army land west of South Joyce Street to Columbia Pike would be transferred to the county as well. Additionally, roughly the northern half of the Virginia Department of Transportation land bounded by South Joyce Street, Columbia Pike, and South Washington Boulevard would be conveyed by the state to the cemetery. The cloverleaf interchange between Columbia Pike and S. Washington Blvd. would be eliminated, and the hairpin turn in Columbia Pike straightened, to provide a safer, more natural exit from S. Washington Blvd. onto Columbia Pike. Although exact acreages were not specified and the plan depends on state cooperation, the MOU if implemented would create a more contiguous plot of land for the cemetery.
On March 26, 2013, Public Law 113-6 appropriated to the DOD $84 million to plan, design and construct the Millennium Project. The legislation additionally appropriated to the DOD $19 million to study, plan and design a future expansion of the Cemetery's burial space.
Arlington Woods expansion controversy[edit | edit source]
On February 22, 1995, officials of the United States Department of the Interior and the United States Department of the Army signed an agreement to transfer from Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial, to the Army a part of Arlington Woods, which was located in Section 29 of the NPS at Arlington National Cemetery between Arlington House and Fort Myer. The property transfer, which involved 12 acres (4.9 ha) of NPS land, was intended to enable the Cemetery to increase its space for burials. Environmentalists expressed concerns that the agreement would result in the destruction of part of a 24 acres (9.7 ha) stand of trees.
On September 23, 1996, Public Law 104-201 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to transfer to the Secretary of the Army all of the land in Section 29 that was within an "Arlington National Cemetery Interment Zone" and some of the land in the Section that was within a "Robert E. Lee Memorial Preservation Zone".
On March 5, 1998, the NPS, which is a component of the Department of the Interior, informed the National Capital Planning Commission that it wanted to transfer only 4 acres (1.6 ha) to the Cemetery, rather than the 12 acres (4.9 ha) that the 1995 agreement had described. In response, Metzler stated: "I was surprised. But we will continue to work with the Department of Interior and see what happens."
On July 12, 1999, the NPS issued a Federal Register notice that announced the availability of an environmental assessment (EA) for the transfer. The EA stated that the Interment Zone contained the oldest and largest tract of Climax vegetation eastern hardwood forest in Arlington County. This forest was the same type that once covered the Arlington estate, and had regenerated from trees that were present historically. A forestry study determined that a representative tree was 258 years old. The Interment Zone was also determined to contain significant archeological and cultural landscape resources, in addition to those in the Preservation Zone. The EA described four alternative courses of action.
In contrast to the NPS's March 1998 statement to the National Capital Planning Commission, the 1999 EA stated that the preferred alternative (Alternative 1) would transfer to the Cemetery approximately 9.6 acres (3.9 ha), comprising most of the Interment Zone and the northern tip of the Preservation Zone. Another alternative (Alternative 3) would transfer to the Cemetery the 12 acres (4.9 ha) Interment Zone, while keeping the 12.5 acres (5.1 ha) Preservation Zone under NPS jurisdiction. The EA concluded:
Public Law 104-201 directed the Secretary of the Interior to transfer to the Secretary of the Army jurisdiction over the Interment Zone, which is the plan in Alternative 3. Adoption of any of the other alternatives would require legislative action to amend the existing law.
On December 28, 2001, Public Law 107-107 repealed the "obsolete" part of Public Law 104-201 that had authorized the transfer of portions of Section 29 to the Secretary of the Army. The new legislation required the Secretary of the Interior to transfer to the Secretary of the Army within 30 days the approximately 12 acres (4.9 ha) Interment Zone. The transfer therefore involved the entire 12 acres (4.9 ha) of NPS land that the 1995 agreement and Alternative 3 in the 1999 EA had described.
The 2001 legislation required the Secretary of the Army to use the Interment Zone for in-ground burial sites and columbarium. In addition, the legislation required the Secretary of the Interior to manage the remainder of Section 29 "in perpetuity to provide a natural setting and visual buffer for Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial."
On December 12, 2012, the United States Army Corps of Engineers asked for comments on a draft EA that described a further expansion of Arlington National Cemetery as part of the Millennium Project. The 2012 draft EA was intended to implement conversion into burial space of the 17 acres (6.9 ha) of Ft. Myer grounds as well as 10 acres (4.0 ha) of Section 29 woodland. The draft EA described seven alternatives. The preferred alternative (Alternative E) called for the removal of about one-half of the 1,700 trees with a diameter of 6 inches (15 cm) or greater on the site. About 640 of the trees were within a 135-year-old portion of Arlington Woods. The draft EA concluded:
Based on the evaluation of environmental impacts ....., no significant impacts would be expected from the Proposed Action; therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement will not be prepared and a Finding of No Significant Impact will be prepared and signed.
On March 12, 2013, the Corps of Engineers released a revised EA for the Millennium Project. The revised EA contained copies of a number of public comments on the draft EA that had criticized the project and parts of the EA while proposing alternative locations for new military burials near the Cemetery and elsewhere. However, the Department of Forestry of the Commonwealth of Virginia found that, based on information in the draft EA, the project would not have a significant adverse impact on the Commonwealth's forest resources. The revised EA did not change the preferred alternative (Alternative E) or the Army's plans to prepare and sign the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) that the draft EA had described.
On June 5, 2013, after reviewing 100 public comments that it had received on the revised EA, the Corps of Engineers released a final EA and a signed FONSI for the Millennium Project. The Final EA and the FONSI retained Alternative E as the preferred alternative. The final EA stated that, of the 905 trees to be removed, 771 trees were healthy native trees that had diameters between 6 and 41 inches. The project would remove approximately 211 trees from a less than 2.63 acres (1.06 ha) area containing a portion of a 145-year-old forest that stood within the property boundaries of a historic district that a National Register of Historic Places nomination form for Arlington House had described in 1966. About 491 trees would be removed from an area of trees that was approximately 105 years old. Approximately 203 trees with ages of 50 to 145 years would be removed from a former picnic area. At a public hearing on July 11, 2013, the National Capital Planning Commission approved the site and building plans for the Millennium Project.
Sections[edit | edit source]
Arlington National Cemetery is divided into 70 sections, with some sections in the southeast and western part of the cemetery reserved for future expansion. Section 60, in the southeast part of the cemetery, is the burial ground for military personnel killed in the Global War on Terror since 2001. Section 21, also known as the Nurses Section, is the area of Arlington National Cemetery where many nurses are buried and is the site of the Spanish-American War Nurses Memorial and the Nurses Memorial. Another section—Chaplains Hill—includes monuments to Jewish, Protestant, and Roman Catholic military chaplains. In 1901, Confederate soldiers buried at the Soldiers' Home and various locations within Arlington were reinterred in a Confederate section that was authorized by Congress in 1900. On June 4, 1914, the United Daughters of the Confederacy dedicated the Confederate Memorial designed by Moses Ezekiel. Upon his death in 1917, Ezekiel was buried at the base of the monument as he was a veteran of the Confederate army. All Confederate headstones in this section are peaked rather than rounded. More than 3,800 former slaves, called "Contrabands" during the Civil War, are buried in Section 27. Their headstones are designated with the word "Civilian" or "Citizen".
Grave markers, niches and headstones[edit | edit source]
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs oversees the National Cemetery Administration's orders for placement of inscriptions and faith emblems at no charge to the estate of the deceased, submitted with information provided by the next of kin that is placed on upright marble headstones or columbarium niche covers. The Department of Veterans Affairs currently offers 57 authorized faith emblems for placement on markers to represent the deceased's faith. This number has grown in recent years due to legal challenges to policy.
Prior to 2007, the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) did not allow the use of the pentacle as an "emblem of belief" on tombstones in military cemeteries. This policy was changed following an out-of-court settlement on 23 April following a series of lawsuits by the family of Patrick Stewart against the VA.
Between 1947 and 2001, privately purchased markers were permitted in the cemetery. The sections in which the cemetery permitted such markers are nearly filled and the cemetery generally does not allow new burials in these sections. Nevertheless, the older sections of the cemetery have a wide variety of private markers placed prior to 2001, including an artillery piece.
Arlington Memorial Amphitheater[edit | edit source]
The Tomb of the Unknowns is part of the Arlington Memorial Amphitheater. The Memorial Amphitheater has hosted state funerals and Memorial Day and Veterans Day ceremonies. Ceremonies are also held for Easter. About 5,000 people attend these holiday ceremonies each year. The structure is mostly built of Imperial Danby marble from Vermont. The Memorial Display room, between the amphitheater and the Tomb of the Unknowns, uses Botticino stone, imported from Italy. The amphitheater was the result of a campaign by Ivory Kimball to construct a place to honor America's servicemen/women. Congress authorized the structure March 4, 1913. Woodrow Wilson laid the cornerstone for the building on October 15, 1915. The cornerstone contained 15 items including a Bible and a copy of the Constitution.
Before the Arlington Memorial Amphitheater was completed in 1921, important ceremonies were held at what is now known as the "Old Amphitheater." This structure sits where Robert E. Lee once had his gardens. The amphitheater was built in 1868 under the direction of General John A. Logan. Gen. James A. Garfield was the featured speaker at the Decoration Day dedication ceremony, May 30, 1868. The amphitheater has an encircling colonnade with a latticed roof that once supported a web of vines. The amphitheater has a marble dais, known as "the rostrum", which is inscribed with the U.S. national motto found on the Great Seal of the United States, E pluribus unum ("Out of many, one"). The rostrum was personally designed by General Montgomery C. Meigs, then Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army. The amphitheater seats 1,500 people and has hosted speakers such as William Jennings Bryan.
Memorials[edit | edit source]
Tomb of the Unknowns[edit | edit source]
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier stands on top of a hill overlooking Washington, D.C. One of the more well-attended sites at the Cemetery, the tomb is made from Yule marble quarried in Colorado. It consists of seven pieces, with a total weight of 79 short tons (72 metric tons). The tomb was completed and opened to the public April 9, 1932, at a cost of $48,000.
It was initially named the "Tomb of the Unknown Soldier." Other unknown servicemen were later entombed there, and it became known as the "Tomb of the Unknowns", though it has never been officially named. The soldiers entombed there are:
- Unknown Soldier of World War I, interred November 11, 1921. President Warren G. Harding presided.
- Unknown Soldier of World War II, interred May 30, 1958. President Dwight D. Eisenhower presided.
- Unknown Soldier of the Korean War, also interred May 30, 1958. President Dwight Eisenhower presided again, Vice President Richard Nixon acted as next of kin.
- Unknown Soldier of the Vietnam War, interred May 28, 1984. President Ronald Reagan presided. The remains of the Vietnam Unknown were disinterred, under the authority of President Bill Clinton, on May 14, 1998, and were identified as those of Air Force 1st Lt. Michael J. Blassie, whose family had them reinterred near their home in St. Louis, Missouri. It has been determined that the crypt at the Tomb of the Unknowns that contained the remains of the Vietnam Unknown will remain empty.
The Tomb of the Unknowns has been perpetually guarded since July 2, 1937, by the U.S. Army. The 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment ("The Old Guard") began guarding the Tomb on April 6, 1948. There is a meticulous routine which the guard follows when watching over the graves. The Tomb Guard:
- Marches 21 steps down the black mat behind the Tomb.
- Turns, faces east for 21 seconds.
- Turns and faces north for 21 seconds.
- Takes 21 steps down the mat.
- Repeats the routine until the soldier is relieved of duty at the Changing of the Guard.
After each turn, the Guard executes a sharp "shoulder-arms" movement to place the weapon on the shoulder closest to the visitors to signify that the Guard stands between the Tomb and any possible threat.
Twenty-one was chosen because it symbolizes the highest military honor that can be bestowed—the 21-gun salute.
Each turn the guard makes is precise and is instantly followed by a loud click of the heels as he snaps them together. The guard is changed every half hour during daylight in the summer, and every hour during daylight in the winter and every two hours at night (when the cemetery is closed to the public), regardless of weather conditions.
Other memorials[edit | edit source]
There are several memorials on the grounds of Arlington National Cemetery. But due to the lack of space for burials and the large amount of space that memorials take up, the U.S. Army now requires a joint or concurrent resolution from Congress before it will place new memorials at Arlington.
Near the Tomb of the Unknowns stands the USS Maine Mast Memorial, which commemorates the 266 men who lost their lives aboard the USS Maine. The memorial is built around a mast salvaged from the Maine’s wreckage. The USS Maine Memorial served as the temporary resting place for foreign heads of state or government, Manuel L. Quezon of the Philippines and Ignacy Jan Paderewski of Poland, who died in exile in the United States during World War II.
The Space Shuttle Challenger Memorial was dedicated on May 20, 1986, in memory of the crew of flight STS-51-L, who died during launch on January 28, 1986. Transcribed on the back of the stone is the text of the John Gillespie Magee, Jr. poem High Flight, which was quoted by then President Ronald Reagan when he addressed the disaster. Although many remains were identified and returned to the families for private burial, some were not, and were laid to rest under the marker. Two crew members, Scobee and Smith, are buried in Arlington. On February 1, 2004, NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe dedicated a similar memorial to those who died when the Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry on February 1, 2003. Astronauts Laurel Clark, David Brown and Michael Anderson, who were killed in the Columbia disaster, are also buried in Arlington.
The Lockerbie Cairn is a memorial to the 270 killed in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. The memorial is constructed of 270 stones, one for each person killed in the disaster. In section 64, a memorial to the 184 victims of the September 11 attacks on the Pentagon was dedicated September 11, 2002. The memorial takes the shape of a pentagon, and lists the names of all the victims that were killed. Unidentified remains from the victims are buried beneath it.
On June 25, 1925, President Calvin Coolidge approved a request to erect a Commonwealth Cross of Sacrifice with the names of all the citizens of the USA who lost their lives fighting in the Canadian forces during World War I. The monument was dedicated November 11, 1927 and after the Korean War and World War II the names of US citizens who died in those conflicts were added.
The Women in Military Service for America Memorial is adjacent to the Ceremonial Entrance to Arlington National Cemetery.
In 2012, legislation began moving through Congress to approve a "Place of Remembrance" at Arlington National Cemetery. The memorial will be an ossuary designed to contain fragments of remains which are unidentifiable through DNA analysis. The remains will be cremated before placement in the memorial.
Burial procedures[edit | edit source]
The flags in Arlington National Cemetery are flown at half-staff from a half hour before the first funeral until a half hour after the last funeral each day. Funerals are normally conducted five days a week, excluding weekends.
Funerals, including interments and inurnments, average between 27-30 per day. The cemetery conducts approximately 6,900 burials each year.
With more than 400,000 interments, Arlington National Cemetery has the second-largest number of burials of any national cemetery in the United States. The largest of the 130 national cemeteries is the Calverton National Cemetery, on Long Island, near Riverhead, New York, which conducts more than 7,000 burials each year.
In addition to in-ground burial, Arlington National Cemetery also has one of the larger columbaria for cremated remains in the country. Four courts are currently in use, each with 5,000 niches. When construction is complete, there will be nine courts with a total of 50,000 niches; capacity for 100,000 remains. Any honorably discharged veteran is eligible for inurnment in the columbarium, if s/he served on active duty at some point in her/his career (other than for training).
Burial criteria[edit | edit source]
Part 553 of Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations establishes regulations for Arlington National Cemetery, including eligibility for interment (ground burial) and inurnment. Due to limited space, the criteria for ground burial eligibility are more restrictive than at other national cemeteries, as well as more restrictive than for inurnment in the columbarium.
The persons specified below are eligible for ground burial in Arlington National Cemetery, unless otherwise prohibited. The last period of active duty of former members of the armed forces must have ended honorably. Interment may be of casketed or cremated remains.
- Any active-duty member of the armed forces (except those members serving on active duty for training only).
- Any veteran who is retired and eligible for retirement pay from service in the armed forces (including service members retired from a reserve component who served a period of active duty (other than for training)).
- Any former member of the armed forces separated honorably prior to October 1, 1949, for medical reasons and who was rated at 30% or greater disabled effective on the day of discharge.
- Any former member of the armed forces who has been awarded one of the following decorations:
- Any former member of the armed forces who served on active duty (other than for training) and who held any of the following positions:
- An elective office of the U.S. Government (such as a term in Congress).
- Office of the Chief Justice of the United States or of an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
- An office listed, at the time the person held the position, in 5 USC 5312 or 5313 (Levels I and II of the Executive Schedule).
- The chief of a mission who was at any time during his/her tenure classified in Class I under the provisions of Section 411, Act of 13 August 1946, 60 Stat. 1002, as amended (22 USC 866) or as listed in State Department memorandum dated March 21, 1988.
- Any former prisoner of war who, while a prisoner of war, served honorably in the active military, naval, or air service, whose last period of military, naval or air service terminated honorably and who died on or after November 30, 1993.
- The spouse, widow or widower, minor child, or permanently dependent child, and certain unmarried adult children of any of the above eligible veterans.
- The widow or widower of:
- a member of the armed forces who was lost or buried at sea or fell out of a plane or officially determined to be permanently absent with a status of either missing or missing in action.
- a member of the armed forces who is interred in a US military cemetery overseas that is maintained by the American Battle Monuments Commission.
- The spouse, minor child, or permanently dependent child of any person already buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
- The parents of a minor child, or permanently dependent child whose remains, based on the eligibility of a parent, are already buried at Arlington. A spouse divorced from the primary eligible, or widowed and remarried, is not eligible for interment.
- Provided certain conditions are met, a former member of the armed forces may be buried in the same grave with a close relative who is already buried and is the primary eligible.
Inurnment criteria for columbarium[edit | edit source]
Due at least partly to the lack of space at the cemetery for ground burial, standards for inurnment (burial of cremated remains) in the columbarium are currently much less restrictive than for ground burial at the Cemetery. In general, any former member of the armed forces who served on active duty (other than for training) and whose last service terminated honorably is eligible for inurnment. Eligibility for inurnment is described fully in 32 C.F.R. § 553.15a.
Prohibitions against interment or memorialization[edit | edit source]
Congress has from time to time created prohibited categories of persons that, even if otherwise eligible for burial, lose that eligibility. One such prohibition is against certain persons who are convicted of committing certain state or federal capital crimes, as defined in 38 U.S. Code § 2411. Capital crime is a specifically defined term in the statute, and for state offenses can include offenses that are eligible for a life sentence (with or without parole). The reasoning for this provision originally was to prevent Timothy McVeigh from being eligible at Arlington National Cemetery, but it has since been amended to prevent others.
Also prohibited under the same statute are those determined, with clear and convincing evidence, to have avoided such conviction by death or flight.
Notable burials[edit | edit source]
The first soldier to be buried in Arlington was Private William Henry Christman of Pennsylvania on May 13, 1864. As of May 2006, there were 367 Medal of Honor recipients buried in Arlington National Cemetery, nine of whom are Canadian.
Five state funerals have been held at Arlington: those of Presidents William Howard Taft and John F. Kennedy, his two brothers, Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Senator Edward "Ted" Kennedy, and General of the Armies John J. Pershing. Whether or not they were wartime service members, U.S. presidents are eligible to be buried at Arlington, since they oversaw the armed forces as commanders-in-chief.
Among the most frequently visited sites in the cemetery is the grave of President John F. Kennedy, who is buried with his wife, Jacqueline, and two of their children. His remains were interred there on March 14, 1967, a reinterment from his original Arlington burial site, some 20 feet (6.1 m) away, where he was buried in November 1963. The grave is marked with the "eternal flame". The remains of his brothers, Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Senator Edward M. "Ted" Kennedy, are buried nearby. The latter two graves are marked with simple crosses and footstones. On December 1, 1971, Robert Kennedy's body was reinterred 100 feet (30 m) from its original June 1968 burial site.
2010 mismanagement controversy[edit | edit source]
On June 9, 2010, United States Secretary of the Army John M. McHugh reprimanded Arlington National Cemetery's superintendent, John C. Metzler, Jr., and his deputy, Thurman Higgenbotham, after a United States Department of Defense inspector general's report revealed that cemetery officials had placed the wrong headstones on tombs, buried coffins in shallow graves, and buried bodies on top of one another. Metzler, who had already announced his intention to retire on July 2, 2010, admitted some mistakes had been made but denied allegations of widespread or serious mismanagement. The investigation also found that cemetery employees were burdened in their day-to-day work by "dysfunctional management, lack of established policy and procedures, and an overall unhealthy organizational climate." Both Metzler and Higgenbotham retired soon after the investigation commenced.
In March 2011, as a result of the problems discovered, Kathryn Condon, the recently appointed director of the Army Cemeteries Program, announced that the cemetery's staff had been increased from 102 to 159. She added that the cemetery was also acquiring additional equipment because, "They didn't have the proper equipment to do the job really to the standard they needed to do."
The mismanagement controversy included a limitation on mass media access to funerals, which also proved controversial. Until 2005, the cemetery's administration gave free access, with the family's permission, to the press to cover funerals at the cemetery. According to the Washington Post in 2008, the cemetery gradually imposed increasing restrictions on media coverage of funerals beginning about 2005.
See also[edit | edit source]
- United States Department of Veterans Affairs emblems for headstones and markers
- Federal Military Memorial Cemetery (Russian counterpart)
Notes[edit | edit source]
- Davenport, Christian. "Arlington Cemetery Trying to Account for Missing $12 Million." Washington Post. January 25, 2012.
- Cultural Landscape Program, p. 62.
- Ezra J. Warner (1959). Generals in Gray. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9.
- Hansen, 2001, p. 69.
- Chase, 1930, p. 173.
- McCaslin, 2004, p. 79-80.
- Atkinson, 2007, p. 25.
- Chase, 1930, p. 175-176.
- Chase, 1930, p. 176.
- Cultural Landscape Program, p. 84.
- Cultural Landscape Program, p. 88.
- Cultural Landscape Program, p. 86.
- Dennee, p. 4. Accessed 2012-07-09.
- Cultural Landscape Program, p. 85.
- Dennee, p. 5, 7-8. Accessed 2012-07-09.
- Poole, p. 191.
- Hughes, Mark (1995). Bivouac of the Dead. Heritage Books. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-7884-0260-9.
- "Historical Information". Arlington National Cemetery. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.org/historical_information/arlington_house.html. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- John T. Wolley and Gerhard Peters. "Herbert Hoover: Memorial Day Address at Arlington National Cemetery". The American Presidency Project [online]. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=22129. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
- Leipold, J.D. "Veterans' Cemeteries Across America Receive Wreaths." Army.mil News. December 15, 2006. Accessed 2013-07-29.
- Kaplow, Bobby (1991-10-24). "Arlington National Cemetery Being Expanded". The Washington Post.
- "Public Law 104-201: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997" (pdf). United States Government Printing Office. 1996-09-23. p. 110 Stat. 37564. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-104publ201/pdf/PLAW-104publ201.pdf. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
- Wee, Eric L. (1998-03-06). "Good News for Tree Lovers, Not for Arlington Cemetery; Park Service Wants to Give 4 Acres, Not 12". Metro. The Washington Post. p. B7. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/26974663.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Mar+6%2C+1998&author=Eric+L.+Wee&pub=The+Washington+Post&edition=&startpage=B.07&desc=Good+News+for+Tree+Lovers%2C+Not+for+Arlington+Cemetery%3B+Park+Service+Wants+to+Give+4+Acres%2C+Not+12. Retrieved 2012-12-2012. (text of full article available at arlingtoncemetery.net)
- "Public Law 107-107: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002" (pdf). United States Government Printing Office. 2001-12-28. pp. 115 Stat. 1332–1333. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ107/pdf/PLAW-107publ107.pdf. Retrieved 2013-03-16. "SEC. 2863. ALTERNATE SITE FOR UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MEMORIAL, PRESERVATION OF OPEN SPACE ON ARLINGTON RIDGE TRACT, AND RELATED LAND TRANSFER AT ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY, VIRGINIA. .... (h) Land Transfer, Section 29.—(1) Transfer required.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Interior shall transfer, without reimbursement, to the Secretary of the Army administrative jurisdiction over that portion of Section 29 designated as the interment zone and consisting of approximately 12 acres. The Secretary of the Interior shall modify the boundaries of the George Washington Memorial Parkway as may be necessary to reflect the land transfer required by this subsection. (2) Use of transferred land.—The Secretary of the Army shall use the transferred property for the development of in-ground burial sites and columbarium that are designed to meet the contours of Section 29. (3) Management of remainder.—The Secretary of the Interior shall manage that portion of Section 29 not transferred under this subsection in perpetuity to provide a natural setting and visual buffer for Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial. (4) Repeal of obsolete law.—Section 2821(a) of the Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (division B of Public Law 104-201; 110 Stat. 2791) is repealed."
- "Public Law 106-65: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000" (pdf). United States Government Printing Office. 1999-10-05. pp. 113 Stat. 879–880. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-106publ65/pdf/PLAW-106publ65.pdf. Retrieved 2013-03-20. "SEC. 2881. TRANSFER FROM NAVY ANNEX, ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA. (a) Land Transfer Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall provide for the transfer to the Secretary of the Army of administrative jurisdiction over three parcels of real property consisting of approximately 36 acres and known as the Navy Annex (in this section referred to as the "Navy Annex property"). (b) Use of Land.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary of the Army shall incorporate the Navy Annex property transferred under subsection (a) into Arlington National Cemetery. (2) ...."
- "Public Law 106-65: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000" (pdf). United States Government Printing Office. 1999-10-05. p. 113 Stat. 880. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-106publ65/pdf/PLAW-106publ65.pdf. Retrieved 2013-03-20. "SEC. 2882. TRANSFER FROM FORT MYER, ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA. (a) Land Transfer Required.—The Secretary of the Army shall modify the boundaries of Arlington National Cemetery and of Fort Myer to include in Arlington National Cemetery the following parcels of real property situated in Fort Myer, Arlington, Virginia: (1) A parcel comprising approximately five acres bounded by the Fort Myer Post Traditional Chapel to the southwest, McNair Road to the northwest, the Vehicle Maintenance Complex to the northeast, and the masonry wall of Arlington National Cemetery to the southeast. (2) A parcel comprising approximately three acres bounded by the Vehicle Maintenance Complex to the southwest, Jackson Avenue to the northwest, the water pumping station to the northeast, and the masonry wall of Arlington National Cemetery to the southeast."
- Vogel, Steve (1999-10-08). "Arlington Cemetery Gains Land to Expand". Metro. The Washington Post. p. B1. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/45452989.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Oct+8%2C+1999&author=Steve+Vogel&pub=The+Washington+Post&edition=&startpage=B.01&desc=Arlington+Cemetery+Gains+Land+to+Expand. Retrieved 2012-12-31.
- "Public Law 108-375: Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005" (pdf). United States Government Printing Office. 2004-10-28. pp. 118 Stat. 2153–2154. http://www.dod.gov/dodgc/olc/docs/PL108-375.pdf. Retrieved 2013-03-20. "SEC. 2881. LAND EXCHANGE, ARLINGTON COUNTY, VIRGINIA. (a) Exchange Authorized.--The Secretary of Defense may convey to Arlington County, Virginia (in this section referred to as the "County"), all right, title, and interest of the United States in and to a parcel of real property, together with any improvements thereon, that consists of not more than 4.5 acres and is located north of Columbia Pike on the Navy Annex property in Arlington County, Virginia, for the purpose of the construction of a freedmen heritage museum and an Arlington history museum. (b) Consideration.—As consideration for the conveyance of the real property under subsection (a), the County shall convey to the United States all right, title, and interest of the County in and to a parcel of real property, together with any improvements thereon, that is of a size equivalent to the total acreage of the real property conveyed by the Secretary under subsection (a) and is located in the area known as the Southgate Road right-of-way between Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, and the Navy Annex property. .... (g) Inclusion of Southgate Road Right-of-Way Property in Transfer of Navy Annex Property for Arlington National Cemetery.—Subsection (a) of section 2881 of the Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (division B of Public Law 106-65; 113 Stat. 879) is amended by striking "three parcels of real property consisting of approximately 36 acres" and inserting "four parcels of real property consisting of approximately 40 acres"."
- Williams, Rudi, American Forces Press Service (2005-05-27). "Arlington National Cemetery Gains 70 Acres of Land". News. United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 2012-12-29. http://www.webcitation.org/6DHcyTusJ. Retrieved 2012-12-29. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Williams" defined multiple times with different content
- Ruane, Michael E. (2007-10-07). "For Warriors Past and Future". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2013-03-17. http://www.webcitation.org/6FGcJE3P0. Retrieved 2012-12-31. "The Millennium expansion has involved, among other things, the sensitive transfer of 12 acres within the cemetery from the National Park Service's historic Arlington House, the onetime home of Robert E. Lee. The Park Service has lamented the likely loss of woodland and the cemetery's encroachment on the majestic hilltop home, which dates to 1802. The project, which focuses on the northwest edge of the cemetery, includes expansion into about 10 acres taken from the Army's adjacent Fort Myer and four acres of cemetery maintenance property inside the boundaries, officials said. The extra space would provide room for 14,000 ground burials and 22,000 inurnments in a large columbarium complex, officials said. The project comes on the heels of extensive work underway to utilize 40 acres of unused space in the cemetery, creating room for 26,000 more graves and 5,000 inurnments. And there are plans for further outside expansion in the years ahead."
- Sherman, Jerome L. (2007-11-04). "More space for fallen heroes at Arlington". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on 2013-03-20. http://www.webcitation.org/6FGZgZwRo. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- (1) Gearan, Anne (1995-07-03). "Admirers of Lee Upset by Cemetery Expansion Plan". News Archive. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2013-03-20. http://www.webcitation.org/6FGazXPlk. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
(2) Nakashima, Ellen (1995-07-06). "Environmentalists Fear Effects of Expanded Arlington Cemetery". Metro. The Washington Post. p. B3. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/6855447.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS&date=Jul+6%2C+1995&author=Nakashima%2C+Ellen&pub=The+Washington+Post&edition=&startpage=B3&desc=Environmentalists+fear+effects+of+expanded+Arlington+cemetery. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- "County Reaches Agreement With Army Over Arlington Nat'l Cemetery Expansion." ARLnow.com. January 10, 2013. Accessed 2013-02-04.
- "Public Law 113-6: Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (127 Stat. 198)". Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. 2013-03-26. p. 127 Stat. 409. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-113publ6/pdf/PLAW-113publ6.pdf. Retrieved 2013-07-18. "For necessary expenses for planning and design and construction at Arlington National Cemetery and Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery, $103,000,000, to remain available until September 30, 2017, of which, $84,000,000 shall be for planning and design and construction associated with the Millennium Project at Arlington National Cemetery; and $19,000,000 shall be for study, planning, design, and architect and engineer services for future expansion of burial space at Arlington National Cemetery."
- (1) "Interactive map of Arlington National Cemetery showing Section 29 and Future Expansion Site". Arlington National Cemetery. http://public.mapper.army.mil/ANC/ANCWeb/PublicWMV/ancWeb.html. Retrieved 2012-12-26.
(2) Coordinates of Section 29:
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- "Public Notice: NAO-121207-Millennium: Environmental assessment for expansion of Arlington National Cemetery, known as the Millennium Project)". Norfolk District Media & Public Affairs. United States Army Corps of Engineers. 2012-12-07. Archived from the original on 2012-12-24. http://www.webcitation.org/6DAEDIFhV. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
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(2) Holland, Taylor (2012-12-21). "Arlington cemetery expansion threatens 890 trees". The Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on 2013-07-18. http://www.webcitation.org/6IDJRM1yT. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
- United States Army Corps of Engineers (December 2012). "Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment" (pdf). United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. pp. 12, 35, 40, 53–59, 78, 97. Archived from the original on 2012-12-24. http://www.webcitation.org/6DAFnpjmP. Retrieved 2102-12-24.
- "Millennium Project Revised Environmental Assessment". Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. 2013-03-12. Archived from the original on 2013-03-12. http://www.webcitation.org/6F4apqEWY. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- (1) Holland, Taylor (2013-03-14). "Arlington Cemetery would spare just 8 of nearly 900 trees in expansion". Local: Virginia News. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on 2013-03-15. http://www.webcitation.org/6F965pgMG. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
(2) Svrluga, Susan (2013-05-04). "Arlington National Cemetery plans expansion to take it into 2050s". Post Local. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2013-07-18. http://www.webcitation.org/6IDUSnoYl. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
- "Appendix F: Comments to Draft Millennium EA: Public Comment Period: 6 December 2012 to 21 January 2013". http://www.nao.usace.army.mil/Portals/31/docs/Arlington/RevisedMillenniumEA_March2013AppendixFCommentstoDraftEA.pdf. Retrieved 2013-03-12. in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment, March 2013, pp. 222-328.
- Irons, Elie L., Program Manager, Environmental Impact Review (2013-01-10). "Forest Resources". Letter to Ms. Susan L. Conner, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Norfolk District re. Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project: Federal Consistency Determination (DEQ-12-203F) and Environmental Assessment (DEQ-12-225F). Richmond, Virginia: Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. p. 15. http://www.nao.usace.army.mil/Portals/31/docs/Arlington/RevisedMillenniumEA_March2013AppendixFCommentstoDraftEA.pdf. Retrieved 2013-03-12. in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment, March 2013, (Appendix F: Comments to Draft Millennium EA:Public Comment Period: 6 December 2012 to 21 January 2013), p. 259.
- (1) "Impacts to Trees" (pdf). Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment. Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. March 2013. pp. 43–45, 147. Archived from the original on 2013-03-12. http://www.webcitation.org/6F4euQ2LA. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
(2) "Draft Finding of No Significant Impact Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia". Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. 2013-03-08. Archived from the original on 2013-04-11. http://www.webcitation.org/6FleOJyXk. Retrieved 2013-04-10.
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(2) Federoff, David (2013-06-05). "Finding of No Significant Impact Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia" (pdf). Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. Archived from the original on 2013-07-16. http://www.webcitation.org/6IAUlIJJX. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
- (1) "Appendix J: Comments on Revised Millennium EA: Public Comment Period 12 March 2013 to 12 April 2013". Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment, June 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. http://www.webcitation.org/6IBgKzMxT. Retrieved 2013-07-17.
(2) Sullivan, Patricia (2012-06-12). "Army Corps says go ahead with Arlington cemetery expansion". Post Local. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2013-07-18. http://www.webcitation.org/6ID0cRtKF. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
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- Tree Tag #1026 (Black Cherry, Prunus serotina. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. http://www.webcitation.org/6IBc36lMw. in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment, June 2013, Appendix I (Tree Inventory and Analysis), p. 13.
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(2) (pdf) Figure 38: Existing conditions, impacts, and contributing areas of Arlington House: Historic Landscape Effects: ANC Boundary Wall and Arlington House Forest. Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. June 2013. p. 133. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. http://www.webcitation.org/6IBfCPb51. Retrieved 2013-07-17.
(3) Seagraves, Anna; Fuqua, Ann; Veloz, Nicholas, George Washington Memorial Parkway, National Capital Region, National Park Service (1980-01-15). "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial". United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Register of Historic Places — Nomination Form for Federal Properties. Richmond, Virginia: Virginia Department of Historic Resources. p. 8. Archived from the original on 2013-07-17. http://www.webcitation.org/6IBnjc4cP. Retrieved 2013-07-17.
- (1) Young, Deborah B. (2013-07-11). "Commission Action: Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA (NCPC File Number 7457)" (pdf). Washington, D.C.: National Capital Planning Commission. Archived from the original on 2013-07-16. http://www.webcitation.org/6IASZK5ZT. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
(2) "Executive Director's Recommendation: Commission Meeting: July 11, 2013: Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA (NCPC File Number 7457)" (pdf). Washington, D.C.: National Capital Planning Commission. 2013-07-11. Archived from the original on 2013-07-16. http://www.webcitation.org/6IATHmqU3. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
- "Interactive map of Arlington National Cemetery". Arlington National Cemetery. http://public.mapper.army.mil/ANC/ANCWeb/PublicWMV/ancWeb.html. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- "Mementos adorn 'saddest acre'". CNN. 2009-05-23. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/US/05/23/section.60.cemetery/index.html. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
- "Nurses Memorial". Arlington National Cemetery. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.org/text/nurses_memorial_text.html. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
- "Confederate Memorial". Arlington National Cemetery. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.org/visitor_information/Confederate_Memorial.html. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
- "History of Government Furnished Headstones and Markers". Department of Veterans Affairs. 1 February 2010. http://www.cem.va.gov/hist/hmhist.asp. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
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- "Application for Standard Government Headstone or Marker for Installation Cemetery or State Veterans' Cemetery". Department of Veterans Affairs. August 2009. http://www.va.gov/vaforms/va/pdf/VA40-1330.pdf. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- "Available Emblems of Belief for Placement on Government Headstones and Markers". Department of Veterans Affairs. 16 May 2011. http://www.cem.va.gov/hmm/emblems.asp. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
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- Location of Arlington House flagpole:
- Hybrid satellite image/street map from WikiMapia
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- Julian E. Barnes (11 June 2010). "Arlington National Cemetery's top supervisors ousted in mismanagement case". Los Angeles Times. LATimes.com. http://articles.latimes.com/2010/jun/11/nation/la-na-arlington-cemetery-20100611. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
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- Christian Davenport (7 March 2011). "For first time in decades, Arlington National Cemetery must bury multiple 'unknowns'". Washington Post. Washingtonpost.com. p. 1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/06/AR2011030603633.html. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- Dana Milbank (10 July 2008). "Putting Her Foot Down And Getting The Boot". Washington Post. WashingtonPost.com. p. 3. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/09/AR2008070902169.html. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
References[edit | edit source]
- Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Environmental Assessment. Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. March 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-03-12. http://www.webcitation.org/6F4euQ2LA. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- Atkinson, Rick. Where Valor Rests: Arlington National Cemetery. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2007.
- Chase, Enoch Aquila. "The Arlington Case: George Washington Custis Lee against the United States of America." Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 31/32: 1930.
- Cultural Landscape Program. Arlington House: The Robert E. Lee Memorial Cultural Landscape Report. National Capital Region. National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 2001.
- Dennee, Tim. "African-American Civilians Interred in Section 27 of Arlington National Cemetery, 1864-1867." Friends of Freedmen's Cemetery. FreedmensCemetery.org. 2012. Accessed 2012-07-09.
- Hansen, Harry. The Civil War: A History. New York: Signet, 2001.
- McCaslin, Richard B. Lee in the Shadow of Washington. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.
- Poole, Robert M. On Hallowed Ground: The Story of Arlington National Cemetery. New York, N.Y.: Walker & Co., 2009. plus Webcast Author Interview at the Pritzker Military Library on May 27, 2010
[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arlington National Cemetery.|
- "Official Website of Arlington National Cemetery". http://www.arlingtoncemetery.mil/. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
- Arlington National Cemetery in WikiMapia website
- Arlington National Cemetery in Find a Grave website
- "National Park Service site". Archived from the original on 4 March 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100304050150/http://www.nps.gov/arho/. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Interment Information". http://www.interment.net/data/us/va/arlington/arlington/. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Fallen Heroes Project on Display at Arlington National Cemetery". http://www.army.mil/-news/2010/01/20/33187-fallen-heroes-project-on-display-at-arlington-cemetery/?ref=news-humaninterest-title2. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Arlington Cemetery: Hallowed Ground". Life magazine. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100414004840/http://www.life.com/image/first/in-gallery/26692/arlington-cemetery-hallowed-ground?. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
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