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File:Audie Murphy.png
Award of the "Au Grade De Chevalier" for Murphy's exceptional services rendered during operations to liberate France. - NARA - 299781

Murphy's award for the Légion d'honneur

Audie Murphy was one of the most famous and decorated United States Army combat soldiers of World War II, serving from 1942 to 1945. He received every American combat award for valor available at the time of his service,[lower-alpha 1] including the Medal of Honor. He also received recognitions from France and Belgium. After his war service ended, Murphy became an advocate of treatment for Post-traumatic stress disorder in veterans.[2] The Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital in San Antonio and the Sergeant Audie Murphy Clubs (SAMC) on military bases honor his contributions. He joined the Texas National Guard in 1950, transferring to reserve status in 1956 and remaining in the Guard until 1969. He also had a civilian career as a film actor and songwriter. Recognitions he received both during his lifetime and posthumously are listed below.

Murphy participated in campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, France and Germany, as denoted by his European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with one silver battle star (denoting five campaigns), four bronze battle stars, plus a bronze arrowhead representing his two amphibious assault landings at Sicily and southern France.[3] On February 25, 1945 and March 3, 1945, he received two Silver Stars for further heroic actions.[4] The French government awarded Murphy its Chevalier of the Legion of Honor and two Croix de guerre medals.[3] He received the Croix de guerre 1940 Palm from Belgium.[5] The National Guard assisted him in 1954 with replacements for his original medals which were no longer in his possession.[6][7] Duplicates of his Medal of Honor and other medals can be viewed at Dallas Scottish Rite Temple museum. On November 10, 1964, Murphy requested his name be added to the United States Army's "Medal of Honor Roll", and that he receive $100 per month pension money.[8]

U.S. militaryEdit

U.S. military decorations
Image Decoration-award Notes Refs.
Medal of Honor ribbon.svg Medal of Honor For action on January 26, 1945, War Department, General Orders No. 65, August 9, 1945. [9][10][11]
Distinguished Service Cross ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Cross For action on August 15, 1944, Headquarters, Seventh U.S. Army, General Orders No. 21 (1945). [12][13][14]
Bronze oakleaf-3d
Silver Star Medal ribbon.svg
Silver Star with bronze oak leaf cluster (two awards) First award for action on October 2, 1944, Headquarters, 3d Infantry Division, General Orders No. 66 (February 25, 1945). Second award for action on October 5, 1944, Headquarters, 3d Infantry Division, General Orders No. 83 (March 3, 1945). [5]
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg Legion of Merit For action on January 22, 1944 – February 18, 1945, Headquarters, European Theater of Operations, General Orders No. 100 (May 25, 1945). [5]
V
Bronze oakleaf-3d
Bronze Star ribbon.svg
Bronze Star with "V" Device and bronze oak leaf cluster (two awards) First award with "V" Device for action on March 2, 1944, Headquarters, 3d Infantry Division, General Orders No. 84 (March 4, 1945). Second award for action on May 8, 1944. [15] [14]
Bronze oakleaf-3d
Bronze oakleaf-3d
Purple Heart BAR.svg
Purple Heart with two bronze oak leaf clusters (three awards) For wounds received September 15, 1944, October 26, 1944, and January 25, 1945. [5][5][5]
U.S. Good Conduct and service medals
Army Good Conduct ribbon.svg Good Conduct Medal Murphy attested at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas, on August 21, 1945 that he had never received the Good Conduct Medal. He was awarded the medal the same day by Lieutenant Colonel H. Miller Ainsworth. [15]
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal For Murphy's service in the American Theater of World War II. [15]
Arrowhead
Silver star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign ribbon.svg
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with one silver star (counts as 5 medals), four bronze stars, and one bronze arrowhead device For Murphy's service in the European Theater of World War II in nine campaigns. [15]
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal Awarded for military service between the dates of 7 December 1941, and 31 December 1946, both dates inclusive, the medal was authorized by Public Law 135, 79th United States Congress. [15]
Army of Occupation ribbon.svg Army of Occupation Medal with Germany Clasp For service in the occupation of Germany after the war. [15]
ResMedRib.svg Armed Forces Reserve Medal For his service in the U.S. Army Officers' Reserve Corps and in the Texas National Guard. The medal was created by Executive Order 10163, signed by President Harry Truman on 25 September 1950. It is awarded for ten years service in the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. [15]
U.S. unit awards
Bronze oakleaf-3d
Presidential Unit Citation ribbon.svg
Presidential Unit Citation with First Oak Leaf Cluster (two awards) First award with 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment for action August 27–29, 1944. Second award with the 3rd Infantry Division for action at the Colmar Pocket, January 22 – February 6, 1945. [5]

U.S. military badges and non-military awardsEdit

U.S. Army badges
Image Decoration-award Notes Refs.
Combat Infantry Badge Combat Infantryman Badge Special Order No. 39, dated May 8, 1944, sixty-one officers and enlisted men of Company B, 15th Infantry were awarded the badge. [5]
Markesman Weapons Qual Badge Marksman Badge with Rifle Component Bar Earned during basic Army training. [5]
ArmyQualExpert Expert Badge with Bayonet Component Bar Earned during basic Army training. [5]
U.S. non-military awards
Image Award Notes Refs.
UArmy Outstanding Civilian Service Medal Ribbon Army Outstanding Civilian Service Medal United States Army public service award established January 1959. It was awarded ito Murphy in 1961 for his technical assistance on the Army's documentary The Broken Bridge. [16][17]

Non United States awards and decorationsEdit

Non U.S. awards and decorations
Image Decoration-award Notes Refs.
Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon.svg French Legion of HonorGrade of Chevalier (Knight) Presented by General de Lattre de Tassigny in Paris on July 19, 1948. [18]
Silver star
Ruban de la croix de guerre 1939-1945.PNG
French Croix de Guerre with Silver Star Approved by the French government on April 16, 1945. Presented September 19, 1945 by Brigadier General W. E. Collier, Chief of Staff for the 8th Service Command. [5][19]
Croix de guerre 1939-1945 with palm.jpg French Croix de Guerre with Palm Presented in France on July 19, 1948. [5]
French Liberation Medal ribbon.png French Liberation Medal Authorized by France 1947. [15]
Oorlogskruis with Palm.jpg Belgian Croix de Guerre with 1940 Palm Conferred by Royal Order 4282 on December 10, 1955. The award and documentation were forwarded to the State Department to be held until the United States Congress authorized the acceptance and wearing of it. Murphy was notified by the Army on March 14, 1968, that he was allowed to accept the award. [5]
Fourragère CG.png French Fourragère in Colors of the Croix de Guerre Authorized to be worn by all members of the 3rd Infantry Division who fought in France during World War II. [15]

U.S. State military awardsEdit

U.S. State military awards
Image Decoration-award Notes Refs.
Texas Legislative Medal of Honor Ribbon Texas Legislative Medal of Honor HCR3 introduced July 20, 2013, Signed by Gov Rick Perry Aug 19, 2013
Order of precedence, state awards follow U.S. Federal and non United States awards.
[lower-alpha 2]

Service ranksEdit

Audie Murphy promotions and commissions
Rank Service Branch Notes Refs.
Private U.S. Army June 30, 1942 [23] [24]

US Army WWII PFC Private First Class

U.S. Army May 7, 1943 [23] [25]
US Army WWII CPL Corporal U.S. Army July 15, 1943 [26][23]
US Army WWII SGT Sergeant U.S. Army December 13, 1943 [27]
US Army WWII SSGT Staff Sergeant U.S. Army January 13, 1944 [28][29]
US-O1 insignia Second Lieutenant U.S. Army October 14, 1944 [13][30][23]
US-O2 insignia First Lieutenant U.S. Army February 16, 1945 [24] [25]
US-O2 insignia First Lieutenant U.S. Army Reserve Officers Corps August 21, 1945 [24] [25]
US-O3 insignia Captain Texas National Guard July 14, 1950 [31]
US-O3 insignia Captain U.S. National Guard October 19, 1950 [32][33][34]
US-O4 insignia Major Texas National Guard February 14, 1956 [35]
US-O4 insignia Major U.S. National Guard February 14, 1956 [36]
US-O4 insignia Major U.S. Army Reserve November 8, 1966 [37]
US-O4 insignia Major U.S. Army Retired Reserve May 22, 1969 [38]

Other honorsEdit

Sergeant Audie Murphy ClubEdit

U.S. Soldiers perform an reenactment of Audie Murphy military biography, on stage, during an induction ceremony, at Sergeant Audie Murphy Club, at Fort Gordon, Ga. 091202-A-NF756-002

U.S. Soldiers reenactment of Audie Murphy military biography, SAMC, Fort Gordon, Ga., Dec. 12, 2009

In September, 1986, the CSM George L. Horvath III, III Corps Commander LTG Crosbie E. Saint and several others established the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club at Fort Hood, Texas.[39] The official club crest was designed by club co-founder Don Moore.[40] Since 1994, other units of the U.S. Army have established chapters of the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club (SAMC) as exclusive clubs to honor noncommissioned officers (Corporal E-4 through Sergeant First Class E-7) who have acted in a manner consistent with the actions of Audie Murphy. In 2012 a bronze bust created by Mark and Jenelle Byrd for display in the Sgt. Audie Murphy Club Room in Snow Hall was unveiled at Fort Sill, Oklahoma .[41]

United States government, military and veterans organizationsEdit

  • 1972 – 23,142 square feet (2,100 m2) Audie Murphy Gym dedicated at Fort Benning, Georgia. Its 2009 renovation included a name change to the Audie Murphy Athletic Performance Center.[42]
  • 1973 – Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital, San Antonio, Texas dedicated, featuring an outdoor 8 feet (2.4 m) bronze statue created by Jimilu Mason, funded by the Audie L. Murphy Foundation.[43]
  • 1985 – 6 feet (1.8 m) bronze statue at Camp Mabry, sculpted by West Texas artist Bill Leftwich, sponsored by the Texas National Guard.[43]
  • May 30, 1996 – Texas Congressman Ralph Hall commemorated the 25th anniversary of Murphy's death by reading "In Memory of Major Audie L. Murphy" and Murphy's poems, "Alone and Far Removed" and "Freedom Flies in Your Heart Like an Eagle" into the Congressional Record.[44]
  • May 3, 2000 – Murphy was honored with his portrait on a thirty-three cent United States postage stamp.[45]
  • March 9, 2001 – Camp Eagle military visitor lodging Audie Murphy Inn dedicated near Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina by the 3rd Infantry Division. In October 2001, the 3rd Infantry Division departed Camp Eagle.[lower-alpha 3]
  • May 28, 2006 – a 16-inch (41 cm) × 8-inch (20 cm) commemorative plaque unveiled at Mount Soledad Veterans Memorial in La Jolla, California.[48]
  • September, 2008 – American Legion Audie Murphy Post 336 chartered, San Antonio, Texas.[49]
  • Date unknown – Audie Murphy Award sponsored by the American Veterans Center, honoring veterans of World War II.[50]

Texas (non-military)Edit

  • 1948 – Audie Murphy Arena, near Euless, Texas was dedicated as a venue for the yearly Audie Murphy Rodeo. In 1952 the Rodeo moved to Stephenville, Texas where it closed during the mid 1950s.[5]
  • 1949
February 12 – Murphy made an honorary Texas A&M University cadet colonel.[51]
July 2 – Murphy made an honorary Texas Ranger and chosen to lead the Texas Ranger Day parade in Brooks County.[52]
  • 1951 – Artist Kipp Soldwedel commissioned to paint Murphy's portrait, now owned by the State of Texas and hung in various locations in the Texas State Capitol.[5]
  • 1962 – Dallas artist Dmitri Vail commissioned to paint Murphy's portrait, believed to be owned by Murphy's family.[5]
  • 1973
  • Texas State Historical Marker 7820, Celeste, denoting Murphy's one-time residency.[53]
  • Texas State Historical Marker 7821, Kingston, denoting Murphy's birthplace.[54]
  • 1975 – Post Office, Greenville, Texas State Historical Marker 7799, denoted it as the site of Murphy's miliary enlistment; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places listings in Hunt County, Texas in 1974 .[lower-alpha 4]
  • 1996
March 16 – Inducted into the Country Music Association of Texas Hall of Fame.[58]
June 20 – Texas Legislature officially declared his birthdate as "Audie Murphy Day".[59]
  • 1999, Memorial Day – Pink granite obelisk at Texas State Cemetery dedicated listing the names of all Texas-born Medal of Honor recipients, including Murphy.[60]
  • June 22, 2002 – Audie Murphy American Cotton Museum, Greenville, 10 feet (3.0 m) 2,200 pounds (1,000 kg) hollow bronze statue of Murphy sculpted by Gordon Thomas.[61]
1998 – Seven portraits created by St. Louis, Missouri artist Richard Krause and later donated to the Audie Murphy Research Foundation. The portraits are now on display at the museum.[lower-alpha 5]
2011 – The museum became the repository of memorabilia which had been on display at the Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital in San Antonio.[lower-alpha 6]
  • 2008 – Texas State Historical Marker 15321, Farmersville, denotes Murphy's post-war homecoming.[65]
  • 2010 – Audie Murphy Middle School established in Alamo.[66]
  • Date unknown – Audie Murphy Middle School, in Killeen.[67]

U.S. states other than TexasEdit

  • 1971 – Audie Murphy Patriotism Award. When Murphy's death on May 28, 1971, aborted his scheduled appearance at that year's July 4 Spirit of America Festival in Decatur, Alabama, the festival created the annual award in his memory.[68]
  • November 11, 1972 – Patriotic Hall. Los Angeles, California, 21.75 inches (0.552 m) by 31.75 inches (0.806 m) commemorative plaque listing medals won by Murphy during World War II.[lower-alpha 7]
  • November 10, 1974 – Mounted plaque erected at Brush Mountain, Virginia by Veterans of Foreign Wars Post 5311 of Christiansburg, Virginia, to commemorate the site of Murphy's death.[70]

Non-United StatesEdit

  • July 17, 1948 – In Paris, Murphy made an honorary member in the 159th French Alpine Regiment.[lower-alpha 8]
  • October 14, 1991 – Sierra Leone issued a postage stamp, Le 2 value, honors Murphy in To Hell and Back (Scott No. 1409).[lower-alpha 9]
  • October 18, 1993 – Guyana issued a postage stamp of Murphy in uniform as part of a 9-stamp sheet in tribute to }World War II on the Silver Screen".[lower-alpha 10]
  • July 20, 1995 – Nevis Island issued an 8-stamp souvenir sheet with Murphy in the top row.[lower-alpha 11]
  • January 29, 2000 – Holtzwihr artist Patrick Baumann designed a commemorative plaque depicting Murphy on a tank destroyer, affixed to a wall at the site of the Medal of Honor action.[lower-alpha 12]
  • 2001 – Republic of Palau Murphy commemorative stamp part of a 4-stamp sheet "Remembering VJ Day".[lower-alpha 13]
  • June 9, 2013 – Second free-standing commemorative plaque depicting Murphy firing the .50 caliber machine gun atop the tank unveiled at Holtzwihr by local authorities, the U.S. Consul General in Strasbourg, and representatives from American social organizations based in the Alsace region.[75]

Entertainment industryEdit

FreemasonryEdit

In November, 2000, Murphy was posthumously awarded the Scottish Rite Masonry 33rd Degree in Long Beach, California, presented to his widow Pamela.[83] From 1955 until his death, Murphy was a member of numerous Scottish Rite lodges in California and Texas. The Murat Shriners of Indianapolis, Indiana provided the below timeline of Murphy's degrees and lodge associations.[lower-alpha 14]

  • 1955
February 14 – First degree masonry, North Hollywood Lodge No. 542
April 4 – Fellowcraft degree
June 27 – Master Mason degree
  • 1956 – Second North Hollywood membership, Magnolia Park No. 618
  • 1957
November 11–14 – degree work and 32nd degree Scottish Rite Temple in Dallas
Thomas B. Hunter Memorial Class vice president
November 15 – Hella Temple, Dallas shriner
  • 1965
November 14 – Master of the Royal Secret, Valley of Dallas, Orient of Texas
December 11 – 1965 Knight Commander of the Court of Honor KCCH
  • 1971
March 19 – Al Malaikah Temple in Los Angeles
April 2 – Long Beach Scottish Rite Bodies

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. Murphy received all valor awards for combat at the time. Soldier's Medal is a non-combat award. Act of Congress (Public Law 446-69th Congress, 2 July 1926 (44 Stat. 780)) established the Soldier's Medal for heroism "as defined in 10 USC 101(d), at the time of the heroic act who distinguished himself or herself by heroism not involving actual combat with the enemy."[1]
  2. Army regulations dictate that U.S. state level awards follow all U.S. federal level and non-United States awards in order of precedence.[20][21][22]
  3. Photographs, user-generated reproduction of 2001 letter to Terry Murphy from U.S. Army Colonel Barry J. Fowler, 3rd Infantry Division in Bosnia, accompanying user-generated explanatory text.[46][47]
  4. Conflicting information exists as to Murphy's date and place of enlistment. The Audie L. Murphy Memorial website has scanned documents from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration that include Corrinne Burns' statement and Murphy's "Induction Record", which shows him "Enlisted at Dallas, Texas" on June 30, 1942, and the line above it says "Accepted for service at Greenville, Texas". The National Register of Historic Places Listing added the Greenville post office as historic site number 74002081 in 1974, citing it as Murphy's place of enlistment, possibly referring to the act the military termed "Accepted for service". The NRHP also shows his enlistment date as June 20, 1942 which might be the date he was accepted for service.[55][56][57]
  5. Photographs of the portraits, user-generated explanatory text.[62][63]
  6. Photographs, user-generated explanatory text.[64]
  7. Photograph of Los Angeles County Supervisor Kenneth Hahn, Pamela Archer Murphy, and the plaque, user-generated reproduction of plaque text, user-generated reproduction of Los Angeles Times text.[69]
  8. Scanned original of 2003 letter from the Ministere de la Defense in France, to Stan Smith of Project Audie Murphy.[71]
  9. Photographs of stamp sheets, user-generated explanatory text.[72]
  10. Photographs of stamp sheets, user-generated explanatory text.[72]
  11. Photographs of stamp sheets, user-generated explanatory text.[72]
  12. Photographs, user-generated explanatory text.[73][74]
  13. Photographs of stamp sheets, user-generated explanatory text.[72]
  14. Murat Shriners of Indianapolis, Indiana credits their information sources as the Grand Lodge of Texas and the book Audie Murphy, American Soldier by Harold Simpson.[84]

ReferencesEdit

  1. U.S. Army Regulation 600-8-22 2013, chpt 2, section II, 3–14.
  2. Rosen Ph.D. 2012, pp. 149–151.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Smithsonian 2013.
  4. Hackworth & England 2003, p. 37.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 Simpson 1975, p. 410.
  6. Phinney 1954.
  7. Schonberger 1954.
  8. Murphy 1964.
  9. U.S. Army Center of Military History 2013.
  10. Edson 1945.
  11. Lovett 1945.
  12. Hollen 1944.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Fisch 2006.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Military Times 2013.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 Tanber 2005, p. 3.
  16. Dept. of Defense 1974.
  17. Institute of Heraldry 1959.
  18. Dept. of Defense 1948a.
  19. Dept. of Defense 1945.
  20. Texas Legislature 2013.
  21. Slinkard 2013.
  22. U.S. Army Regulation 670-1 2012, chpt 29-6j.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Dept. of Defense 1942-1945a.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Dept. of Defense 1942-1945b.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Dept. of Defense 1942-1945c.
  26. Murphy 2002, p. 11.
  27. Ciment & Russell 2006.
  28. Murphy 2002, p. 86.
  29. Dept. of Defense 1956a.
  30. Murphy 2002, p. 220.
  31. Dept. of Defense 1950a.
  32. Dept. of Defense 1950b.
  33. Dept. of Defense 1950c.
  34. Dept. of Defense 1952.
  35. Dept. of Defense 1956b.
  36. Dept. of Defense 1956c.
  37. Dept. of Defense 1966.
  38. Dept. of Defense 1969.
  39. U.S. Army Fort Hood 2013.
  40. U.S. Army Fort Gordon 2013.
  41. U.S. Army 2012.
  42. Fort Benning Directorate of Family and Morale 2013.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Little 1996, pp. 71,384.
  44. Hall 1996.
  45. USPS 2013.
  46. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website 2013b.
  47. U.S. Army Fort Stewart 2013.
  48. Mt. Soledad 2013.
  49. Chandler 2012.
  50. American Veterans Center 2013.
  51. Adams Jr. 2001, p. 179.
  52. Davis 2011, p. 118.
  53. Texas Historical Commission 1973b.
  54. Texas Historical Commission 1973a.
  55. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website 2013h.
  56. Texas Historical Commission 1974.
  57. Texas Historical Commission 1975.
  58. Texas CMA 1996.
  59. Simpson 2013.
  60. Texas State Cemetery 1999.
  61. Audie Murphy Cotton Museum 2013.
  62. Graham 1989, pp. 216.
  63. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website 2013d.
  64. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website 2013g.
  65. Texas Historical Commission 2008.
  66. AMMS 2013.
  67. Killeen ISD 2013.
  68. Spirit of America Festival 1971.
  69. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website 2013f.
  70. Historical Marker Database 2013a.
  71. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website 2013.
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.3 Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website 2013c.
  73. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Website 2013e.
  74. Hundley 2011, pp. 117–125.
  75. Furderer 2013.
  76. Historical Marker Database 2013b.
  77. Laurel Awards 1959.
  78. Hollywood Walk of Fame 1960.
  79. Golden Boot 1985.
  80. Tate 2006, pp. 152–163.
  81. PRNewswire 2001.
  82. City of Santa Clarita 2010.
  83. 33 Degree Current Interest 2001.
  84. Murat Shrine 2013.

BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Simpson, Harold B. (1975). Audie Murphy, American Soldier. Hillsboro, TX: Hill Jr. College Press. ISBN 978-0-9121-7220-0. 

External linksEdit

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