|BL 12-inch howitzer|
12-inch howitzer Mk IV manned by Newfoundlanders, UK, 1942
|Type||Heavy siege howitzer|
|Place of origin||UK|
|In service||1916 - 1945|
|Used by||UK and Commonwealth|
|Wars||World War I, World War II|
|Number built||14 (Mk II); 43 (Mk IV)|
|Variants||Mk II, Mk IV|
|Barrel length||160 inch (Mk II)|
207.6 inch (Mk IV)
|Shell||HE 750 lb (340 kg)|
|Calibre||12 inches (304.8 mm)|
|Maximum range||11,340 yd (10,370 m) (Mk II)|
14,350 yd (13,120 m) (Mk IV)
The Ordnance BL 12-inch howitzer was a scaled-up version of the successful 9.2-inch siege howitzer.
History[edit | edit source]
Following the success of their BL 9.2-inch howitzer, Vickers designed an almost identical version scaled up to a calibre of 12 inches, the Mk II entering service on the Western Front in August 1916.
The Mk IV was a more powerful version with longer barrel produced from 1917.
Later models were used for British home defence in World War II.
Combat use[edit | edit source]
The 12-inch was dismantled and transported in 6 loads mounted on traction engine wheels. It was then reassembled on its static siege mounting on top of a steel "holdfast", with 22 long ton of earth in a box sitting on the front of the holdfast in front of the gun, to counteract the kick of firing.
Surviving examples[edit | edit source]
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Ammunition[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
Weapons of comparable role, performance and era[edit | edit source]
Notes and references[edit | edit source]
- Mk II = Mark 2, Mk IV = Mark 4. Britain used Roman numerals to denote Marks (i.e. models) of ordnance until after World War II. This article covers the second and fourth models of British 12-inch howitzer.
- Hogg & Thurston 1972, page 181, 184
- Hogg & Thurston 1972, Page 180. 8 complete equipments are reported as arriving in August 1916 and being in action in France shortly afterwards.
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Dale Clarke, British Artillery 1914-1919. Heavy Artillery. Osprey Publishing, Oxford UK, 2005 ISBN 978-1-84176-788-8
- I.V. Hogg & L.F. Thurston, British Artillery Weapons & Ammunition 1914-1918. London: Ian Allan, 1972. ISBN 978-0-7110-0381-1
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