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Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment
Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment officers and NCOs
November 1918 picture of officers, NCOs, and men of the regiment, the survivors of those who enlisted in 1914
Country New Zealand
Branch New Zealand Army
Allegiance Flag of the United Kingdom.svg British Empire
Service history
Active August 1914–30 June 1919
Role Mounted Infantry
Size Regiment
Part of New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade
(ANZAC Mounted Division)
Battles First World War
*Gallipoli Campaign
*Sinai and Palestine Campaign
Egyptian Revolution of 1919
Commanders
Commanders Charles MackesyJames Neil McCarroll
Current commander (1917–1919)(1917–1919)}
Insignia

The Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment was a mounted infantry regiment from New Zealand, raised for service during the First World War. It was assigned to the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade part of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force.

The regiment with an establishment of twenty-six officers, 523 other ranks and 600 horses, was formed from three squadrons belonging to pre war Territorial Force regiments. The 3rd (Auckland) Mounted Rifles, the 4th (Waikato) Mounted Rifles and the 11th (North Auckland) Mounted Rifles. It also included a small headquarters and, until 1916, a Maxim machine-gun section. The Maxim guns were withdrawn but the regiment's fire-power increased during the war, by the end of which each squadron had four Hotchkiss machine-guns, one per troop.

Being mounted infantry the regiment rode into battle on their horses, but were expected to dismount and fight on foot. The regiment fought predominantly against the forces of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. First in the Gallipoli Campaign between May and December 1915, during which they participated in the largest battle of that theatre at Chunuk Bair and the fighting for Hill 60. Evacuated to Egypt they then took part in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign from 1916 to 1918. The early battles they were involved included those at Romani, Gaza and Beersheba. Then later in the war they were part of the force that occupied the Jordan Valley, took part in the raid on Amman and the raid on Es Salt. Their final war time operation was in connection with the capture of the Turkish Fourth Army. During the four years of war the regiment had 434 dead, from all causes, and 627 were wounded, several of those more than once. After the war, the regiment played a minor role in the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, before being disbanded in June 1919.

HistoryEdit

FormationEdit

Raised in August 1914, at the start of the First World War , the Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment, came from the region around Auckland on the North Island of New Zealand.[1] Commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ernest Randolph Mackesy,[2] the regiment comprised, a headquarters, a machine-gun section and three squadrons formed from Territorial Force regiments.[3] The New Zealand Territorial Force included a compulsory training system and the four Military Districts were required to supply at least a mounted regiment and an infantry battalion for the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. To meet that obligation the Territorial Force regiments, each provided a squadron, which kept their own regimental badges and traditions.[4] The squadrons for the Auckland Mounted Rifles came from the 3rd (Auckland) Mounted Rifles, the 4th (Waikato) Mounted Rifles and the 11th (North Auckland) Mounted Rifles.[5] The establishment was fixed at twenty-six officers and 523 other ranks, who were mounted on 528 riding horses, seventy-four draught horses and six pack horses. Each squadron, of 158 men, had a field headquarters and four troops. Even though the regiment used horses, they were not cavalry but a mounted infantry unit, and expected to ride to the battlefield, dismount and fight as traditional infantry.[3][6] The regiment was assigned to the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade (NZMRB), serving alongside, two other mounted infantry regiments, the Wellington Mounted Rifles (WMR) and the Canterbury Mounted Rifles (CMR).[7]

Auckland Mounted Rifles New Zealand 1914

Auckland Mounted Rifles marching along Upper Symonds Street, Auckland, September 1914.

EmbarkationEdit

What remained of August and most of September was taken up with training. Until the regiment received their embarkation orders, and set sail from Auckland on 23 September. The unescorted transport ships returned to the same harbour the next morning, believing two German cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, were in the area. The troops disembarked and it was not until 11 October that they sailed again.[8] This time they reached Wellington on 14 October and two days later, now part or a large convoy of transport ships, four warships and 9,000 men, sailed again for an "unknown destination".[9] Stopping at Hobart the New Zealand convoy, waited until 1 November, to be joined by an Australian contingent, then thirty-eight ships set sail heading north.[10] With only brief halts, to re-coal, at Colombo on 15 November, Aden on 24 November, the convoy entered the Suez Canal on 1 December and the regiment disembarked at Alexandria four days later.[11] They then entrained for Cairo and established their camp, on the edge of the desert, in the suburb of Zeitoun. In the following months the regiment practised their horsemanship, conducted small arms and bayonet training and learnt how to construct trenches.[12]

GallipoliEdit

In May 1915, the regiment, with the rest of the NZMRB, was warned to prepare to embark for the Gallipoli Campaign, serving in a dismounted role. However not everyone could go, a rear party had to remain behind to look after the horses, only twenty-six officers and 482 other ranks boarded the transport ships.[13] On 12 May the regiment landed at Anzac Cove and the next day took over from the Royal Naval Brigade in the front line.[14] The regiment was responsible for the section of the front known as "Walker's Top" and "The Nek". Opposite what was possibly the strongest Turkish position, only 50 yards (46 m) away.[15][nb 1]

They defeated their first Turkish attack on 18/19 May, when the regiment's position was subjected to rifle and machine-gun fire, from midnight until 03:00. Then the Turkish troops assaulted "Walker's Top" and "Quinn's Post". The attack lasted an hour, and cost the regiment twenty-two dead and twenty-seven wounded, but they had held their position.[nb 2] On 22 May they were relieved by the 9th Light Horse Regiment, and moved to the rear.[14][18] In June the regiment repeatedly moved between front and rear area positions, and were not involved in a major battle. On 25 May Major Frank Chapman, with Mackesy ill, arrived from Egypt, to assume command of the regiment,[19] he was followed, five days later, by one officer and 107 other ranks reinforcements. The situation remained the same in July, and another two officers and ten men arrived to replace casualties.[14][20]

Auckland Mounted Rifles after Hill 60

Remnants of the regiment after the Battle of Hill 60

August saw the regiment involved in the largest engagement of the campaign, at Chunuk Bair. After successfully capturing a Turkish position at "Old No.3 Post" on 6 August, the regiment was involved in fighting off several counter-attacks and conducting their own assaults. Until 9 August with a strength of only sixty-six men, from the 310 that started the battle, the regiment was withdrawn to a rear area.[14][21][22][nb 3] On 23 August the sixty-six men of the regiment with the WMR returned to the front line and four days later took part in the fighting around Hill 60. Their assault began at 17:00 and the regiment, with the CMR captured the Turkish front line. The WMR and Otago Mounted Rifles following up,[nb 4] passed beyond them and captured the Turkish reserve line. However, all four regiments suffered heavy casualties and had to fight off several counter-attacks. On 29 August the regiment was relieved and moved to a safer area; their casualties during the battle amounted to thirty-eight dead, and sixty-five wounded.[14][23]

Early in September the regiment, now five officers and eighty-three men, were moved back into the front line at "Cheshire Ridge". Until they were relived on 12 September and the next day leave Gallipoli for the rest camp on island of Lemnos. Reinforcements of three officers and 216 other ranks arrive there on 5 October and three days later James Neil McCarroll assumes command of the regiment on temporary promotion to lieutenant-colonel.[24] While Mackesy is temporarily given command the NZMRB.[14] On 10 November the regiment, now ten officers and 286 other ranks, returned to Gallipoli. Where they were employed preparing defences at "Waterfall Gully". Three days later another sixty-six reinforcements arrive and they move into the front line at "Gloucester Hill". On 14 December the regiment leaves Gallipoli again for Lemnos. They remained on the island until 22 December, now with a strength of sixteen officers and 321 other ranks, the regiment sailed for Egypt. Disembarking four days later they return to their previous camp at Zeitoun and on 27 December, Mackesy returns to command the regiment.[14][25]

SinaiEdit

The regiment spent its first month back in Egypt training. Then once more back up to full establishment, moved forward to defend the Suez Canal in the area of the Great Bitter Lake.[26] At the same time it also lost some of its veterans, including those who were wounded and convalescing in England, when they were transferred to the infantry and artillery to serve on the Western Front.[27]

MapBattleOfRomani

The Sinai Desert showing locations where the regiment fought and camped

In March the regiment, still part of the NZMRB, was assigned to the newly formed ANZAC Mounted Division.[28][29] Then on 23 April the regiment was ordered to move into the Sinai Desert, to counter a Turkish attack against the British yeomanry at Katia.[30] The following week the whole NZMRB, relieved the 2nd Light Horse Brigade at Romani.[31] The defeated Turkish troops had withdrawn east around 25 miles (40 km) to Salmana and the NZMRB were ordered to attack their positions.[32] On 30 May the Auckland Mounted Rifles moved in advance of the brigade, circling around to get into a position to the south-south-east of Salmana. By 04:45 the regiment was ready and the attack started. They galloped towards the Turkish position on a mound, defended by around 200–300 men. Reaching the base of the mound, they dismounted and charged up hill with bayonets fixed. The defenders withdrew, pursued by the 3rd Squadron, until Turkish reinforcements appeared and the squadron rejoined the regiment. Turkish casualties in the assault are not known, but the regiment only had one man wounded.[33]

The regiment now lost its Maxim machine-gun section, the two guns were withdrawn to help form the brigade machine-gun squadron.[34] They were replaced with three Lewis guns, one per squadron.[35] The loss of the section reduced the regiment's establishment to twenty-four officers, 499 other ranks.[36]

RomaniEdit

At the end of July the 3rd Squadron was sent to patrol 20 miles (32 km) to the south near the Nagid well, observing left flank of a Turkish force crossing the Sinai.[37][nb 5] On 1 August patrols from the 11th Squadron were sent east of Dueidar, to the En Nuss and Nagid wells, as a defence force and to expand the wells to support a brigade. On 3 August the rest of the regiment moved to Dueidar, at the same time a Turkish force occupied Mount Royston at Romani. As a result, the regiment was ordered to rejoin the brigade, and by 11:30 were observing around 2,000 Turkish troops on Mount Royston.[39][40] For the next thirty minutes the regiment was bombed by Turkish artillery, when a brigade attack was ordered. The 3rd Squadron, supported by Lewis guns from the machine-gun sections, was positioned in the centre of the line between the CMR and a British yeomanry regiment. The advance forced the Turkish outposts to withdraw and by 16:45 using the cover available the regiment were close enough to charge the Turkish defences capturing 250 prisoners and a field hospital. All together the NZMRB took 1,000 prisoners and a mountain artillery battery.[41] The regiments casualties were two dead and six wounded.[28]

Early the next day the NZMRB moved towards Katia, with the intention of attacking a Turkish gun emplacement. The brigade positioned between the 2nd Light Horse Brigade on the left and the 3rd Light Horse Brigade on the right. The regiment leading had by 14:30 advanced close enough to charge the position on horseback, then dismounted and continued the attack on foot all in the face of heavy rifle and machine-gun fire. No progress was made and they spent the rest of the day, returning fire from cover. The engagement cost the regiment one dead and six wounded.[42]

That night the regiment bivouacked at Katib Gannit and returned to the site of the battle the next day, 6 August, but the Turkish army had withdrawn eastwards. The NZMRB were ordered to advance until contact was regained with the Turkish force. They located them around 12:00, to the east of Oghratina. The regiment remained in contact all day, without suffering any casualties and also located a telephone wire that the withdrawing Turks had failed to disconnect, which enabled them to monitor the German and Turkish command issuing orders.[43]

ArdEdit

Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment

Men from the regiment in the desert

The next day the NZMRB was the division reserve, so the regiment had a day of rest. The following day, 8 August, they advanced again. But by now Oghratina was unoccupied, and later that day reconnaissance patrols located the Turkish force around 2 miles (3.2 km) west of the well at Ard.[44] Halting overnight, at 04:30, the regiment leading the NZMRB set out to attack the Turkish position. By 05:15 the regiment made contact with the Turkish outposts and advanced on foot towards their main defences. Under covering fire from the Royal Horse Artillery (RHA). The regiment had the 3rd Squadron on the left, and two troops of the 11th Squadron and a machine-gun section on the right. Their right flank was supposed to be covered by the 3rd Light Horse Brigade, but they had failed to arrive. In consequence the regiment had to extend its lines to cover the open flank so two troops from the 4th Squadron were sent there. Things were also not going well on the other flank. At 11:20 the CMR, were forced to retire. Then just before midday two Turkish battalions, about 1,100 men, attacked the regiment. But still supported by the RHA they held their positions. For the next three and a half hours the NZMRB was subjected to a heavy artillery bombardment. This was followed by another attack by three Turkish battalions. Holding out until 16:15 the regiment was then ordered to pull back. The days fighting cost the regiment twelve dead and twenty-one wounded.[28][45]

MagdhabaEdit

Map 3 Sinai detail Keogh p.26

Larger scale map of the northern Sinai Desert. With Maghdaba to the west and Gaza to the east of the Egyptian-Palestine border.

The next three months were spent on reconnaissance patrols and manning observation posts, until 20 December when the advance east recommenced, with the regiment forming the vanguard for the ANZAC Mounted Division. Travelling overnight they reached El Arish by dawn, which had been evacuated by the Turkish forces.[46][47] Magdhaba with its 2,000 man garrison was 24 miles (39 km) to the south-east, on the Wadi El Arish. At 10:30 22 December the 3rd Squadron was sent along the wadi in advance of the division, to check the condition of the well at Lahfan and if it could support the brigade. The NZMRB leaving El Arish at midnight, followed the squadron. By daylight the division had surrounded Magdhaba and in the ensuing fighting, after a bayonet charge in the late afternoon, the village was captured. The regiment, being held in reserve took no part in the battle, but was afterwards left in charge of the village, clearing the dead and collecting war materials. It then returned to El Arish on Christmas Day.[28][48][49]

PalestineEdit

RafaEdit

On 8 January 1917, the ANZAC Mounted Division headed out for their next objective the police post at Rafa, 30 miles (48 km) to the east on the Egyptian-Palestinian border. Reaching Sheik Zowaiid at 22:00 the regiment rested for three hours. Then at dawn the regiment surrounded the Bedouin village Shokh El Sufi, 4 miles (6.4 km) south of Rafa. One of the inhabitants shot and killed one of the men and another was knocked unconscious when hit on the head with a sword. Both of the Bedouin's escaped on the troopers horses.[50][51]

Mounted Section Aucland Mounted Rifles

A typical four man section of the Auckland Mounted Rifles

At 06:00, the regiment crossed the border into Palestine.[52] Moving out of the desert the firmer ground made it easier for horse and wheeled transport. Forty-five minutes later the regiment was located behind a ridge line observing the Turkish defences, which consisted of trenches and redoubts, with a good field of fire to their front. At 09:00 the NZMRB was ordered to move around to attack the position from the right flank and at the same time cover the area north to the Mediterranean Sea. At 09:30 the attack started, galloping forward for about a 1 mile (1.6 km), they were subjected to Turkish artillery fire. When they got to within 2 miles (3.2 km) from the Turkish lines they dismounted and advanced on foot. The regiment advanced with the 3rd and 4th Squadrons leading and the 11th Squadron in reserve. On the right was the CMR, the 1st Light Horse Brigade were on their left and the WMR, was the NZMRB reserve. At midday the complete brigade attacked the Green Knoll redoubt. The 3rd Squadron unable to make any progress held its position, while the 11th Squadron moved around to the right of the 4th Squadron. By 15:00 the 3rd Squadron was able to move forward again and at 16:00 the regiment was preparing to charge the position. Then the division received word that Turkish reinforcements were approaching. That and the loss of daylight convinced Major-General Harry Chauvel commanding the division to order a withdrawal. However the order never reached the NZMRB, who had fixed bayonets and charged, the remaining 200 to 300 yards (180 to 270 m) to the Turkish trenches. They captured the first trench line, and the defenders started to surrender. Seeing what was happening the remainder of the division returned to assist and the position was captured. The regiments casualties for the battle were seven dead and forty-one wounded.[53][54][55]

GazaEdit

On 26 March the regiment was at Dier El Belah, and at 02:30 set out for Gaza. The division was to circle the town, cutting off any escape route east and provide a blocking force stopping Turkish reinforcements. While the 53rd (Welsh) Division and a brigade of the 54th (East Anglian) Division carried out a frontal assault. The regiment was positioned at the Humra mound in the east with the 4th and 11th Squadrons, assigned to watch for Turkish reinforcement coming from Huj. The main attack was nor progressing well so the NZMRB, along with the rest of the division, was ordered to attack Gaza. But the regiment was held in reserve still watching out for Turkish reinforcements. The NZMRB had made good progress and was inside the town when it was ordered to withdraw. By early the next day the regiment, less the 4th Squadron which was the division's rearguard, had returned to Dier El Belah.[56][57]

On 3 April the squadrons are issued Hotchkiss machine-guns, on a scale of one per troop, which replaced the regiment's three Lewis guns.[35][54][58] The second British attempt to take Gaza would be on 17 April, but the day before the NZMRB moved to Hareira, providing flank protection and prevent and Turkish reinforcement from that direction. The regiment reached Shellal at 03:00, where they stopped to water their horses. At dawn hostile aircraft appeared overhead which were engaged by the 11th Squadron, forcing them to fly at a higher altitude. By 09:00 the regiment was positioned overlooking Hareira, Sheria, and the Gaza-Beersheba rail line. Several times during the day they were machine-gunned by hostile aircraft, but no casualties were sustained. That night at 22:00, as ordered, they returned to Shellal.[59]

Lieutenant Colonel McCarroll, Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment

Lieutenant-Colonel James Neil McCarroll

The next day the regiment returned to their previous task of flank protection. At midday the 3rd and 11th Squadrons were located along the ridge south-east of El Buggar and had forced the Turkish observation posts to retire. The day was almost a replica of the previous one and the regiment were back at Shellal at 21:30, but instead of resting overnight they moved to El Mendur, arriving there at 06:00 on 19 April. The division was now required by be more aggressive, to draw the Turkish forces towards them, because of the lack of progress by the force attacking Gaza. The 3rd Squadron was detailed as a guard force for the division's artillery, accompanying them to Atawineh. They them moved into the front line losing one dead and seventeen wounded, by the time it withdrew at 20:00. The rest of the regiment was held in reserve, having two men wounded during an aircraft attack. By the end of the day the second attempt to take Gaza, the defences being to strong for a frontal assault, was called off.[60][61]

However instead of withdrawing the British stayed holding a forward line of trenches and redoubts. The regiment positioned around Karim Abu El Hiseia, on the Wadi Ghuzze. Lieutenant-Colonel McCarroll assumed command of the regiment again, Mackesy being appointed as the Administrator of the Khan Yunus-Deir and the Belah region.[62] For the next few months patrol duty was interspersed with having to occupy the front line, and training.[63]

BeershebaEdit

At 17:00 25 October the regiment, which was now located around 20 miles (32 km) from Beersheba, started to moved forward. Their first objective was 15 miles (24 km) south-east at Esani, which they reached at 01:00 26 October. Here they rested for two days before setting out again travelling another 15 miles (24 km) to Asluj to the south of Beersheba. Waiting until the next night at 18:00 they started north to attack Beersheba, the first 10 miles (16 km) along a metalled road. They then followed the Wadi Imshash for the next 10 miles (16 km), stopping at 02:00 while the CMR reconnoitred a suspected Turkish post. The night march started again an hour later. By daylight the NZMRB was positioned 3 miles (4.8 km) to 4 miles (6.4 km) south of the Beersheba-Bir Arara Road, to the south-east of the 1,000 feet (300 m) high Saba hill, with the regiment being the brigade reserve.[64]

GullettCh23p.390Tel elSaba

Sketch of the Saba assault

At 09:00 the regiment, and the Somerset Battery RHA, was ordered to attack Saba to the east of Beersheba, positioned between the CMR on their right and the 3rd Light Horse Regiment on their left. The 11th Squadron leading, advanced up a wadi, under machine-gun fire, but there was plenty cover for the men and horses. The squadron dismounted 100 yards (91 m) from the Turkish front line and continued on foot. The 3rd and 4th Squadrons meanwhile had rode to within 800 yards (730 m) to the north then dismounted to continue of foot. Advancing by troops, covered by their machine-guns good progress was made.[65][66] At 14:10 the regiment was ordered to assault the position, thirty minutes later a hill 400 yards (370 m) east of Saba was taken with sixty prisoners and three machine-guns. A short while later Saba itself was captured with 132 prisoners and four machine-guns. However the regiment had six dead and twenty-two wounded, including a squadron leader.[67][68]

The regiment remained consolidating Saba until 2 November, while the brigades other regiment and the 4th Squadron were fighting a Turkish cavalry force. On 4 November the NZMRB moved to Wadi El Sultan. The next day the 4th Squadron was tasked to support the CMR, advancing against a Turkish position 800 yards (730 m) away. The Turks counter-attacked the CMR, so the 3rd Squadron was moved forward to support them and the attack was defeated. The regiment lost one man dead and four wounded during the days fighting. While the rest of the NZMRB retired to the west, the regiment remained at the front manning observation posts, until 11 November when they were relieved by the British Westminster Dragoons.[69][70]

Ayun KaraEdit

The regiment left Beersheba to rejoin the brigade, then had to move 60 miles (97 km) across the front to the British left flank. Travelling through the night at 07.30 they had reached Jemmaleh, where they rested for two hours. Continuing their advance they reached Hesy at 13:30, Bureir at 14:30 then finally Hamama where they establish a rest camp. The march was difficult for men and horses, with virtually no food or water and the horses were taken to the sea to drink. Their supplies finally caught up with the regiment and that night they moved again to a new camp 2 miles (3.2 km) north of Sukereir. The next day the regiment rejoined the NZMRNB, outside the village of Ayun Kara.[71]

File:Powles pp.144-5 Ayun Kara map.jpg

At 11:00 14 November the CMR the brigade vanguard encountered Turkish observation posts. Brigade ordered an attack on the main Turkish defences. The regiment was positioned covering the left flank. Advancing by troops they came under machine-gun fire. The 3rd Squadron was dispatched to occupy the high ground on the regiment's right while the other squadrons took cover. Then a force of Turkish cavalry appeared to their left. McCarroll sent the 11th Squadron to check on their dispositions and numbers. However the squadron encountered heavy rifle and machine-gun fire and could not move forward. To assist them two troops from the 4th Squadron, were ordered to charge them on horseback. The two troops captured the position and continued forward occupying the high ground on the left, in front of the WMR. The 3rd Squadron in reserve, provided covering fire as the 11th Squadron moved forward alongside the 4th on their left. Then covered by the 4th Squadron the 11th Squadron moved forward. At 14:15 the advance troops of the 11th Squadron located, in an orange grove, a Turkish concentration of troops that counter-attacked the regiment. McCarroll who had kept up with his forward line of troops, ordered the rest of the regiment, including headquarters troops, to move up in support of the 11th Squadron. The 3rd Squadron galloped forward dismounting just behind the front line and engaged the Turkish attack with enfilade fire, forcing them to retire.[72]

At 14:45 covered by an artillery barrage and machine-gun fire, the Turkish troops counter-attacked again. The regiment's machine-gunners returned fire and for a short time the battle became a machine-gun engagement. During this time the WMR to the right had occupied a prominent hill, but were under heavy fire. To support them the 3rd Squadron sent two troops to engage their opponents, which they caught in the bottom of a valley, with enfilade fire. Then in front of the regiment a fresh Turkish battalion was sent to assault them. In some places they got close enough to throw hand grenades into the regiment's defences. These killed or wounded all those defending a small hill that was then occupied by the Turkish, bringing indirect fire onto the rest of the regiment's positions, which by now were becoming untenable. At first messengers sent to the 4th Squadron asking for assistance failed to get through. But eventually they received the message and charged across the open ground, recapturing the hill. Which then brought the rest of the Turkish line into range of their guns. Confronted by this new threat, the Turkish troops retired back to their start point. McCarroll was ordering a regiment attack on the orange grove when he was wounded in the neck and shoulder, which forced Major Henry Whitehorn to assume temporary command of the regiment. But by now it was getting dark and the only Turkish offensive action was an artillery bombardment. The regiment instead of attacking, spent the rest of the day evacuating their wounded and strengthening their lines. Their casualties during the battle were fifteen dead and seventy-four wounded.[54][73][74] The next morning it was discovered that Ayun Kara had been evacuated by the Turkish troops.[75]

River AujaEdit

On 15 November the NZMRB moved forward again to Rishon LeZion village 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the port of Jaffa. The next day the regiment moves forward alone and establishes a line of observation posts between Beit Dejan and Safiriyeh, just under 4 miles (6.4 km) from Jaffa. Reconnaissance patrols discovered that Jaffa was not occupied by any Turkish forces, so the 3rd Squadron and the CMR moves in to provide a garrison. While the rest of the regiment and the WMR return to Ayun Kara. The regiment moves further north on 18 November and over the next few days carries out a reconnaissance of the River Auja.[54][76] On 27 November the NZMRB secures a bridge-head over the river. To help defend the crossing the 3rd and 11th Squadrons dig in on the northern bank. The next day, at 14:45, the squadrons are attacked and by 17:45, first the horse holders and the regiment's mounts are sent back across the river. Then the squadrons are forced to retire to the lines of the supporting infantry. By 20:00 the whole British position is under threat and they have to withdraw back across to the south of the river. The regiments casualties are one dead, one missing and nineteen wounded. Including Whitehorn, so command of the regiment temporarily passes to Major Duncan Munro.[54][77][78]

After the battle at the River Auja, the NZMRB camped to the south-east of Sarona, out of range of the Turkish artillery. The regiment, having only sixteen officers and 375 other ranks left effective, spent the time building up it strength in men and horses.[79] In the last month the regiment had lost twenty-seven dead, eighty-eight wounded, sixty-one had to be evacuated to the rear as they were ill and two men were missing.[54] On 16 December Whitethorn returned and resumed temporary command of the regiment. Two days later the regiment returns to Jaffa and comes under command of the 52nd (Lowland) Division. Then on 20 December the Lowland Division assaulted the River Auja and the regiment patrolled north of the river supporting them until 25 December when they rejoined the NZMRB.[54][80]

Jordan valleyEdit

JerichoEdit

On 15 January, Lieutenant-Colonel McCarroll having recovered from his wounds, resumed command of the regiment, which was still understrength with only twenty-two officers and 486 other ranks.[81]

Auckland Mounted Rifles in Jordan Valley

Auckland Mounted Rifles camp in the Jordan Valley

In February the ANZAC Mounted Division was ordered to cross over to the British right flank, to conduct operations in the Jordan Valley, by first capturing Jericho.[82] By 19 February the regiment was east of Bethlehem and at 09:30 started toward Jericho along what was described as "little more than a goat track".[83] At times the track was so steep that the men had to dismount and lead the horses by hand. Stopping overnight at 04:30 the regiment as the vanguard, moving in single file, set out again. Soon after Turkish guns opened fire on them from two hills, Kaneitera and Kalimun, which could dominate their approach. The regiment reaching the valley bottom spread out to provide a more difficult target. Moving forward under Turkish artillery and machine-gun fire the regiment galloped from cover to cover by troops.[84][85] This continued until around midday when the 11th Squadron got close enough to assault a Turkish position on the right of the valley. At the same time the 3rd and 4th Squadrons were advancing in the centre and to the left. Elsewhere the Australian light horse brigades and British infantry were having similar problems. But eventually the British secured a position that allowed then to bring fore onto the Turkish defences in front of the regiment, which forced them to retire further up the Kalimun hill. The regiment's horse holders brought the mounts forward and the regiment charged the position on horseback. The Turkish forces retired, but kept the hill now occupied by the regiment under an artillery barrage.[86]

The next day there was no trace of any Turkish forces and the advance continued. At times again only possible by moving in single file, meant the NZMRB was spread along 5 miles (8.0 km) of tracks. At 09:00 the regiment moved out of the hills and into the Jordan Valley, just north of the Dead Sea and south of Jericho, about 8 miles (13 km) from the River Jordan. The time it had taken the NZMRB to negotiate the track allowed the Turkish forces to retire to the east bank of the river by a pontoon bridge at Goraniyeh. While the Australians captured Jericho, the regiment established a camp in the valley under the Mount of Temptation, north of Jericho. The NZMRB was then made responsible for guarding the river from the Dead Sea to the Ghoraniyeh bridge.[87][88] However on 22 February the rest of the NZMRB returned to Ayun Kara leaving the regiment in the valley, under command of the 60th (London) Division and tasked to carry out mounted patrols of the river.[89][90]

Amman raidEdit

The regiment was next involved in a raid on the village of Amman to the east of the River Jordan. The force assembled for the operation comprised the ANZAC Mounted Division, the 60th (London) Division and the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade.[91] Reconnaissance patrols had discovered that the river was not fordable and they would have to construct bridges to get across. Three viable sites had been selected at Makhadet (which means ford), Hajlah 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the Dead Sea, and Ghoraniyeh. Two crossing were to be constructed a pontoon bridge, made from steel, for the mounted troops at Hajlah. The second crossing point at Ghoraniyeh, where there was already a damaged pontoon bridge, for the 60th Division, would have three bridges: a normal pontoon bridge, a barrel bridge, and an infantry bridge.[92]

New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade

Crossing the River Jordan by pontoon bridge

At midnight 21 March the infantry tried to cross at Ghoraniyeh. However the river was flowing to fast for their swimmers to get across. While at Hajlah they had more success and a raft was constructed to ferry men and materials across. By dawn the the Turkish had discovered them crossing and were engaging the crossing infantry with machine-gun fire. But by 08:10 engineers had finished the pontoon bridge and more troops were crossing but their exploitation was restricted to around 500 yards (460 m) from the river line as they were confronted by strong Turkish defences.[93][94]

At 05:00 23 March the regiment, the first mounted force, began to cross the river. By 07:30 they were passing beyond the infantry forward troops. Two troops from the 11th Squadron were dispatched to the east and another north-east. One troop, twenty men, encountered a force of sixty Turkish cavalry and charged them, armed only with rifles and bayonets. The troop killed twenty cavalrymen and captured seven. For the death on one man the Troop Leader who had ordered the charge. The troop sent north had forced a machine-gun post covering the river to withdraw. While this move had been progressing, the troop of the 11th squadron, which had been sent north from the crossing. The men and gun were later captured by men from the 4th Squadron.[95] At the same time the 3rd and 4th Squadrons galloped north to take the Turkish defenders at Ghoraniyeh from the rear. At 09:00 the leading troops, without loss, captured the first Turkish outpost with seventeen prisoners. One troop of the 3rd Squadron dismounted and captured two machine-gun posts overlooking the crossing, which allowed the rest of the squadron to drive off the remaining defenders. While the 3rd Squadron concentrated on the crossing the 4th Squadron were ordered to gallop and capture the village of Shunet Nimrin, but were unable to approach the village when confronted by heavy artillery fire. The days battle cost the regiment one dead and two wounded. By that night the bridge at Ghoraniyeh was completed and the remainder of the ANZAC Mounted Division were crossing at Hajlah.[95][96]

Hill 3039 at Amman

Amman with Hill 3039 in the background

The next morning when the NZMRB had crossed the river, McCarroll was given commanded of the vanguard, comprising the regiment, a squadron from the CMR and the Hong Kong and Singapore Mountain Artillery Battery.[nb 6] Progress was slow along the steep tracks and that night has to camp in the hills at an altitude between 2,000 to 3,000 feet (610 to 910 m).[99] That night it started to rain, making travelling along the small tracks even harder come daylight. Because the rest of the division was having even worse problems the NZMRB, stopped at the village of Ain es Sir, during the day the captured seven Germans and eighty-eight Turkish troops. Another problem the regiment was the lack of supplies, their own and horses rations were stuck somewhere behind them on the track. The remainder of the division arrived during the day and the raid on Amman was planned for the next day 27 March.[100][101]

At 08:00 the NZMRB set out heading south-east, the plan called for them to assault Amman from the south. The vanguard was provided by the regiment with the 4th Squadron leading. When they got within 3 miles (4.8 km) of the village, they came under a Turkish artillery barrage. At 12:00 when the regiment was 1,500 yards (1,400 m) from the rail line, which would be their right flank position, they turned north. Then a Turkish train arrived along the tracks from the south. The regiment's machine-gunners opened fire of it, and they were just about to charge when it continued on into Amman. By now Turkish artillery and machine-gun fore was proving effective and the regiment was unable to make any progress. In front of 3rd Squadron Hill 3039, was well defended with numerous machine-guns. So the 4th Squadron were sent to support them, while 11th Squadron moved out to the right flank to give covering fire, from some high ground. At 18:00 Turkish troops mounted a counter-attack against the CMR on the regiment's left but they managed to hold their position. By nightfall no further progress was made and the division decided to hold onto what territory they had occupied and wait for assistance from 60th Division. The days fighting had cost the regiment eighteen casualties, and they still had not received any supplies and the rations they carried were exhausted.[81][102][103]

File:Powles p.205amman.jpg

That night 27/28 March the Turkish forces in Amman were reinforced, which again prevented the regiment from advancing. When two infantry battalions and a artillery battery arrived at 11:30 plans were made for another assault at 13:00. But still faced with heavy artillery and machine-gun fire the regiment, by 16:00, had only managed to advance 500 yards (460 m), onto the lower slopes of Hill 3039. The position there was untenable and the regiment was forced to withdraw, that night, to a better location.[104][105]

The next day 29 March the division consolidated their positions planning to resume the assault 30 March. McCarroll was given command of the assault. The position "A" was their main objective, the approach route would be along a ridge line between "B" and "C," which were to be neutralized by two troops in case the Turkish tried to intervene in the attack. Once "A" was captured, it was believed "B" and "C" would surrender.[106]

The regiment and a battalion from the Imperial Camel Corps would attack point "A". The CMR, would support the attack on the regiment's left. At 01:45 the regiment moved forward dismounted and managed to get close enough to the first objective, to charge home without being seen, capturing the first trench, five machine-guns and twenty-three prisoners. The regiment continued on capturing the position. At daybreak Turkish troops were able to bring enfilade fire, from point "B" against the regiment's positions. So 4th Squadron, with 3rd Squadron providing covering fire, mounted an attack and captured that position. At 09:30 Turkish troops were seen gathered on the north-east side of the hill. McCarroll asked for artillery support to break up their troops, but there was none available. The mountain battery, at the time, only had four rounds left. The Turkish forces attacked and managed to close on the regiment's defences before it was stopped, by rifle and machine-gun fire.[107][108]

With no further progress being made anywhere, and the arrival of more Turkish reinforcements a withdrawal back across the River Jordan was ordered that night. Plans were made for the wounded to leave first then the fighting troops falling back in turn.[109][110] McCarroll gave each unit exact times they were to retire, so they still presented a continuous line as they moved back. They withdrew without attracting the attention of the Turkish troops and at 04:00 the regiment arrived back at Ain es Sir. The NZMRB were designated at the force rearguard. At 16:00 a large Turkish force was reported, by the CMR approaching from the north, so the regiment was sent to help them. The Turkish force had come to within 1,000 yards (910 m) of the New Zealanders lines but did not attack. The next day, 1 April, the withdrawal continued and several times Turkish troops were sighted following. They eventually reached Nimrin in the Jordan Valley at 20:00 that night. The regiments exact casualties are not documented but the NZMRB lost thirty-eight dead, 122 wounded and had thirteen men reported missing during the raid.[81][111][112]

Es Salt raidEdit

File:AWM B00029AujaPontoonBridge.jpeg

The regiment spent most of April on patrol and guard duties to the west of the River Jordan. The Rugby football team were presented, by Lieutenant-General Harry Chauvel, commanding the Desert Mounted Corps, with the divisions cup for being the champion team.[113] The second raid across the Jordan on Es Salt began 29 April, the NZMRB initially being held in reserve. The operation had similar problems as the first raid, and on 30 April the NZMRB was moved forward. The WMR and CMR were ordered to support the assault by the infantry at Nimrin, while the regiment remained in reserve. At 09:30 the 4th Squadron was sent forward to support the CMR, but a Turkish artillery barrage, by at least four batteries, landed to their front preventing them going forward. The artillery fire increased and the rest of the regiment had to retire to put the horses out of harms way. There was no further progress made that day and the regiment returned to the Ghoraniyeh bridgehead for the night. More Turkish reinforcements arrived overnight and opposition to any British advance was increasing. Eventually the regiment was ordered to gallop forward to the front line, and deployed covering a frontage of 2 miles (3.2 km), along the track from Es Salt. One of the first things they observed was a party of RHA artillerymen going back without their guns, which they had been forced to abandon. The 3rd and 4th Squadrons began digging trenches as the regiment had to hold their position, covering the only way back for the 4th Light Horse Brigade to their front. On 2 May the Australians were ordered to withdraw, reaching the regiment's position the next day. That night the regiment withdrew to a ford at Auja, where engineers were constructing a pontoon bridge. The regiment remained here alone the next day while the rest of the NZMRB returned to their previous camp near Jericho. The regiment was relieved the next day and rejoined the brigade.[81][114][115]

Summer 1918Edit

The regiment remained in the western foothills of the Jordan Valley based at Talat Ed Dumm until the end of May when they moved to El Khudr, beside Bethlehem, where some men were granted leave in Port Said, and Jerusalem. Then in June the regiment returned to the valley based at the Wadi Abeid, carrying out patrols and enhancing defences. At the start of July they moved again, this time to Ain Ed Duk, relieving the WMR. On 18 July the 1st Light Horse Brigade to the regiment's left were attacked by a large force of Germans. Turkish troops supporting that attack also attempted to break the regiment's line, but they were fought off. Relieved a few days later they returned to Bethlehem. Casualties during the month were all down to malaria, or other diseases, 170 men being evacuated to hospital. In August they returned to duties in the valley at Jericho, and another 109 men were evacuated to hospital during the month.[116][117]

Chaytor's ForceEdit

In September Chaytor commanding the ANZAC Mounted Division was given command of a mixed mounted and infantry force, to carry out a deception plan in the Jordan Valley.[118] The regiment helped by constructing dummy camps with dummy horse lines and increased their patrolling, with the objective of discovering the Turkish strength and positions. The rest of the army was aligned to their left flank and on 19 September started the last attack major attack of the campaign. With the Turkish forces retiring to counter the attack in the west, by 21 September the NZMRB, reinforced by two battalions of the British West Indies Regiment, their own Ayrshire Battery RHA and the 29th Indian Mountain Battery, was ordered forward.[81][119][120]

DamiehEdit

That night, 21 September, the regiment left its base at Musallabeh and headed north up the Jordan Valley. The 4th Squadron leading they covered the first 10 miles (16 km) reaching Kh Fusail and then Tel Es Ed Dhiab, with no opposition. They then encountered a Turkish defence line at the Mafid Jozeleh bridge. Which was captured along with twenty prisoners and two machine-guns. That night the infantry were left guarding the bridge, while the NZMRB continued advancing north to secure an important bridge at Damieh, cutting the Nablus road.[121][122]

The Damieh bridge captured by the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade

The Damieh bridge

At midnight the regiment, supported by a section of the brigade machine-gun squadron, set out again leading the NZMRB along the Jericho-Beisan road. The 3rd Squadron was sent ahead after a force of Turkish troops believed to be withdrawing along the road in front of them and to capture the Damieh bridge. The 11th Squadron remained on the road, as a blocking force, while the 4th Squadron headed to El Makhruk to the north-east. The 11th Squadron captured a Turkish convoy that came along the road. While the 3rd Squadron caught up with the force in front of them capturing several prisoners. They also discovered a Turkish cavalry picket line and forced them to retire down out of the hills onto the low ground along the river towards the Damieh bridge. The 3rd Squadron held the high ground and were counter-attacked by infantry supported by artillery. Part of the squadron was forced to retire to a better defensive position. But as reinforcements were seen to be arriving for the Turkish force, a regiment attack was ordered and reinforcements of their own requested. Support came from a squadron of the CMR and an West Indies infantry company. The regiment was around 500 yards (460 m) from and almost surrounding the Turkish position on the bridge. McCarroll planned the assault, on the left six troops and a machine-gun to provide fire support. Then from left to right, the rest of the regiment, less one troop in reserve, followed by the West Indies company, then on the right the CMR squadron. The attack began supported by machine-gun and artillery fire. The Turkish line was pierced and they started to withdraw across the bridge pursued by the regiment. The bridge was secured intact along with 350 prisoners and seven machine-guns. The regiment had four dead, and one wounded, one of the West Indies soldiers was also wounded. The regiment now settled in defending the bridge, while the CMR squadron crossed and started clearing the far bank.[81][123][124]

Es Salt againEdit

The next day the NZMRB crossed the bridge and at midday continued east towards Es Salt. By 17:00 the regiment was camped to the west of the town. The next day the entered the unoccupied Es Salt, watered their horses and continued on east towards Amman as the vanguard. Passing abandoned wagons, dead men and animals, by 12:00 they had caught up with the Turkish rearguard. But they had to stop at the village of Suweileh, not only to water their horses, but to wait for the rest of the brigade to catch up with them. That night a selected group of 100 men commanded by Major John Herrold, were sent out 12 miles (19 km) across country to damage the Hedjaz rail line south of Amman. Each of the three squadrons provided an officer and thirty-three men. Their only tools were, two picks, two shovels, and four spanners. The force was divided into three one to tackle the rails and the other tow to provide protection. When they found the tracks they followed it for a about 2 miles (3.2 km). Then when they heard sounds of digging they dismounted and continued on foot and located a group of Turks digging trenches. Part of their objective was to remain undetected, so they withdrew leaving them alone. They eventually located the section of track, they were looking for. However the road alongside the tracks was full of Turkish traffic. Establishing a base 400 yards (370 m) from the track, the rail group now crept forward and attacked the tracks. During which an armoured train with trucks full of soldiers came along the rails. They were next disturbed by a mounted patrol, which passed by without observing them. They eventually removed two rails making the tracks unusable. The group then returned to their horses and returned to the regiment at dawn. That day the value of their efforts was seen when a train was wrecked where they had broken the rails.[81][125][126] For his command of the operation Herrold was invested as a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order.[127]

Amman againEdit

On 25 September, the same day the railway group returned, the NZMRB set out at 06:00 for Amman. Approaching from the north, they would be supported, during the assault, by the 2nd Light Horse Brigade. At 10:30 the regiment, with a machine-gun section and a artillery section was ordered to move forward to the left of the CMR. The Turkish defenders were in redoubts surrounded by barbed wire. McCarroll sent a squadron to attack from the west, which came under Turkish machine-gun fire. Covered by the artillery the squadron was gradually able to advance. At 15:30 the reserve squadron galloped forward, dismounted and came under machine-gun fire. The regiment and CMR pushed forward. The 4th Squadron succeeded in reaching a double redoubt, and just as they were about to charge, sixty of the defenders surrendered and others withdrew along the Wadi Amman. By now the CMR had galloped into the town, and out the other side capturing the Turkish defences there from the rear. The battle was over the NZMRB captured 1,734 prisoners, twenty-seven machine-guns, five artillery pieces, 298 horses and other military supplies. That night the regiment camped in the Wadi Amman.[81][128]

Several days later the NZMRB was moved to the south to support the 2nd Light Horse Brigade at Ziza. The light-horsemen had taken the surrender of a large Turkish force,part of the Turkish Fourth Army, then had to defend them from the Arab tribesmen. When the brigade arrived the Australian and Turkish troops, who were still armed, were holding a perimeter facing the Arab force. The brigade's appearance resolved the situation and the Turkish troops surrendered.[129][130]

Post warEdit

Auckland Mounted Rifles surviving officers December 1918

The remaining original officers of the regiment in December 1918. Left to right; Major Walter Haeata, Lieutenant-Colonel James Mccarroll, and Lieutenant W. Stewart.

In October 1918, the regiment's part in the war now over, they returned to the Jordan Valley. However many men were now struck down with malaria. In the next few days those that were able returned to Richon-le-Zion, where they established their camp. By November the regiment had eleven officers and 331 other ranks in hospital, and twenty-two of those died of the disease. Only two men from the regiment had not been infected in any way.[81][131] The regiment remained at Richon until 18 December, carrying out military training and playing sports. They then moved back to Rafa, where a school was established. It was discovered that one of the regiment's troopers had, before the war, been a schools inspector so he was immediately promoted to major taking charge of lessons.[132] While waiting for repatriation to New Zealand the regiment played a minor role in the 1919, Egyptian Revolution, which was a Nationalist uprising in the Nile Delta region. The regiment were reissued their equipment and sent to support the authorities as martial law had been declared. The uprising soon ended without any major incidents. One incident the regiment had to deal with was a request from an Egyptian woman for an officer to grant her a divorce. On 22 June the regiment moved to the Demobilisation Camp at Ismailia on the Suez Canal. They then board the transport HMT Ulimaroa and sail for New Zealand. On 30 June the regiment ceases to exist, as such and five weeks later, on 8 August, the Ulimaroa arrived at Auckland.[133][134]

CasualtiesEdit

During its service 434 men of the regiment died from all causes, either killed in action, died of wounds or disease and two were lost at sea. Almost half of those, 202 men, were killed during the seven months they fought in the Gallipoli Campaign and 230 during the two years of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. There were also 627 men wounded, forty-eight of those were unfortunate to have been wounded twice. The Gallipoli Campaign accounted for almost two thirds of the total number of wounded at 395 men, twenty-nine of them were wounded twice. Then in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, there were another 232 men wounded, and twenty-nine of those were again wounded twice.[135]

HonoursEdit

Several men of the regiment were recognised for their service by the British Empire awards system. The two commanding officers Macksey and McCarroll were invested as Companions of the Order of St Michael and St George,[136][137] and as Companions of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO).[138] McCarroll also received a bar for the DSO to signify a second award.[139] While Macksey was also invested as a Commander of the Order of the British Empire.[140] Two other men also received a DSO both majors, Herrold for the raid on the rail line at Amman and Ralph Wyman at Gallipoli.[141] There were two civilian awards, as opposed to military awards, of an Officer of the Order of the British Empire and a Member of the Order of the British Empire. The Military Cross, was awarded to eight officers, two men received bars for a second award. The other ranks were awarded six Distinguished Conduct Medals, and sixteen Military Medals. There were also twenty-six Mention in Despatches, for all ranks.[136]

ReferencesEdit

Footnotes
  1. At the time of the First World War, the modern Turkish state did not exist, and instead it was part of the Ottoman Empire. While the terms have distinct historical meanings, within many English-language sources the term "Turkey" and "Ottoman Empire" are used synonymously, although many academic sources differ in their approaches.[16] The sources used in this article predominately use the term "Turkey".
  2. Nicol gives the casualties as twenty-three dead and about the same wounded.[17]
  3. Casualties were fifty-seven dead, 144 wounded and twenty-seven missing in action.[14]
  4. Although a mounted regiment the Otago Mounted Rifles were not part of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade, but the divisional cavalry regiment for the New Zealand Division.[4]
  5. Arabic names have been changed to English for better understanding.
    Ain = Spring
    Bir = Well
    Ed, El, Er, Es, Ez = The definite article "The"
    Jebel = Mountain
    Jisr = Bridge
    Makhadet = Ford
    Nahr = River
    Tel = Mound [38]
  6. The battery was part of the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade, and used small calibre mountain guns, which could be dismantled and carried by man or animal.[97][98]
Citations
  1. Nicol 1921, p.2
  2. "Mackesy, Charles Ernest Randolph". Te Ara. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/3m19/mackesy-charles-ernest-randolph. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment". New Zealand History. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/auckland-mounted-rifles. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Waite 1919, p.6
  5. Powles 1922, p.3
  6. Stack 2011, p.1883
  7. Kinloch 2005, p.4
  8. Nicol 1921, pp.8–9
  9. Nicol 1921, pp.10–11
  10. Nicol 1921, p.14
  11. Nicol 1921, pp.16–20
  12. Nicol 1921, p.21
  13. Nicol 1921, pp.28–29
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 "1915 – Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment timeline". New Zealand History. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/auckland-mounted-rifles/1915. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  15. Nicol 1921, p.35
  16. Fewster, Basarin, Basarin 2003, pp.xi–xii
  17. Nicol 1921, p.47
  18. Nicol 1921, p.54
  19. Nicol 1921, p.61
  20. Nicol 1921, pp.42–45
  21. Wilkie 191, p.151
  22. Nicol 1921, p.75
  23. Nicol 1921, pp.81–84
  24. Nicol 1921, pp.85–86
  25. Nicol 1921, pp.87–91
  26. Nicol 1921, pp.95–96
  27. Nicol 1921, pp.97–98
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 "1916 – Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment timeline". New Zealand History. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/auckland-mounted-rifles/1916. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  29. Powles 1922, p.12
  30. Powles 1922, p.7
  31. Nicol 1921, p.99
  32. Nicol 1921, p.102
  33. Nicol 1921, pp.102–103
  34. Powles 1922, p.5
  35. 35.0 35.1 Gullett 1923, p.120
  36. Powles 1922, p.6
  37. Nicol 1921, p.106
  38. Powles 1922, Appendix I
  39. Nicol 1921, pp.107–108
  40. Powles 1922, p.31
  41. Nicol 1921, pp.108–109
  42. Nicol 1921, pp.111–112
  43. Nicol 1921, pp.113–114
  44. Nicol 1921, p.115
  45. Nicol 1921, pp.116–118
  46. Nicol 1921, p.125
  47. Powles 1922 p.49
  48. Nicol 1921, pp.124–127
  49. Powles 1922, p.50
  50. Nicol 1921.pp.129–130
  51. Powles 1922, p.65
  52. Powles 1922, p.70
  53. Nicol 1921, pp.130–134
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 54.4 54.5 54.6 "1917 – Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment timeline". New Zealand History. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/auckland-mounted-rifles/1917. Retrieved 9 November 2013e. 
  55. Powles 1922, pp.71–77
  56. Nicol, pp.138–139
  57. Powles 1922, pp.84–95
  58. Nicol 1921, p.140
  59. Nicol 1921, pp.142–143
  60. Nicol 1921, pp.143–145
  61. Powles 1922, pp.99–105
  62. Nicol 1921, p.145
  63. Nicol 1921, pp.146–151
  64. Nicol 1921, pp.155–156
  65. Nicol 1921, pp.156–157
  66. Powles 1922, p.138
  67. Nicol 1921, pp.157–158
  68. Powles 1922, p.139
  69. Nicol 1921, pp.159–160
  70. Powles 1922, pp.141–142
  71. Nicol 1921, pp.161–162
  72. Nicol 1921, pp.162–163
  73. Nicol 1921, pp.163–165
  74. Powles 1922, pp.145–151
  75. Nicol 1921, p.166
  76. Powles 1922, p.159
  77. Nicol 1921, pp.168–171
  78. Powles 1922, pp.161–165
  79. Nicol 1921, p.172
  80. Nicol 1921, pp.175–176
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 81.3 81.4 81.5 81.6 81.7 81.8 "1918 – Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment timeline". New Zealand History. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/auckland-mounted-rifles/1918. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  82. Nicol 1921, p.177
  83. Nicol 1921, p.179
  84. Nicol 1921, pp.181–182
  85. Powles 1922, pp.171–179
  86. Nicol 1921, pp.182–183
  87. Nicol 1921, pp.183–184
  88. Powles 1922, pp.181–183
  89. Nicol 1921, pp.184–185
  90. Powles 1922, p.183
  91. Powles 1922, p.190
  92. Nicol 1921, p.189
  93. Nicol 1921, pp.190–191
  94. Powles 1922, pp.193–194
  95. 95.0 95.1 Nicol 1921, pp.191–194
  96. Powles 1922, pp.193–197
  97. Nicol 1921, p.195
  98. "Camel artillery ready to fire". New Zealand History. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/photo/camel-artillery-ready-fire. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  99. Nicol 1921, pp.195–196
  100. Nicol 1921, pp.196–197
  101. Powles 1922, pp.197–198
  102. Nicol 1921, pp.197–199
  103. Powles 1922, pp.200–201
  104. Nicol 1921, p.200
  105. Powles 1922, pp.202–203
  106. Powles 1922, p.206
  107. Nicol 1921, pp.202–205
  108. Powles 1922, pp.206–209
  109. Nichol 1921, p.206
  110. Powles 1922, p.212
  111. Nichol 1921, pp.206–210
  112. Powles 1922, pp.211–212
  113. Nicol 1921, pp.212–213
  114. Nicol 1921, pp.214–216
  115. Powles 1922, pp.221–223
  116. Nicol 1921, pp.218–221
  117. Powles 1922, pp.231–232
  118. General Edmund Allenby (4 February 1922). "Supplement to the London Gazette, 4 February, 1920". London Gazette. http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/31767/supplements/1530/page.pdf. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  119. Nicol 1921, pp.22–224
  120. Powles 1922, p.237
  121. Nicol 1921, pp.222–224
  122. Powles 1922, pp.246–247
  123. Nicol 1921, pp.224–226
  124. The London Gazette: no. 31087. p. 15188. 30 December 1918. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  125. Nicol 1921, pp,227–230
  126. Powles 1922,pp.248–252
  127. The London Gazette: no. 31219. p. 3227. 7 March 1919. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  128. Nicol 1921, pp.231–233
  129. Nicol 1921, pp.233–234
  130. Powles 1922, pp.254–256
  131. Nicol 1921, pp.235–236
  132. Nicol 1921, pp.236–238
  133. "1919 – Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment timeline". New Zealand History. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/auckland-mounted-rifles/1919. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  134. Nicol 1921, pp.239–240
  135. Nicol 1921, pp.245–263
  136. 136.0 136.1 Nicol 1921, pp.264–265
  137. The London Gazette: no. 31684. p. 15440. 9 December 1919. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  138. The London Gazette: no. 29886. p. 29. 29 December 1916. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  139. The London Gazette: no. 30555. p. 2727. 1 March 1918. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  140. The London Gazette: no. 31371. p. 6926. 30 May 1919. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  141. "Ralph Wyman". Auckland War Museum. http://muse.aucklandmuseum.com/databases/general/Cenotaph/59276.detail?Ordinal=13&c_embarkingtransport_search=%22hmnzt++8%22&c_embarkingtransport_logic=or. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
Bibliography
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  • Gullett, Henry Somer (1923). The Australian Imperial Force in Sinai and Palestine, 1914–1918. Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. Volume VII. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. OCLC 59863829. 
  • Kinoch, Terry (2005). Echoes of Gallipoli: In the Words of New Zealand's Mounted Riflemen. Wollombi: Exisle Publishing. ISBN 0908988605. 
  • Nicol, C.G. (1921). The Story of Two Campaigns: Official War History of the Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment, 1914–1919. Auckland: Wilson and Horton. ISBN 1847343414. 
  • Powles, C. Guy; A. Wilkie (1922). The New Zealanders in Sinai and Palestine. Official History New Zealand's Effort in the Great War. Volume III. Auckland: Whitcombe & Tombs. OCLC 2959465. 
  • Stack, Wayne (2011). The New Zealand Expeditionary Force in World War I. Men-at-arms series. Volume 473. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1849088888. 
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