The Armistice of Focșani (Romanian language: Armistițiul de la Focșani , also called the Truce of Focșani) was an agreement that ended the hostilities between Romania and the Central Powers in World War I. It was signed on 9 December 1917 in Focșani in Romania.
Background[edit | edit source]
Romania had entered World War I in August 1916, invading Austria-Hungary in an attempt to seize the disputed province of Transylvania. However, Germany launched a successful counteroffensive in September 1916, capturing Bucharest and occupying a majority of Romania by December 1916. The Romanian government was forced to retreat to Iași, Moldavia, but was able to stave off complete collapse thanks to the numerous Russian reinforcements that had been sent to Moldavia to prevent a Central Power invasion of southern Russia.
Truce[edit | edit source]
After the October Revolution of 1917, Russia fell into civil war, and the Russian government began withdrawing its troops from Romania. On December 4 and December 5, 1917, the Russians signed two ceasefire agreements with the Central Powers, followed later (on December 15) by a full armistice and, under the direction of Leon Trotsky and Adolph Joffe, peace negotiations with the Central Powers in Brest-Litovsk (see Treaty of Brest-Litovsk). Geographically exposed and lacking Russian support, the Romanian government was subsequently forced to sue for peace.
The resulting truce was signed on December 9, 1917 in Focșani on the Siret River, which was the site of the main Romanian defensive line. The armistice ended Romanian hostilities with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.
Aftermath[edit | edit source]
While the fighting had ended, much of Romania remained under Central Power occupation after the truce. In May 1918, the Romanian government signed the punitive Treaty of Bucharest, which required Romania to cede the province of Dobruja and several passes in the Carpathian Mountains, and grant multiple economic privileges to the Central Powers.
In 1919, Romania's territorial cessions to Germany were renounced in the Treaty of Versailles. Romania's cessions to Austria-Hungary were renounced in the Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919 and the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, while the cessions to Bulgaria were renounced in the Treaty of Neuilly in 1919.
Notes[edit | edit source]
- Home, p.455
- Tucker, p.1555
- Bunyan, James (1934). The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1918: Documents and Materials. Stanford University Press. p. 273. http://books.google.com/books?id=dTGsAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA273&dq=focsani+armistice&hl=en&sa=X&ei=01UFUsbCA67pigL9h4DgDg&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=trotsky%20focsani&f=false.
- Home, p.456
References[edit | edit source]
- Home, John (2012). A Companion to World War I. John Wiley & Sons. http://books.google.com/books?id=EjZHLXRKjtEC&.
- Tucker, Spencer (2006). World War I: A Student Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. http://books.google.com/books?id=TogXVHTlxG4C&.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Glenn E. Torrey (1989), "Romania Leaves the War: The Decision to Sign an Armistice, December 1917", East European Quarterly, 23 (3): 283–92
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