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Audie L. Murphy
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Born (1925-06-20)June 20, 1925
Died May 28, 1971(1971-05-28) (aged 45)
Place of birth Kingston, Hunt County, Texas, U.S.
Place of death Brush Mountain Catawba Near Roanoke, VA, U.S.
Buried at Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch
Years of service
Rank
Unit
Battles/wars
Awards
Other work Actor; songwriter
Signature Audie Murphy
Website Audie L. Murphy

Audie Leon Murphy (June 20, 1925 – May 28, 1971) was one of the most famous and decorated American combat soldiers of World War II. He was awarded every U.S. military combat award for valor available from the U.S. Army, and was also decorated by France and Belgium. He served in the Mediterranean and European Theater of Operations. He was presented the Medal of Honor for his defensive actions against German troops on January 26, 1945, at the Colmar Pocket near Holtzwihr, France. During an hour-long siege, he stood alone on a burning tank destroyer firing a machine gun at attacking German soldiers and tanks. Wounded and out of ammunition, Murphy climbed off the tank, refused medical attention, and led his men on a successful counter assault. In 2013, he was posthumously awarded the Texas Legislative Medal of Honor.

He was born into a large sharecropper family in Hunt County, Texas, and his skill with a hunting rifle was a necessity for feeding the family. His father abandoned the family, and his mother died when he was a teenager. Murphy dropped out of school in fifth grade to pick cotton and find other work to help support his family. His older sister helped him falsify documentation about his birth date in order to meet the minimum age requirement for enlisting in the military. He received training at Camp Wolters, Texas, Fort Meade, Maryland and Arzew, Algeria. He first saw action in the Allied invasion of Sicily and Anzio, and was part of the 1944 liberation of Rome. On August 15, 1944, he was part of the Allied Invasion of southern France, where he saw action at Montélimar and the capture of German Brigadier General Otto Richter. He led his men on a successful assault at the L'Omet quarry near Cleurie in northeastern France in October 1944. Murphy was only 19 years old when he was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Colmar Pocket. He always maintained that the medals belonged to his entire military unit. Suffering what would in later wars be labeled post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), he slept with a loaded gun under his pillow and looked for solace in addictive sleeping pills. The Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital in San Antonio is named for him.

After the war, Murphy enjoyed a 21-year career as an actor. He played himself in the 1955 autobiographical To Hell and Back based on his 1949 memoirs of the same name. Most of his 44 films were Westerns. He made guest appearances on celebrity television shows and starred in the series Whispering Smith. As a songwriter, he penned the successful "Shutters and Boards". He bred quarter horses in California and Arizona, and became a regular participant in horse racing. In the last few years of his life, he was plagued with money problems. He remained aware of his role model influence and refused offers for alcohol and cigarette commercials. Murphy died in a plane crash in Virginia in 1971, just 23 days before his 46th birthday. He was interred with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.

Early lifeEdit

Audie Leon Murphy was born the seventh of twelve children to Emmett Berry Murphy and his wife Josie Bell Killian on June 20, 1925, in Kingston,[1] Hunt County, Texas.[2] The Murphys were sharecroppers of Irish descent. When Josie was pregnant with Audie, she had already buried three of her children. Emmett temporarily deserted the family, leaving her to care for the remaining three children. Audie B. Evans Sr., a friend who lived 15 miles (24 km) away, made sure the family had food and basic supplies. Another friend Audie Lee West worked the Murphy garden so Josie could stay off her feet, and he assisted in the child's birth. Josie named the child Audie after both these men.[3]

He would later say that even in his youth he was a loner with an explosive temper, subject to mood swings.[4] He grew up around Farmersville, Greenville and Celeste, where he attended elementary school.[5] His father drifted in and out of the family's life and eventually deserted the family for good. Murphy dropped out of school in fifth grade and got a job picking cotton for $1 a day to help support the family. He became skilled with a rifle, hunting small game to help feed the family. After his mother died in 1941, he worked at a combination general store, garage and gas station in Greenville, and also at a radio repair shop.[6] Hunt County authorities placed his three youngest siblings in Boles Children's Home,[7] a Christian orphanage in Quinlan. After the war, he bought a house in Farmersville for his oldest sister Corrine and her husband Poland Burns. His other siblings also briefly shared the home.[8]

The loss of his mother stayed with him throughout his life. The day Murphy died, May 28, 1971, would have been his mother's 80th birthday.[9]

She died when I was sixteen. She had the most beautiful hair I've ever seen. It reached almost to the floor. She rarely talked; and always seemed to be searching for something. What it was I don't know. We didn't discuss our feelings. But when she passed away, she took something of me with her. It seems I've been searching for it ever since.[10]
—Audie Murphy

Military serviceEdit

Enlistment and initial trainingEdit

Murphy wanted to be a soldier and dreamed about combat. The death of his mother, in May 1941, added even more impetus to his desire to achieve that goal.[6] He tried to enlist after hearing the news of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, but he was turned away by the Marine Corps, the Army, and the Navy recruiting offices for being underage and underweight.[11][8] He gained weight following a change in diet and returned to the Army recruiter with a sworn affidavit from his sister Corrine which falsified his birth date by a year, and his application for enlistment was accepted in Greenville on June 29, 1942.[2] On June 30, he enlisted and entered the Army in Dallas after his physical examination; his height was recorded as 5 feet 5.5 inches (1.664 m) and his weight as 112 pounds (51 kg).[12]

He was transferred to the Camp Wolters Infantry Replacement Training Center for Basic Training near Mineral Wells, Texas.[13][14] During basic training Murphy was awarded an Expert Badge with Bayonet Bar and a Marksman Badge with Rifle Bar.[15] While participating in a close-order drill he passed out from the heat and was hospitalized.[16] His company commander thought he was too small to serve in the infantry, and tried to have him transferred to a cook and bakers' school, but Murphy was determined on becoming an infantryman[17] and completed the 13-week basic combat training course. In October, he was given leave to visit his family before being sent to Fort Meade, Maryland, for Advanced Individual Training, which lasted until January 1943.[18]

Mediterranean TheaterEdit

North AfricaEdit

In January 1943, Murphy was processed through Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, and he arrived at Casablanca, in French Morocco on February 20. On arrival, he was assigned to Company B, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division.[19]

As part of Operation Torch on November 8, 1942, the United States seized Port Lyautey in French Morocco. The 3rd Infantry Division was sent to this Port Lyautey on March 7, 1943, coming under the command of Major General Lucian Truscott,[20] who took them through rigorous training at Arzew, Algeria,[19] for an amphibious landing at Sicily.[21] Private Murphy participated with his division in 30 mile (48 km) 8-hour marches, known as the "Truscott Trot". For the first hour, the men marched at a pace of 5 mph (8.0 km/h), and slowed to 4 mph (6.4 km/h) for the second hour, taking the final 21 miles (34 km) at a pace of 3.5 mph (5.6 km/h). They also performed bayonet and land mine drills, obstacle course training and other exercises.[22] In Algeria, Murphy was promoted to private first class on May 7.[23] After the May 13 surrender of the Axis forces in French Tunisia,[24] the division was put in charge of the prisoners.[25] They returned to Algeria on May 15 for "Operation Copycat", training exercises in preparation for the assault landing in Sicily.[26]

ItalyEdit

SicilyEdit

Truscott's 3rd Infantry Division, as part of the Seventh United States Army under the command of Lieutenant General George S. Patton, sailed from Tunisia on July 7, 1943, for the Allied invasion of Sicily, landing at Licata on July 10.[27] Murphy was promoted to the rank of corporal on July 15.[28] Company B later took part in fighting around Canicattì, during which Murphy killed two fleeing Italian officers.[29]

They arrived in Palermo on July 20, and Murphy was sidelined by illness for a week. Allied capture of the transit port of Messina was crucial to taking Sicily from the Axis. En route there,[30] Company B was assigned to a hillside location protecting a machine-gun emplacement, while the rest of the 3rd Infantry Division fought at San Fratello.[31] Benito Mussolini was removed from power and arrested on July 25 by King Victor Emanuel III and exiled to the Gran Sasso d'Italia region.[32] The Axis began their evacuation of Messina on July 27, completed when the 3rd Infantry Division's 7th Infantry Regiment secured the port on August 17.[27] During the fighting in Sicily, Murphy became realistic about military duty, "I have seen war as it actually is, and I do not like it. But I will go on fighting..."[33]

Mainland invasionEdit

With Mussolini removed from power and Sicily secured from Axis forces, Supreme Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower made the decision to invade Italy in early September 1943.[34] The German Gran Sasso raid on September 12 rescued Mussolini and returned him to power.[32] As part of the Salerno landings, the 3rd Infantry Division came ashore at Battipaglia.[35] One of the early skirmishes recounted by author Don Graham involved Murphy, his best friend Lattie Tipton (referred to as "Brandon" in Murphy's book To Hell and Back) and an unnamed soldier in their unit as they traveled along the Volturno River. The trio were near a bridge when the third soldier was killed by German machine-gun fire. Tipton tossed hand grenades in the direction of the fire and Murphy responded with a Thompson submachine gun, killing five German soldiers.[36]

Allied forces entered Naples on October 1.[37] The 3rd Division became part of the Allied assault on the Volturno Line.[34][35] Near Mignano Monte Lungo Hill 193, Company B repelled an attack by seven German soldiers, taking four prisoners. Platoon soldier Swope wounded the other three who took days to die as they sat vigil over them.[38]

The wounded must be got under cover. The peculiar ethics of war condone our riddling the bodies with lead. But then they were soldiers. Swope's gun transformed them into human beings again; and the rules say that we cannot leave them unprotected against a barrage of their own artillery.
—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back[39]

Murphy was promoted to sergeant on December 13.[40] By this time, the 3rd Infantry Division had suffered heavy casualties: 683 deaths with 170 missing, and 2,412 wounded.[41]

AnzioEdit

The 3rd Infantry Division, under the VI Corps commanded by Major General John P. Lucas,[42] was notified in December 1943 of the planned January 22, 1944, storming of Anzio beachhead, the beginning of the liberation of Rome. The division began training near Naples and practiced an amphibious landing at Salerno.[43] Murphy was promoted to staff sergeant on January 13.[44] He was hospitalized in Naples with malaria on January 21, and was unable to participate in the initial landing.[43] One of the eighty-four 3rd Infantry Division casualties suffered during the landing was Private Joe Sieja, given the alias "Little Mike Novak" in To Hell and Back. Sieja was a Polish-born American soldier in Murphy's unit he had grown to admire and one of the two people to whom Murphy dedicated his book.[45][46]

Lucas delayed sending the troops inland from the beachhead, allowing the Axis to reinforce their strength.[42] Murphy returned to his unit from his hospital stay and took part in the unsuccessful First Battle of Cisterna, which was fought between January 30 and February 2. It was the most fierce and sustained fighting Murphy had experienced to date.
If the suffering of men could do the job, the German lines would be split wide open. Replacements cannot begin to keep pace with the slaughter. Some of the companies have been reduced to twenty men. Not a yard of ground has been gained by the murderous three days of assault. A doomlike quality hangs over the beachhead.
—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back[47]

When Lieutenant Colonel Michael Paulick took command of Company B, the battle had cost the lives of all but 30 of the men. Murphy was the only non-commissioned officer (NCO) remaining, and as such became Company B platoon sergeant.[48] Lucas was replaced on February 23 by Truscott.[42] The men were forced to retreat back to Anzio for months.

Taking shelter in an abandoned farmhouse on March 2, the platoon killed the crew of a passing German tank. Murphy then crawled out alone close enough to destroy the tank with rifle grenades. For this action, he received the Bronze Star with "V" Device.[49][50] Murphy continued to make scouting patrols to take German prisoners. He was hospitalized for a week on March 13 with a second bout of malaria. In April, the 3rd Infantry Division was sent for more training. Sixty-one infantry officers and enlisted men of Company B, 15th Infantry, including Murphy, were awarded the Combat Infantryman Badge on May 8.[51] Murphy was also awarded a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for his Bronze Star.[52][50] The Second Battle of Cisterna began on May 23, resulting in an Allied victory on May 25. The 3rd Infantry Division marched towards Valmontone. American forces liberated Rome on June 4. Murphy remained bivouacked in Rome with his platoon through July.[42][53]

European TheaterEdit

Southern and southeastern FranceEdit

The U.S. Seventh Army under the command of Lieutenant General Alexander Patch was the initial amphibious landing force for the August 15, 1944, Allied invasion of southern France, known as Operation Dragoon. The 3rd Infantry Division was now under the command of Major General John W. O'Daniel.[54] At 0800 military time, they came ashore on Yellow Beach near Ramatuelle[55] with the first wave of the assault.[54] They began to move inland through a vineyard. As the 3rd Platoon progressed toward an incline, one of their own light machine-gun squads got detached. German soldiers began firing at them, initially killing one and wounding another. Murphy ran out alone to locate the lost squad and led them back to the unit. He then used the retrieved machine gun to return fire at the German soldiers, killing two and wounding one.[55] When he relinquished the machine gun back to his own men and took up a new position, he was joined by his best friend Lattie Tipton.[55] At that moment, two Germans exited a house about 100 yards (91 m) away, and feigned surrender by waving a white flag. Tipton believed it to be a real surrender gesture, and made himself visible, beckoning to the German soldiers to come towards him. He was immediately killed by machine-gun fire coming from within the house.
I remember the experience as I do a nightmare. A demon seems to have entered my body. My brain is coldly alert and logical. I do not think of the danger to myself. My whole being is concentrated on killing.
—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back[56]

Murphy advanced alone on the house, impervious to the German fire being directed at him. He wounded two, killed six, and took the others as prisoners. His actions that day took approximately one hour, during which he had killed eight German soldiers, wounded three and taken eleven prisoners.[55][57] For these actions, Murphy was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.[58][59]

During August 27–28, at Montélimar, Murphy and the 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, along with the 36th Infantry Division, engaged in an offensive battle to secure the area from the Germans, resulting in the capture of Brigadier General Otto Richter and 700 Germans.[54][60] The 3rd and 36th divisions took another 500 prisoners in the city on August 29.[54] The actions of the 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment during the offense earned them the Presidential Unit Citation. Murphy, for his part in the event, was included as one of the soldiers who received the citation.[61]

Northeastern FranceEdit

The 3rd Infantry Division was part of an offensive plan to break through German resistance in northeastern France, as far as Saint-Dié-des-Vosges.[62] In the area of Genevreuille on September 15, 1944, Murphy narrowly escaped death from a mortar shell hit that killed two others and wounded three. His resulting heel wound from the blast was not serious but earned him his first Purple Heart.[63][64] By this point, all but two of Company B's original group that Murphy had begun with had either been killed or taken off the lines with wounds.[63] General O'Daniel moved the 15th Infantry, 3rd Division to the Moselle and the Cleurie river valley in late September. Stone quarries dotted the hills and provided good defensive positions for the Germans. The 15th was met with fierce resistance north of St. Ame at the heavily fortified multi-tunneled L'Omet quarry.[62] On October 2 at L'Omet, Murphy crawled alone to the location of a machine gun manned by a unit of German officers. Within 15 yards (14 m) of the machine gun nest, he rose to his feet, "The Germans spot me instantly. The gunner spins the tip of his weapon toward me. But the barrel catches in a limb, and the burst whizzes to my right," he recalled.[65] Murphy lobbed two hand grenades at the men, killing four and wounding three. He was awarded the Silver Star for this action.[66] The 15th achieved success in its continued attack when Germans began evacuating the quarry on October 5.[62] On that date, Murphy crawled alone carrying a SCR436 radio for 50 yards (46 m) towards the Germans while they continually fired directly at him. Around 200 yards (180 m) from the German location, he radioed for his firing orders to be relayed to the artillery. For an hour, he remained at his position alone directing his men. When Murphy's men finally took the hill, 15 German combatants were killed and 35 wounded.[67] Murphy's actions earned him a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for his Silver Star.[68]

Murphy was awarded a battlefield commission to second lieutenant on October 14, which elevated him to platoon leader.[59][69] Operation Dogface was the 3rd Infantry Division's support role for the VI Corps in securing Bruyères and Brouvelieures, with the goal of getting the Sixth United States Army Group through the Belfort Gap by November.[70] While en route to Brouvelieures on October 26, the 3rd Platoon of Company B was attacked by a German sniper group. Murphy captured two before being shot in the hip by a sniper whom he in return shot between the eyes.
Because of the rain and the mud, we cannot be evacuated for three days. We lie on cots, six to a pyramidal tent, while the fever spreads through our flesh. Delirious men moan and curse.
—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back[71]

He was taken to 3rd General Hospital at Aix-en-Provence.[72] The removal of gangrene from the wound caused partial loss of his hip muscle, and kept him out of combat until January.[73][74] The injury earned Murphy the first Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for his Purple Heart.[75][64]

Colmar PocketEdit

The Colmar Pocket was 850 square miles (2,200 km2) in the Vosges Mountains and had been held by German troops since November 1944.[76] Murphy was still in the hospital on December 15 when General O'Daniel moved the 3rd Infantry Division into the area.[77] Murphy described it as "..a huge and dangerous bridgehead thrusting west of the Rhine like an iron fist. Fed with men and materiel from across the river, it is a constant threat to our right flank; and potentially it is a perfect springboard from which the enemy could start a powerful counterattack."[78] He rejoined his platoon on January 14, 1945,[79] the date Lieutenant General Jacob Devers ordered the 3rd Division reinforced by the 28th Infantry Division.[80] The 3rd Division was responsible for securing bridgeheads at the Colmar Canal, and Devers added support with a Third Army bridge company.[81] After crossing the Ill river through the Riedwihr Woods on January 24, the 3rd Division was ordered to the town of Holtzwihr, where they were met with a strong German counterattack.[82] Two officers in the division were killed by mortar shells in a January 25 attack. Murphy was wounded in both legs, earning him a Second Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for his Purple Heart.[83]

From its peak of 235 men, disease, injuries and casualties had reduced Company B's fighting strength to 18 men. Murphy being the only officer remaining on January 26 was made the company commander.[84] The company awaited reinforcements as Murphy watched the approaching Germans, "I see the Germans lining up for an attack. Six tanks rumble to the outskirts of Holtzwihr, split into groups of threes, and fan out toward either side of the clearing. Then wave after wave of white dots, barely discernible against the background of snow, start across the field. They are enemy infantrymen..."[85] Other eyewitness accounts [86] also attest to the counterattack consisting of artillery fire, six Panzerkampfwagen VI Tiger Ausf.E[87] tanks pulling 88 mm anti-tank artillery guns and hundreds of foot soldiers. The Germans made a direct hit into a M10 tank destroyer, setting it on fire and causing its crew to abandon it.[88] Murphy ordered his men to retreat to positions in the woods. He remained at his post alone shooting his M1 carbine and relaying orders with his telephone, all the while the Germans aimed fire directly at his position.[89] Murphy mounted the abandoned, burning tank destroyer and began firing its .50 caliber machine gun at the advancing Germans, killing a squad crawling through a ditch towards him.[90]

It was like standing on top of a time bomb ... he was standing on the TD chassis, exposed to enemy fire from his ankles to his head and silhouetted against the trees and the snow behind him.[88]
—Eyewitness account of Pvt. Anthony V. Abramski

For an hour, Murphy stood on the tank returning German fire from foot soldiers and advancing tanks, during which he sustained a leg wound. He stopped only after he ran out of ammunition.[88]
As if under the influence of some drug, I slide off the tank destroyer and, without once looking back, walk down the road through the forest. If the Germans want to shoot me, let them. I am too weak from fear and exhaustion to care.
—Audie Murphy, To Hell and Back[91]

He rejoined his men with complete disregard for his own wound, leading them back to successfully repel the Germans. Only afterwards would he allow treatment of his leg wound, and still insisted on remaining with his men.[88]

...during his indomitable one-man struggle, Lieutenant Murphy broke the entire attack of the Germans and held hard-won ground that it would have been disastrous to lose.[87]
—Eyewitness account of Sergeant Elmer C. Brawley

Murphy killed or wounded 50 Germans while standing on the burning tank. For his actions, he was awarded the Medal of Honor and the Legion of Merit .[50][92] O'Daniel positioned the 7th and 15th regiments to take Neuf Brisach on January 29. Devers reinforced the depleted and exhausted 3rd Infantry Division, already supported by the 28th Infantry Division, with the 75th Infantry Division and the French 5th Armored Division, for the final assault on Neuf-Brisach. The 3rd Division crossed over the Colmar Canal on January 30 for the February 6 capture of Neuf-Brisach, completing its participation in the liberation of the Colmar Pocket, which was completely under Allied control by February 9.[93] The 3rd Infantry Division was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for its actions at the Colmar Pocket, giving Murphy a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster for the emblem.[61]

Murphy was promoted to first lieutenant on February 16.[94] He was removed from the front lines to Regimental Headquarters and made a liaison officer,[95] and was on authorized leave in France when he was informed of the surrender of Germany on May 7.[96] The United States additionally honored Murphy's war contributions with the American Campaign Medal, the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with arrowhead device and campaign stars, the World War II Victory Medal, and the Army of Occupation Medal with Germany Clasp.[97] France recognized Murphy's service with the French Legion of HonorGrade of Chevalier,[98] the French Croix de guerre with Silver Star,[99] the French Croix de guerre with Palm,[99] the French Liberation Medal[61] and the French Fourragère in Colors of the Croix de guerre[61] which was authorized for all members of the 3rd Infantry Division who fought in France during World War II. Belgium awarded Murphy the Belgian Croix de guerre with 1940 Palm.[100][101]

Medal of HonorEdit
Moh army mil

Army version of the Medal of Honor

Brigadier General Ralph B. Lovett and Lieutenant Colonel Hallet D. Edson recommended Murphy for the Medal of Honor.[102] Near Salzburg, Austria on June 2, 1945,[103] Patch[8] presented Murphy with the Medal of Honor and Legion of Merit for his actions at Holtzwihr. When asked after the war why he had seized the machine gun and taken on an entire company of German infantry, he replied simply, "They were killing my friends."[104]

The official U.S. Army citation for Murphy's Medal of Honor reads:

Second Lt. Murphy commanded Company B, which was attacked by six tanks and waves of infantry. 2d Lt. Murphy ordered his men to withdraw to a prepared position in a woods, while he remained forward at his command post and continued to give fire directions to the artillery by telephone. Behind him, to his right, one of our tank destroyers received a direct hit and began to burn. Its crew withdrew to the woods. 2d Lt. Murphy continued to direct artillery fire, which killed large numbers of the advancing enemy infantry. With the enemy tanks abreast of his position, 2d Lt. Murphy climbed on the burning tank destroyer, which was in danger of blowing up at any moment, and employed its .50 caliber machine gun against the enemy. He was alone and exposed to German fire from three sides, but his deadly fire killed dozens of Germans and caused their infantry attack to waver. The enemy tanks, losing infantry support, began to fall back. For an hour the Germans tried every available weapon to eliminate 2d Lt. Murphy, but he continued to hold his position and wiped out a squad that was trying to creep up unnoticed on his right flank. Germans reached as close as 10 yards, only to be mowed down by his fire. He received a leg wound, but ignored it and continued his single-handed fight until his ammunition was exhausted. He then made his way back to his company, refused medical attention, and organized the company in a counterattack, which forced the Germans to withdraw. His directing of artillery fire wiped out many of the enemy; he killed or wounded about 50. 2d Lt. Murphy's indomitable courage and his refusal to give an inch of ground saved his company from possible encirclement and destruction, and enabled it to hold the woods which had been the enemy's objective.[92]

Post-war military serviceEdit

An inquiry originating from the 3rd Infantry Division was sent as a "Classified Message" to the Allied Expeditionary Forces, Main, Versailles, France on May 24, 1945, inquiring as to the feasibility of Murphy's enrolling in the United States Military Academy for classes beginning July 2. The June 1 reply from Colonel R. R. Coursey, assistant to the Chief of Staff of the War Department, advised against enrollment for that particular term at the academy due to the short time span available to prepare for the entrance exams. Coursey noted that should Murphy apply for the 1946 classes, the United States Congress was working on legislation to raise the maximum age limit for entrance to the Academy, in order to make it possible for returning war veterans to be eligible for application.[105] Legislation enacted by the Congress for this purpose raised the maximum limit to twenty-four years of age. Prior to that, the age limit had been twenty-two, which still would have allowed Murphy entrance based on the Army records that showed his birth date as 1924.[106] Author Don Graham wrote about this as having been initiated by Murphy and dropped by him, possibly when he realized the extent of academic preparation needed to pass the entrance exam.[107]

Murphy was one of several other military personnel who received orders on June 8, 1945, to report to Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas, for temporary duty and reassignment.[108] Upon arrival on June 13, he was one of four who were assigned to Fort Sam Houston Army Ground & Services Redistribution Station. All four were sent home for 30 days of recuperation, with permission to travel anywhere within the United States during that period. They were to report back for duty at the post on July 17.[109] While on leave, he was feted with parades, banquets, and speeches.[110] He received a belated Good Conduct Medal on August 21.[111] Murphy was discharged from active duty with the U.S. Army with the rank of first lieutenant, at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio on August 17. He was given 50% disability classification on September 21.[112]

After the June 25, 1950, commencement of the Korean War Murphy wanted to fight in the conflict[113] and enlisted in July in the 36th Infantry Division of the Texas National Guard with the rank of captain.[114] The Officer Efficiency Report of his first year in the Guard concluded, "The mental, physical and moral qualifications of this officer are superior."[115] During his service he granted the Guard permission to use his name and image in recruiting materials.[116] Although he actively participated in training activities in between continuing with his film career, Murphy was never sent to Korea.[117] He requested to transfer to inactive status on October 1, 1951, due to his film commitments with MGM Studios. His request was subsequently misplaced, delaying the official status change until January 21, 1952.[118] Murphy was promoted to the rank of major by the Texas National Guard effective November 30, 1955.[119] He was promoted to major U.S. Army Reserve on March 8, 1956.[120] Murphy received his service separation from the Texas National Guard effective November 7, 1966, and transferred to Standby Reserve.[121] He was retired from the U.S. Army Reserve effective May 22, 1969.[122]

Post-war traumaEdit

Murphy was plagued by insomnia and bouts of depression, related to his military service.[123] He slept with a loaded pistol under his pillow.[124] A post-service medical examination on June 17, 1947, revealed symptoms of headaches, vomiting, and nightmares about war. The medical record shows that sleeping pills helped prevent the nightmares.[125] During the mid-1960s, he recognized his dependence on Placidyl, and locked himself alone in a hotel room for a week to successfully break the addiction.[8] Post-traumatic stress levels exacerbated his innate moodiness,[4] and surfaced in episodes that friends and professional colleagues found alarming.[126] His first wife, Wanda Hendrix, stated that he once held her at gunpoint.[127] She witnessed her husband being moved to tears by newsreel footage of German war orphans, guilt-ridden that his war actions might have been the cause of their having no parents.[128] Murphy briefly found a creative stress outlet in writing poetry after his Army discharge. His poem "The Crosses Grow on Anzio" appeared in his book To Hell and Back,[129] but was attributed to the fictitiously named Kerrigan.[130]

Audie L. Murphy VA Hospital, San Antonio, TX IMG 7759

The Audie L. Murphy Veterans Administration Hospital in San Antonio, Texas

In an effort to draw attention to the problems of returning Korean War and Vietnam War veterans, Murphy spoke out candidly about his own problems with post-traumatic stress disorder.[131] It was known during Murphy's lifetime as "battle fatigue" and "shell shock", terminology that dated back to World War I. He called on the government to give increased consideration and study to the emotional impact of combat experiences, and to extend health care benefits to war veterans.[132][133] As a result of legislation introduced by U.S. Congressman Olin Teague five months after Murphy's 1971 death, the Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital in San Antonio was dedicated in 1973 and is now a part of the South Texas Veterans Health Care System.[134][135]

After the war, they took Army dogs and rehabilitated them for civilian life. But they turned soldiers into civilians immediately, and let 'em sink or swim.[136]
—Audie Murphy

Civilian lifeEdit

Murphy's film career path started in 1945 after actor and producer James Cagney saw the July 16 issue of Life magazine depicting him as the "most decorated soldier". The veteran actor invited Murphy to live at a guest house on his Beverly Hills estate while training as a contract player with the production company Cagney and his brother William operated.[137] He remained under the tutelage of the Cagneys until 1947 when he had a falling out with William.[138] At that point, Murphy moved into Terry Hunt's Athletic Club in Hollywood where he became a boxing partner of director Budd Boetticher. The club allowed veterans to sleep inside on cots, and it was Murphy's home until 1948.[139][140]

While he was living at the club, he met writer David "Spec" McClure, who had arranged to meet him and eventually collaborated as a writer on Murphy's 1949 autobiographical book To Hell and Back.[141] McClure began to act as his unpaid agent, and got the war hero a $500 bit part in Texas, Brooklyn and Heaven.[142][143] By the time Murphy got a contract for the book, he had his own apartment in Hollywood, which served as the workplace for the manuscript.[144][143] As Murphy related his experiences, McClure took notes and wrote most of the prose. They worked with reference materials to trigger Murphy's memories. When shown a map of a given area, he would recall the battles in detail. Murphy did write a small portion himself, including some of the material on the Colmar Pocket. He directed that the book be written from the perspective of the men who fought the battles.[144] To Hell and Back has had multiple printings and been translated into Dutch,[145] Italian,[146] French,[147] and Slovene.[148]

Murphy was visiting Texas in December 1946, and gave a ride to hitchhiker John Thomas Daniels in McKinney County. The 25-year-old hitchhiker, who outweighed Murphy by over 50 pounds (23 kg) and was several inches taller, struck Murphy and demanded his car. According to the actor, "We fought all over the place for about 10 minutes," before Murphy broke free and called the police. The police and Murphy apprehended the suspect who by then was trying to rob a local woman.[149]

He married actress Wanda Hendrix on January 8, 1949,[150] and their divorce became final on April 11, 1951.[151][152] He married former airline stewardess Pamela Archer on April 23, 1951.[153] Son Terrance Michael "Terry" Murphy was born in 1952. Son James Shannon "Skipper" Murphy was born in 1954.[154]

Audie Murphy Whispering Smith 1961

Murphy in 1961

Murphy bred quarter horses at the Audie Murphy Ranch in Perris, California,[155] and the Murphy Ranch in Pima County, Arizona.[156] He loved racing his horses at the Del Mar Racetrack and invested large sums of money in the hobby.[157] Murphy had a gambling habit that left his finances in a poor state. In 1968, he stated that he lost $260,000 in an Algerian oil deal and was dealing with the Internal Revenue Service over unpaid taxes.[158] In spite of his financial difficulties, Murphy refused to do commercials for alcohol and cigarettes, mindful of the influence he would have on the youth market.[159]

A May 18, 1970, attempt to mediate a dispute between a female friend of Murphy's and her dog trainer David Gofstein led to Murphy's arrest. Gofstein said that Murphy arrived with the client and a boxer. The victim said he had been beaten and shot at, that his wife had been roughed up, and that Murphy stuck a gun in his stomach and tried to abduct him. Gofstein said he broke free, and Murphy shot at him. Murphy was arrested ten days later by police in Burbank, California and charged with suspicion of assault and attempt to commit murder.[160] When Murphy came to trial in October 1970, he entered a plea of innocent to possession of a blackjack, in addition to battery and assault.[161] He was acquitted of all charges.[162][163]

Death and commemorationsEdit

Audie Murphy grave - Arlington National Cemetery - 2011

Murphy's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia

On May 28, 1971, Murphy was killed when the private plane in which he was a passenger crashed into Brush Mountain, near Catawba, Virginia, 20 miles (32 km) west of Roanoke in conditions of rain, clouds, fog and zero visibility.[164] The pilot and four other passengers were also killed.[165] The aircraft was a twin-engine Aero Commander 680 flown by a pilot who had a private-pilot license and a reported 8,000 hours of flying time, but who held no instrument rating. The aircraft was recovered on May 31.[166] After her husband died, Pamela Murphy was obligated to pay his debts. She moved into a small apartment and got a clerk position at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Los Angeles, where she remained employed for 35 years.[167] In 1975, a court awarded Murphy's widow and two children $2.5 million in damages due to the accident.[168][169]

Audie-Murphy-Monument

Monument at the site of the plane crash in which Audie Murphy died

On June 7, 1971, Murphy was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. In attendance were George H.W. Bush, William Westmoreland and many of the 3rd Infantry Division.[170] Murphy's grave site is in Section 46, headstone number 46-366-11, located across Memorial Drive from the Amphitheater. A special flagstone walkway was later constructed to accommodate the large number of people who visit to pay their respects. It is the second most-visited grave site, after that of President John F. Kennedy.[171]

The headstones of Medal of Honor recipients buried at Arlington National Cemetery are normally decorated in gold leaf. Murphy previously requested that his stone remain plain and inconspicuous, like that of an ordinary soldier.[172] The 100th United States Congress, as part of Public Law 100-456, The National Defense Authorization Act 1989, enacted on September 29, 1988, authorized erecting a monument at Arlington National Cemetery to honor members of the 3rd Infantry Division who served in World War I, World War II and the Korean Conflict.[173] The 9-ton obelisk sits to the north of Audie Murphy's grave.[174]

In 1974, a large granite marker was erected just off the Appalachian Trail at 37°21′52″N 80°13′33″W / 37.364554°N 80.225748°W / 37.364554; -80.225748 (Audie Murphy's headstone) at 3,100' elevation, near the crash site.[175]

FilmographyEdit

He appeared in 44 films throughout his career. During the 1950s and 1960s, he was cast primarily in Westerns. Murphy helped publicize his 1949 World War II memoir To Hell and Back with a radio appearance on This Is Your Life.[176][177] In 1955, he played himself in the film To Hell and Back which became the biggest hit in the history of Universal Studios at the time.[178][179] He performed in a handful of television productions,[180] and was the star of the Whispering Smith series.

DiscographyEdit

Murphy saw some success as a country music songwriter. He teamed up with musicians and composers Guy Mitchell, Jimmy Bryant, Scott Turner, Coy Ziegler, Ray and Terri Eddlemon. His songs were recorded and released by Dean Martin, Eddy Arnold, Charley Pride, Jimmy Bryant, Porter Waggoner, Jerry Wallace, Roy Clark, and Harry Nilsson. His two biggest hits were "Shutters and Boards" and "When the Wind Blows in Chicago".[132] He and his co-writers produced seventeen songs:[181]

Year Title Writers Recorded by
1962 "Shutters and Boards" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Numerous artists, including Jerry Wallace, Dean Martin, Porter Waggoner, Jimmy Dean, Johnny Mann Singers, and Teresa Brewer[182]
"When the Wind Blows in Chicago" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Bobby Bare, Roy Clark, Eddy Arnold and Jerry Wallace[183]
"Please Mr. Music Man Play a Song for Me" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Harry Nilsson and Dick Contino
"Foolish Clock" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Harry Nilsson
"Leave the Weeping to the Willow Tree" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Bonnie Guitar
"The Only Light I Ever Need is You" Audie Murphy, Guy Mitchell and Scott Turner Jerry Wallace and Harry Nilsson
1963 "Go On and Break My Heart" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Wilton and Welcon
"Willie the Hummer" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Jerry Wallace
"My Lonesome Room" Audie Murphy, Guy Mitchell and Scott Turner Roy Clark
"If There is a Short Cut to Nowhere (I'll Take It)" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Dorsey Burnette (unreleased)
1964 "Pedro's Guitar" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Jimmy Bryant
"Big, Big Day Tomorrow" Audie Murphy, Coy Ziegler and Scott Turner Jerry Wallace (unreleased)
"Elena, Goodbye" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner Jimmy Bryant
1965 "Round and Round She Goes" Audie Murphy, Coy Ziegler and Scott Turner Jerry Wallace
1966 "Rattle Dance" Audie Murphy, Scott Turner and Ivan J. Bryant Jimmy Bryant
1969 "Dusty Old Helmet" Audie Murphy and Scott Turner unrecorded
1970 "Was It All Worth Losing You" Audie Murphy Terry Eddleman, Charlie Pride[184]

Honors and awardsEdit

Murphy received every U.S. military combat award for valor available from the U.S. Army during his World War II service.[185] For his service in World War II, he also received foreign recognitions by both France and Belgium. In 2013, he was honored by his home state with the Texas Legislative Medal of Honor.[186] He was also the recipient of civilian honors both during his lifetime and posthumously, including a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[187]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Kingston, Texas. Texas Historical Commission. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Murphy's son Terry is the President of the Audie Murphy Research Foundation, which in both its biographical sketch and Murphy Family Tree list Audie's year of birth as 1925 Biographical Sketch of Audie Leon Murphy, June 20, 1925 – May 28, 1971. Audie Murphy Research Foundation.  Murphy Family Tree. AMRF. Murphy's date of birth has been given as both 1925 and 1924, by Murphy himself. He seemed to go back and forth on the dates for the rest of his life. His sister Corrine Burns as his "nearest living kin", signed a notarized document that he was born June 20, 1924, to accompany his enlistment application; falsifying his year of birth in order to make him appear old enough to meet the U.S. Army age qualification for enlistment C.A.R.O. form signed by Corrine Burns June 26, 1942.  Audie Murphy enlistment record ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. June 30, 1942. He later said his mother, who died in 1941, died when he was 16, which would put his birth year as 1925. His date of birth on military records, and on his tombstone at Arlington National Cemetery, is listed as 1924. The 82nd Texas Legislature referenced a 1925 birth date and said the 1924 date was a misrepresentation by Murphy Texas Legislative Medal of Honor. State of Texas. ;When he applied for membership in the North Hollywood Freemason Lodge 542 in 1954, he gave his date of birth as 1924; Application to join N. Hollywood Freemasons. AudieMurphy.com.  His California driver's license showed a birth date of 1925. California driver's license for Audie Murphy. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. Simpson, Harold B. Audie Leon Murphy. Texas State Historical Association. 
  3. Newsletter number 6. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Murphy 2002, pp. 4–7.
  5. Celeste, Texas. Texas Historical Commission3. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Murphy 2002, p. 7.
  7. Minor, David. Boles Home. Texas State Historical Association. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Tate, J.R (2006). Walkin' with the Ghost Whisperers. Stackpole Books. pp. 152–163. ISBN 978-0-8117-4544-4. 
  9. "Mrs. Josie Murphy is Buried Here Saturday Afternoon". May 23, 1941. Josie Murphy obituary in the Farmersville Times was reproduced on the Audie Murphy Research Foundation website on March 25, 2009
  10. Murphy 2002, p. 143.
  11. Graham 1989, pp. 23,24.
  12. Enlistment Record for Audie Leon Murphy. U.S. Army. June 29–30, 1942. 
  13. Camp Wolters Training Center
  14. Graham 1989, p. 29.
  15. Graham 1989, pp. 31, 33.
  16. Graham 1989, p. 31.
  17. Graham 1989, p. 33.
  18. Graham 1989, pp. 34–35.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Graham 1989, p. 36.
  20. Champagne 2008, p. 41.
  21. Champagne 2008, p. 42.
  22. Champagne 2008, p. 43.
  23. Graham 1989, p. 37.
  24. Gordon Williamson (26 September 1991). Afrikakorps 1941-43. Osprey Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85532-130-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=h1c44ccxC_sC&pg=PA24. Retrieved 26 January 2013. 
  25. Champagne 2008, p. 45.
  26. Champagne 2008, pp. 45–47.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Sicily 1943 CMH Pub 72–16. U.S. Army. 
  28. Graham 1989, p. 39.
  29. Graham 1989, p. 40.
  30. Graham 1989, p. 43.
  31. Graham 1989, p. 44.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Moseley, Ray (2004). Mussolini: The Last 600 Days of Il Duce. Taylor Trade. ISBN 1-58979-095-2. http://books.google.com/?id=UmxaWvOL_IgC&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=Campo+Imperatore+abruzzo+mussolini. 
  33. Murphy 2002, p. 15.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Naples CMH Pub 22-17. U.S. Army. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 Graham 1989, p. 47.
  36. Graham 1989, pp. 47,48.
  37. Atkinson, Rick (2008). The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944. Holt Paperbacks. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-8050-8861-8. 
  38. Graham 1989, pp. 48.49.
  39. Murphy 2002, p. 41.
  40. Ciment, James D; Russell, Thaddeus (2006). The Home Front Encyclopedia: United States, Britain, and Canada in World Wars I and II. ABC-CLIO. pp. 673–675. ISBN 978-1-57607-849-5. http://books.google.com/?id=n0P04JuMSM8C&pg=PA674&dq=promoted+sergeant+%22audie+murphy%22#v=onepage&q=promoted%20sergeant%20%22audie%20murphy%22&f=false. 
  41. Graham 1989, p. 49.
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 Anzio 1944 CMH Pub 72–16. U.S. Army. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 Graham 1989, p. 50.
  44. Officers' Biographical Questionnaire , Form 317 ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. June 11, 1956. 
  45. Nowak, Udo W (July 21, 1968). "Murphy Had Extra Points But No Home To Go To". http://www.audiemurphy.com/documents/doc032/AdvertiserJournal07-21-68.pdf. Retrieved February 17, 2013. 
  46. Graham 1989, p. 51.
  47. Murphy 2002, pp. 108,109.
  48. Michael Paul, Colonel Infantry. A Story Audie Murphy Never Told. Reproduced by the Audie Murphy Research Foundation
  49. Graham 1989, p. 59.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 Hall of Valor. Gannett Government Media Corporation. http://militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=209. Retrieved February 19, 2013. 
  51. Special Order No. 39, by Order of Colonel Thomas, Combat Infantry Badge. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. May 8, 1944. 
  52. Simpson 1975, p. 276.
  53. Graham 1989, pp. 64.65.
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 Southern France CMH Pub 72-31. U.S. Army. 
  55. 55.0 55.1 55.2 55.3 Statement given by Staff Sergeant Norman Hollen, Company B, Fifteenth Infantry to First Lieutenant Abraham Weiner, Fifteenth Infantry, describing the actions Sergeant Audie L. Murphy took to singlehandedly clean out an entire enemy position on August 15, 1944., 12/1944 ARC Identifier 299779. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 
  56. Murphy 2002, p. 177.
  57. General Order No. 21, Award for the Distinguished Service Cross ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. January 28, 1945. 
  58. Graham, Don (June 1989). "The Story of Audie Murphy". pp. 107, 108, 132, 149, 150, 151. 
  59. 59.0 59.1 Fisch, Arnold G; Hogan, David W; Wright, Robert K (2006). The Story of the Noncommissioned Officer Corps: The Backbone of the Army. Dept of the Army. p. 333. ISBN 978-0-16-067868-4. http://books.google.com/?id=MzWGnAtyDIEC&pg=PA333&dq=second+lieutenant+%22audie+murphy%22#v=onepage&q=second%20lieutenant%20%22audie%20murphy%22&f=false. 
  60. Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 166.
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 Murphy's Awards. http://www.armymedicine.army.mil/samc/awards.cfm. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 Clarke & Smith 1993, pp. 285–296.
  63. 63.0 63.1 Graham 1989, p. 72.
  64. 64.0 64.1 General Orders No. 71, Award of Purple Heart and Oak Leaf Cluster to 2nd Lt. Audie Murphy, signed by Captain J.W. Polkinghorn. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. December 22, 1944. 
  65. Murphy 2002, p. 209.
  66. Michael Paulick, Lt. Col., 15th Infantry, Executive officer (February 11, 1945). Recommendation for Award of Silver Star. U.S. Army, Hdqt 15th Infantry. 
  67. Joseph DeMarco, 1st Lt. Col., 15th Infantry, Platoon leader. Complete Description of Service Rendered. U.S. Army, Company B, 15th Infantry. 
  68. Graham 1989, p. 78.
  69. W.G. Caldwell, Colonel, AGD, Adjutant General (October 14, 1944). Notification to Audie Murphy of Combat Appointment. U.S. Army, Hdqt Seventh Army. 
  70. Clarke & Smith 1993, pp. 295–311.
  71. Murphy 2002, p. 226.
  72. Graham 1989, p. 81-83.
  73. Audie L. Murphy Officer Request to the Adjutant General's Office for appear before a retirement board ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 1946. 
  74. War Board's response to Murphy's request to appear before an Army Retiring Board, signed by Adjutant General Robert H. Dunlap Jr. ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. January 17, 1947. 
  75. Graham 1989, p. 82.
  76. Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 533.
  77. Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 489.
  78. Murphy 2002, p. 228.
  79. Graham 1989, p. 86.
  80. Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 534.
  81. Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 536, 537.
  82. Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 543,544.
  83. Graham 1989, p. 87.
  84. Graham 1989, p. 88.
  85. Murphy 2002, p. 238.
  86. Clarke & Smith 1993, pp. 546,547.
  87. 87.0 87.1 Detailed statement of Sergeant Elmer C. Brawley describing how on January 26, 1945, Second Lieutenant Audie L. Murphy, exposed himself to enemy fire to hold off an advancing enemy, which "broke the entire attack of the Germans and held hard-won ground that it would have been disastrous to lose.", 03/01/1945 ARC Identifier 299776. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 
  88. 88.0 88.1 88.2 88.3 Statement given by Private First Class Anthony V. Abramski, Company "B," Fifteenth Infantry, to First Lieutenant Charles C. Blossom, Jr., describing Second Lieutenant Audie L. Murphy's actions on January 26, 1945, as "the greastest display of guts and courage I have ever seen.", 02/27/1945 – 02/27/1945, ARC Identifier 299775. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 
  89. Statement by First Lieutenant Walter W. Weispfenning, 39th Field Artillery Battalion, who witnessed the actions taken by Lieutenant Murphy on January 26, 1945, near Holtzwihr, France. Weispfenning's account attributes Murphy's actions as "enabling his regiment to hold ground that was won at a heavy cost in blood. ARC Identifier 299785. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 
  90. Kenneth L. Ware's statement directly attributing Audie L. Murphy's actions on January 26, 1945, as "primarily responsible for repelling this ferocious counterattack." ARC Identifier 299784. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 
  91. Murphy 2002, p. 243.
  92. 92.0 92.1 Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 27, 2011. http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/wwII-m-s.html. Retrieved February 9, 2013. 
  93. Clarke & Smith 1993, p. 547-551.
  94. Graham 1989, p. 95.
  95. Graham 1989, p. 96.
  96. Graham 1989, p. 99.
  97. Memo from Major General Kenneth G. Wickham, listing Murphy's awards and decorations. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. October 20, 1966. 
  98. Award of the "Au Grade De Chevalier" for Murphy's exceptional services rendered during operations to liberate France., 07/19/1948, ARC Identifier 299781. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 
  99. 99.0 99.1 Award of the De La Croix De Guerre, 04/16/1945 ARC Identifier 299782. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 
  100. Letter from H. Charles Sprunk of the U.S. State Department instructing that the Belgian Cross be held until Murphy is authorized by the U.S. Congress to accept it ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. April 16, 1956. 
  101. Letter to Audie Murphy from the Department of the Army, forwarding his 1955 Belgian Crois de guerre with 1940 Palm, authorizing him to accept the award. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. March 14, 1968. 
  102. Recommendation from Brigadier General R.B. Lovett, to Lieutenant General A.M. Patch, for Audie L. Murphy to be awarded the Medal of Honor and Patch's approval., 03/26/1945 – 04/11/1945 ARC Identifier 299783. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration..  Recommendation from Lt. Colonel Hallet D. Edson, 15th Infantry, to Award of Medal of Honor to Lieutenant Audie L. Murphy., 07/19/1948 ARC Identifier 299777. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 
  103. Willbanks, James H (2011). America's heroes: Medal of Honor Recipients from the Civil War to Afghanistan. ABC-CLIO. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-59884-394-1. http://books.google.com/?id=Y-FQ_ueG4AwC&pg=PA234&dq=medal+of+honor+ceremony+%22audie+murphy%22#v=onepage&q=medal%20of%20honor%20ceremony%20%22audie%20murphy%22&f=false. 
  104. "War" excerpt about Staff Sgt. Salvatore Giunta's actions. Stars and Stripes. September 10, 2010. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20101203224555/http://www.stripes.com/war-excerpt-about-staff-sgt-salvatore-giunta-s-actions-1.117774. Retrieved November 16, 2010. Oettinger, Callie (January 26, 2011). Focus On Audie Murphy. MacMillan. http://www.commandposts.com/2011/01/audie-murphy. 
  105. Classified message from the Commanding General of the 3rd Infantry Division to the Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Forces, Main, Versailles, France ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. May 24, 1945.  Disposition Form signed by Colonel R.R. Coursey, stating it was "inadvisable" to appoint Murphy to USMA. United States War Department. June 1, 1945. 
  106. Betros, Lance (2012). Carved from Granite: West Point since 1902. Texas A & M University Press. p. 350. ISBN 978-1603447874. 
  107. Graham 1989, p. 127.
  108. Donald D. Gallup, Major AGD, Assistant Adjutant General (June 8, 1945). Orders AG 300.4 F-581. U.S. Army European Theater of Operations. 
  109. (by order of Col. Schumacher) W.J. Andrews, 1st Lt. AUS Adjutant (June 13, 1945). Special Orders No. 164. Army Service Forces, Hdq War Dept Personnel Services. 
  110. Spiller, Roger J; Dawson, Joseph G (2010). "Man Against Fire:Audie Murphy and His War". The Texas Military Experience: From the Texas Revolution Through World War II. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 137–154. ISBN 978-1-60344-197-1. 
  111. Letter from Audie Murphy to CO of Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas, attesting that he had never received the Good Conduct Medal, as his service record indicated he was entitled. Captain M.D. Conklin attested that the medal was awarded to Murphy the date of his request by Colonel H. Miller Ainsworth. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. August 21, 1945. 
  112. Letter from Audie L. Murphy to the Veterans Administration, regarding Claim C5024030 ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. October 31, 1955. 
  113. Simpson, Harold B. Audie Leon Murphy. Texas State Historical Association. 
  114. Thomas R. Black, Lt. Col., AGD Texas National Guard (July 14, 1950). Application for Federal Recognition of Audie L. Murphy as a Captain in the Texas National Guard. State of Texas. Documentation included July 14, 1950 cover letter from Lt. Col. Black; July 11, 1950 endorsement form from Major General K.L. Berry; July 14, 1950 endorsements from TNG Major General H. Miller Ainsworth, TNG Col. Barry D. Greer, and Infantry Col. A.J. McNab; July 14, 1950 Application for Federal Recognition completed and signed by Audie Leon Murphy; July 14, 1950 confirmation of Federal recognition signed by Col. Charles Ennis, (Federal) National Guard Bureau
  115. Officer Efficiency Report on Audie L. Murphy for the period October 1, 1950 to September 30, 1951. Rated by Major General H. Miller Ainsworth. Endorsed by Major General K. L. Berry ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. February 2, 1952. 
  116. Letter from Major General Edgar C. Erickson requesting Murphy's permission to use his name and image in a recruitment brochure ARC Identifier 299774. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. April 11, 1957. 
  117. Graham 1989, p. 194.
  118. Audie Murphy (October 1, 1951). Application for Transfer to Inactive National Guard and Retention of Appointment in the National Guard of the United States. NGB. ; Capt. Jay A. Matthews, Jr., TNG (January 3, 1952). Memo regarding request of compliance with Murphy's request for Inacitve status. TNG. ; NGB notification to Murphy of change to Inactive Status. NGB. January 21, 1952. 
  119. Special Orders No. 23. State of Texas. November 23, 1955. 
  120. Major General John A. Klein (March 8, 1956). Memo Promotion to Reserved Commissioned Officer. United States Army. 
  121. Capt. Robert D. Collins, AGC, TexARNG (January 5, 1967). Notification of Officer's Separation from the Texas National Guard and Transmittal of Records. State of Texas. 
  122. Carol A. Eleanor, Adjutant General (May 22, 1969). TC 287 Removal from active USAR status. U.S. Army. 
  123. Murphy 2002, pp. 122–124.
  124. Whiting, Charles (1999). America's forgotten army: the story of the U.S. Seventh. Sarpedon. ISBN 978-1-8851-1960-5. 
  125. Redfern 2007, pp. 67, 68.
  126. Redfern 2007, pp. 65, 67, 68.
  127. Curtis, Tony; Golenbock, Peter (2009). American Prince: A Memoir. Three Rivers Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-307-40856-3. 
  128. Graham 1989, p. 183.
  129. Murphy 2002, p. 125.
  130. Simpson, Harold B. (1975). Audie Murphy, American Soldier. Hill Jr. College Press. pp. 373–376. ISBN 978-0-912172-20-0. 
  131. Redfern 2007, p. 60.
  132. 132.0 132.1 Rosen Ph.D., David M (2012). Child Soldiers. ABC-CLIO,. pp. 149–151. ISBN 978-1-59884-526-6. 
  133. O'Reilly, Bill (2010). Pinheads and Patriots: Where You Stand in the Age of Obama. William Morrow. pp. 163–165. ISBN 978-0-06-195071-1. 
  134. About Us – South Texas Veterans Health Care System. Dept. of Veterans Affairs. http://www.southtexas.va.gov/About/index.asp. Retrieved February 20, 2013. 
  135. Teague, Congressman Olin (October 13, 1971). Designating the Veteran's Administration Hospital in San Antonio Texas As the Audie L. Murphy Veterans' Memorial Hospital. Washington, D.C.. 
  136. Thomas, Bob (November 21, 1960). "Post-war Story Kept on Ice". p. 10. 
  137. Starr, Kevin (2003). Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940–1950. Oxford University Press. pp. 200–201. ISBN 978-0-19-516897-6. 
  138. Graham 1989, pp. 128-147.
  139. Graham 1989, pp. 147,148.
  140. Nott, Robert (2005). Last of the Cowboy Heroes: The Westerns of Randolph Scott, Joel McCrea, and Audie Murphy. McFarland & Company, Inc. pp. 1–3, 42–57, 111–112. ISBN 978-0-7864-2261-6. 
  141. Graham 1989, p. 149.
  142. Graham 1989, pp. 150–151.
  143. 143.0 143.1 Rose, Kenneth (2007). Myth and the Greatest Generation: A Social History of Americans in World War II. Routledge. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-415-95676-5. 
  144. 144.0 144.1 Graham 1989, pp. 155–157.
  145. Terug uit de Hel. Amsterdam: Scheltens & Giltay. 1956. OCLC 63280859. 
  146. All'inferno e Ritorno. Milano: Longanesi. 1956. OCLC 799639929. 
  147. Audie Murphy. L'Enfer des Hommes : ["To hell and back"], traduit de l'anglais par R. Jouan. France: Empire. 1956. OCLC 459748173. 
  148. V Pekel in Nazaj. Slovenia: Mladinska knjiga. 1959. OCLC 440282935. 
  149. Graham 1989, pp. 143, 144.
  150. Graham 1989, p. 174.
  151. Graham 1989, p. 215.
  152. "Divorces". April 28, 1951. 
  153. Graham 1989, p. 216.
  154. Hundley, Pansy (2011). Around Farmersville. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 117–125. ISBN 978-0-7385-7971-9. 
  155. Audie Murphy Ranch. GNIS. 
  156. Murphy Ranch, Arizona. GNIS. 
  157. Newsletter, Spring 1997. Audie Murphy Research Foundation. 
  158. Graham 1989, p. 307.
  159. Scott, Vernon (September 22, 1968). "One-Time Hero Audie Murphy is Now Broke and in Debt". 
  160. "Movie Actor Faces Charges of Assault". May 29, 1970. p. 4a. 
  161. "Audie Murphy Goes on Trial". October 5, 1970. p. 6. 
  162. "Audie Murphy is Acquitted of Assault". October 17, 1970. p. 1. 
  163. "War Hero is Exonerated". January 6, 1971. p. C10. 
  164. Landon, Tom (June 9, 2013). "Audie Murphy crash site now well marked". 
  165. Baskerville, Bill (May 31, 1971). "Audie Murphy, five others, found dead". p. 10. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=BclMAAAAIBAJ&sjid=bVADAAAAIBAJ&pg=5773,5340217&dq=audie+murphy+found+dead&hl=en. Retrieved July 3, 2013. 
  166. NTSB Accident Report from Aviation Accident Database
  167. McCarthy, Dennis (April 14, 2010). "Pam Murphy, widow of actor Audie Murphy, was veterans' friend and advocate". 
  168. $2.5 Million Awarded to Family of Audie Murphy Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] December 13, 1975: 12.
  169. Obituary Variety, June 2, 1971, p. 55.
  170. Graham 1989, p. 338.
  171. Audie Murphy Biography. U.S. Army. http://www.lee.army.mil/audie.murphy/audie.murphy.club.biography.aspx?iframe=true&width=95%&height=95%. Retrieved June 18, 2013. 
  172. Historical Information – Audie Murphy. Arlington National Cemetery. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.mil/History/Military/HF_AudieMurphy.aspx. Retrieved March 7, 2011. 
  173. 3rd Infantry Division Monument. Arlington Natl Cemetery. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.mil/VisitorInformation/MonumentMemorials/3rdInfantry.aspx. Retrieved August 10, 2013. Arlington Natl Cemetery's web page on the monument erroneously states "The 3rd Infantry Division monument was approved by President George Bush on 29 September 1988 in Public Law 100-456." George H W Bush was not sworn into office until Jan 20, 1989; Geo H Bush was not sworn into office until Jan 20, 2001 Public Law 100-456 100th Congress, Sept 29, 1988 H.R. 4481. National Institute of Health. http://history.nih.gov/research/downloads/PL100-456.pdf. Retrieved August 11, 2013. Title XXVIII - General Provisions Part B Miscellaneous Section 2818 Third Infantry Division Memorial
  174. 3rd Infantry Division Monument. Arlington National Cemetery. 
  175. Audie Murphy Memorial Marker. Audie Murphy Research Foundation. 
  176. This is Your Life. Jim Davidson's Classic TV Info. 
  177. Willis, Larryann. "The Mystery of the Mythical This Is Your Life Show". pp. 6–12. 
  178. Gossett 1996, p. 15.
  179. Niemi, Robert (2006). History in the Media: Film And Television. ABC-CLIO. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-57607-952-2. 
  180. Audie Murphy at the Internet Movie Database
  181. Songs. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website. 
  182. Shutters and Boards. allmusic.com. 
  183. When the Wind Blows in Chicago. allmusic.com. 
  184. Was It All Worth Losing You. allmusic.com. 
  185. Soldier's Medal is a non-combat award. Act of Congress (Public Law 446-69th Congress, 2 July 1926 (44 Stat. 780)) established the Soldier's Medal for heroism "as defined in 10 USC 101(d), at the time of the heroic act who distinguished himself or herself by heroism not involving actual combat with the enemy." Chapter 3 U.S. Army Individual Decorations, Section II 3-14 Army Regulation 600-8-22. United States Army. http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r600_8_22.pdf. Retrieved August 21, 2013. 
  186. Root, Jay (June 20, 2013). "Audie Murphy, a Texas Hero Still Missing One Medal". http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/21/us/audie-murphy-a-texas-hero-still-missing-one-medal.html?_r=1&. Retrieved August 25, 2013.  Bill HCR3. Texas Legislature. http://www.capitol.state.tx.us/BillLookup/History.aspx?LegSess=832&Bill=HCR3. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Slinkard, Caleb (August 21, 2013). "Murphy finally gets medal". http://heraldbanner.com/local/x250195575/Murphy-finally-gets-medal. Retrieved August 21, 2013. 
  187. Audie Murphy star. Hollywood Walk of Fame. 

ReferencesEdit

  • Champagne, Daniel R (2008). Dogface Soldiers: The Story of B Company, 15th Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division: from Fedala to Salzburg, Audie Murphy and His Brothers in Arms. Merriam Press. ISBN 978-1-4357-5767-7. 
  • Clarke, Jeffrey J; Smith, Robert Ross (1993). Riviera to the Rhine. United States Army in World War II. Washington: Center of Military History, United States Army. ISBN 0-16-025966-5. 
  • Gossett, Sue (1996). The Films and Career of Audie Murphy. Madison, NC: Empire Publishing. ISBN 9780944019221. 
  • Graham, Don (1989). No Name on the Bullet. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-81511-1. OCLC 18817111. 
  • Murphy, Audie (2002). To Hell and Back. New York: Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-0-8050-7086-6. OCLC 48951019. 
  • Redfern, Nick (2007). Celebrity Secrets Official Government Files on the Rich and Famous. New York: Paraview Pocket Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-2866-1. OCLC 85481376. 
  • Simpson, Harold B. (1975). Audie Murphy, American Soldier. Hillsboro, TX: Hill Jr. College Press. ISBN 978-0-9121-7220-0. 
  • Whiting, Charles (2000). American Hero. Eskdale Publishing. ISBN 0-7505-1908-8.
Magazines
  • "Super GI", Life Magazine. World War II Special Issue; Vol 8, number 6, Spring–Summer 1985, 28.

External linksEdit

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