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APCs differs from other [[armoured fighting vehicle|AFVs]], namely [[infantry fighting vehicles]], due to the weaponry they carry. The [[Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe]] defines Armoured personnel carriers as ''"an armoured combat vehicle which is designed and equipped to transport a combat infantry squad and which, as a rule, is armed with an integral or organic weapon of less than 20 millimeters calibre."''
 
APCs differs from other [[armoured fighting vehicle|AFVs]], namely [[infantry fighting vehicles]], due to the weaponry they carry. The [[Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe]] defines Armoured personnel carriers as ''"an armoured combat vehicle which is designed and equipped to transport a combat infantry squad and which, as a rule, is armed with an integral or organic weapon of less than 20 millimeters calibre."''
   
By convention they are not intended to take part in a direct-fire battle, but to provide additional protection from [[Shrapnel shell|shrapnel]] and [[small arms]] fire. Examples include the American [[M113 armored personnel carrier|M113]], the French [[Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé|VAB]], the [[The Netherlands|Dutch]]/German [[Boxer MRAV|GTK Boxer]] and the Soviet [[BTR (vehicle)|BTR]].
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By convention they are not intended to take part in a direct-fire battle, but to provide additional protection from [[Shrapnel shell|shrapnel]] and [[small arms]] fire. Examples include the American [[M113 armored personnel carrier|M113]], the French [[Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé|VAB]], the [[The Netherlands|Dutch]]/German [[Boxer MRAV|GTK Boxer]] and the Soviet [[BTR (vehicle)|BTR]].
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==History==
 
==History==
 
[[File:British Mark IX Armoured Personnel Carrier.jpg|thumb|right|The British [[Mark IX tank]] was the first specialised armoured personnel carrier.]]
 
[[File:British Mark IX Armoured Personnel Carrier.jpg|thumb|right|The British [[Mark IX tank]] was the first specialised armoured personnel carrier.]]
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During World War II, [[half-track]]s, notably the [[M3 Half-track|M3]] and the [[SdKfz 251]] played a role similar to post-war APCs. Over the course of the war APCs evolved from simple [[armoured car (military)|armoured cars]], with transport capacity, to purpose built vehicles.
 
During World War II, [[half-track]]s, notably the [[M3 Half-track|M3]] and the [[SdKfz 251]] played a role similar to post-war APCs. Over the course of the war APCs evolved from simple [[armoured car (military)|armoured cars]], with transport capacity, to purpose built vehicles.
   
Obsolete armoured vehicles have often been repurposed as APCs. The inception of this concept was in 1944,{{citation needed|reason=Stuart Kangaroos were used in the desert campaign, around 1942|date=November 2014}} with the introduction [[Kangaroo (armoured personnel carrier)|Kangaroo]] type carrier. The initial conversion of 72 [[M7 Priest]] self-propelled [[howitzer]]s was followed by the conversion of Churchill, M3 Stuart, and most heavily [[Ram tank|Ram]], [[tank]]s. A later example of this concept is the Israeli [[IDF Achzarit|Achzarit]].
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Obsolete armoured vehicles have often been repurposed as APCs. The inception of this concept was in 1944,{{citation needed|reason=Stuart Kangaroos were used in the desert campaign, around 1942|date=November 2013}} with the introduction [[Kangaroo (armoured personnel carrier)|Kangaroo]] type carrier. The initial conversion of 72 [[M7 Priest]] self-propelled [[howitzer]]s was followed by the conversion of Churchill, M3 Stuart, and most heavily [[Ram tank|Ram]], [[tank]]s. A later example of this concept is the Israeli [[IDF Achzarit|Achzarit]].
   
 
After the war, different specialised APCs were developed. The United States developed a series of tracked vehicles, culminating in the [[M113 armored personnel carrier|M113]], of which 80,000 were made. The [[BTR-40]], [[BTR-152]], [[BTR-60]], [[BTR-70]], [[BTR-80]] and [[BTR-90]] which each produced in large numbers by the [[Soviet Union]]
 
After the war, different specialised APCs were developed. The United States developed a series of tracked vehicles, culminating in the [[M113 armored personnel carrier|M113]], of which 80,000 were made. The [[BTR-40]], [[BTR-152]], [[BTR-60]], [[BTR-70]], [[BTR-80]] and [[BTR-90]] which each produced in large numbers by the [[Soviet Union]]
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===Weaponry===
 
===Weaponry===
An APC carries a primary weapon of at most a 20mm autocannon before falling into the infantry fighting vehicle sub-classification, and will most likely be outfitted with one or more machine guns ranging from 5.56mm to 7.62mm. The primary weapon will usually be mounted on the top of the vehicle, either a simple [[pintle mount]], in a small [[gun turret|turret]], or on a [[remote weapon system]].
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An APC carries a primary weapon of at most a 20mm autocannon before falling into the infantry fighting vehicle sub-classification, and will most likely be outfitted with one or more machine guns ranging from 5.56mm to 7.62mm. The primary weapon will usually be mounted on the top of the vehicle, either a simple [[pintle mount]], in a small [[gun turret|turret]], or on a [[remote weapon system]].
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Pintle mounted weapons are rare, due to the lack of crew protection. The [[World War II]] [[Axis powers|Axis]] [[half track]] [[Sd.Kfz. 251]] was equipped with at least one [[MG42]] or [[MG34]], which could only be aimed in a small arc from whichever end of the vehicle the weapon was mounted and offered minimal protection to the gunner. Turrets, by definition, provides a traversal range of 360 degrees and operator protection. Most APC turrets include a coaxial machine gun(MG) alongside the primary weapon; BTR, BMP, and LAV series carry MGs alongside primary weapons, however the basic [[MTLB]]'s turret carries only a 7.62mm MG. A recent advent, [[remote weapons system]]s are used in leeu of pintle mounts and provide the same level of operator protection as a turret, with the added benefit of increased visibility without increasing the overall profile of the vehicle. However, unlike in a turret, the weapon cannot be reloaded from inside the vehicle.
 
Pintle mounted weapons are rare, due to the lack of crew protection. The [[World War II]] [[Axis powers|Axis]] [[half track]] [[Sd.Kfz. 251]] was equipped with at least one [[MG42]] or [[MG34]], which could only be aimed in a small arc from whichever end of the vehicle the weapon was mounted and offered minimal protection to the gunner. Turrets, by definition, provides a traversal range of 360 degrees and operator protection. Most APC turrets include a coaxial machine gun(MG) alongside the primary weapon; BTR, BMP, and LAV series carry MGs alongside primary weapons, however the basic [[MTLB]]'s turret carries only a 7.62mm MG. A recent advent, [[remote weapons system]]s are used in leeu of pintle mounts and provide the same level of operator protection as a turret, with the added benefit of increased visibility without increasing the overall profile of the vehicle. However, unlike in a turret, the weapon cannot be reloaded from inside the vehicle.
   
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The American uparmoured Humvee, classified as [[M1114]], is the epitome of the IMV concept. The M1114 is identical to the [[Humvee]], in both design and function, apart from the addition of several tons of armour. The M1114 was later replaced in the role by the purpose built vehicles of the [[MRAP]] program, a series of vehicles inspired by the [[Casspir]].
 
The American uparmoured Humvee, classified as [[M1114]], is the epitome of the IMV concept. The M1114 is identical to the [[Humvee]], in both design and function, apart from the addition of several tons of armour. The M1114 was later replaced in the role by the purpose built vehicles of the [[MRAP]] program, a series of vehicles inspired by the [[Casspir]].
   
IMVs generally feature a [[v-hull]] shaped underbelly with additional crew protection features such as four- point seat belts and seats suspended from the roof or sides of the vehicle. Many feature a [[remote weapon system]] in place of a crew-served weapon system.
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IMVs generally feature a [[v-hull]] shaped underbelly with additional crew protection features such as four- point seat belts and seats suspended from the roof or sides of the vehicle. Many feature a [[remote weapon system]] in place of a crew-served weapon system.
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The usually 4x4 IMVs are distinctive from both 8x8 APCs, and 4x4 APCs such as the [[Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé|VAB]]. They are closer in appearance to civilian [[Armoured car (valuables)|armoured cars]].
 
The usually 4x4 IMVs are distinctive from both 8x8 APCs, and 4x4 APCs such as the [[Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé|VAB]]. They are closer in appearance to civilian [[Armoured car (valuables)|armoured cars]].
   

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