9A52-2 "Smerch" launch vehicle
|Type||Multiple rocket launcher|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union, Russia|
|In service||1989 – present|
|Used by||see Operators|
|Wars||Second Chechen War, War in Donbass, Syrian Civil War|
|Designer||Splav State Research and Production Enterprise|
|Manufacturer||Splav State Research and Production Enterprise|
|Produced||1989 – present|
|Length||12 m (39 ft 4 in)|
|Width||3.05 m (10 ft)|
|Height||3.05 m (10 ft)|
|Caliber||300 mm (12 in)|
|Maximum range||90 km (56 mi)|
|9M55 or 9M528 rockets|
|Engine||D12A-525A V12 diesel engine|
525 hp (391 kW)
|850 km (530 mi)|
|Speed||60 km/h (37 mph)|
The BM-30 Smerch (Russian: Смерч, "tornado", "whirlwind"), 9K58 Smerch or 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher. The system is intended to defeat personnel, armored, and soft targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. It was designed in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army in 1989. When first observed by the West in 1983, it received the code MRL 280mm M1983. It is being superseded by the 9A52-4 Tornado since 2018.
Operational history[edit | edit source]
The first confirmed combat uses of the Smerch were in two war zones in 2014. Syrian military forces used the system against rebel forces during the Syrian civil war, including in fighting in Jobar. It was also used by Russia-backed militants to deliver explosive and cluster munitions to Ukrainian military positions and by Ukrainian Army at populated areas of Donetsk and Lugansk regions in the War in Donbass. Several have been seen in use by pro-Russian rebels. The Russian Ground Forces used the BM-30 in Syria in October 2015 during the Russian intervention in Syria.
Components[edit | edit source]
The main components of the RSZO 9K58 "Smerch" system are the following:
- Rockets 9M55 or 9M528 (in containers);
- BM 9A52-2 launch vehicle;
- TZM 9T234-2 transloader with an 850 kg crane and 12 spare rockets;
- Automated fire control equipment in the command post 1K123 "Vivary";
- Maintenance vehicle PM-2-70 MTO-V;
- Set of arsenal equipment 9F819;
- Training facilities 9F827 and 9F840.
The 300mm rockets with a firing range of 70 and 90 km and various warheads have been developed for the Smerch MLRS.
The 9A52-2 vehicle with the automated system ensures:
- delivery of fire from an un-surveyed fire position;
- laying of the launch tube cluster with the crew staying in the cabin and without using aiming points;
- autonomous determination of an azimuth of the launch tube cluster's longitudinal axis;
- visual representation of graphical information for the launch tube cluster laying, the route of vehicle movement and location as well as a point of destination and direction of movement on the video terminal;
- increase in MLRS survivability owing to reduced time of staying at a fire position;
- increased comfort for the laying operator, especially in adverse weather conditions and at night;
- increased independent operation owing to the navigation and survey equipment, which allows the vehicle to rapidly change fire positions and move autonomously;
- reduction of the combat crew.
General characteristics[edit | edit source]
- Salvo Time: 12 rounds in 38 seconds
- Reload Time: 20 min
Rocket projectiles[edit | edit source]
|9M55K||Cluster munition, anti-personnel||800 kg||7.6 m||243 kg||72 × 1.75 kg, each with 96 fragments (4.5 g each)||110 sec||20 km||70 km|
|9M55K1||Cluster munition, self-guided anti-tank||243 kg||5 × 15 kg|
|9M55K4||Cluster munition, AT minelets.||243 kg||25 × 5 kg mines||24 hour|
|9M55K5||HEAT/HE-Fragmentation.||243 kg||646 × 0.25 kg (up to 120 mm RHA armor-piercing)||260 sec|
|9M55F||separable HE-Fragmentation||258 kg|
|9M528||HE-Fragmentation||815 kg||243 kg||25 km||90 km|
Variants[edit | edit source]
- 9A52- Standard variant on MAZ-79111 truck.
- 9A52-2 - Modified variant on MAZ-543M truck.
- 9A52-2T - Export version, based on the Tatra T816 10x10 truck.
- 9A52-4 - Lighter, airmobile version on KamAZ-6350 truck with modular 6-round rocket pack. Demonstrated in 2007.
- Arctic version with rockets mounted on DT-30PM tracked vehicle.
Operators[edit | edit source]
Current operators[edit | edit source]
- Algeria - 50 systems in 1999.
- Armenia - 6 systems. Received more as of 2018.
- Azerbaijan - 40 systems.
- Belarus - 48 systems in 1990.
- China - Locally produced as the PHL03.
- India - 42 9A52-2T systems in service. The launchers for the Indian Army's 9K58 Smerch 300 mm multiple rocket launch (MRL) systems will be mounted on 81 Indian designed 10×10 high-mobility vehicles provided by Indian private-sector defence manufacturer Ashok Leyland. The vehicle, which is fitted with a hydraulic crane to reload the system, will supplement and eventually replace the 9A52-2 launch vehicles based on the MAZ-543M 8×8 truck chassis. The IA operates several launcher variants for the Smerch system, including around 62 9K58 Smerch batteries, each of which has six launch vehicles. Since 2012 India's state-owned Ordnance Factory Board has produced several rocket variants for the system that have a strike range of 70 or 90 km.
- Iraq - 0 systems in 2016.
- Kuwait - 27 systems in 1996.
- Morocco - 36 systems PHL03/AR2 Chinese version.
- Pakistan - 36 units, produced locally as the A-100E with complete TOT, based on the Chinese A-100,
- Russia - 106.
- Syria - Unknown number, used in the Syrian civil war.
- Turkmenistan - 6 systems 9A52-2T in 2008/2009.
- Ukraine - 80.
- United Arab Emirates - 6 systems.
- Venezuela - 12 systems.
Former operators[edit | edit source]
Similar systems[edit | edit source]
- PHL-96 - Aesthetically similar missile based on the Wanshan WS-2400 8 x 8 cross country truck. However, the PHL-03 and BM-30 do not share interchangeable parts, so they are distinct missiles despite their similar appearance. The Chinese vehicle utilizes a German-designed diesel engine, transmission and hydraulics, manufactured by Wanshan in China, following a technology transfer from ZF Friedrichshafen. The program actually begun in the late 1990s, with the '96' in the designation reportedly meaning 1996, the year that the Chinese military first issued the requirement for a new long range SPMRLS. The program went through major redesign changes when the BM-30 Smerch was purchased. Although dubbed by many Chinese as a guided self-propelled multiple rocket launching system (SPMRLS), the PHL96 is not strictly speaking a guided SPMRLS because, technically, none of rockets are guided - the guidance is actually achieved via the sub-munitions, such as the 9M55K1 cluster munition. Only a very limited number of the PHL96 entered Chinese service because its successor, the PHL03, entered service shortly after.
- A-100 - A 300 mm, 10-tube multiple rocket launcher developed by the Beijing-based China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) in the late 1990s. The A-100 has a minimum firing range of 40 km & a maximum firing range of 100 km.
- PHL-03 - Chinese development of the PHL96 with 150 km range. The PHL03 is a highly digitized PHL96 with a computerized fire control system (FCS) incorporating GPS/GLONASS, similar to that of the Type 90A SPMRL, with a four-man crew (compared with three for the BM-30/PHL96), which entered service around 2004–2005, only a year or two after its predecessor, the PHL96. As with the PHL96, the PHL03 is not exactly a guided SPMRL because it is the submunitions that are guided, not the rockets themselves.
- AR-1 - Chinese development of the PHL03. This is actually the first model of the Chinese versions of the BM-30 SPMRL that is a truly a guided rocket system, in that the rockets themselves are guided by the simple primitive cascade inertial terminal guidance used on the WS series SPMRL, which became standard for later Chinese versions. Russia had already developed a guided version of the BM-30 with mid-course radio command guidance to immediately correct the error in the flight of the rocket once detected by the ballistic tracking radar, but this was not adopted due to financial constraints.
- AR-1A - Chinese development of the AR-1. A 10-round version of the AR-1, with two launching boxes, each containing five expandable launching tubes. Once rockets are launched, the entire launch box is replaced, instead of individually reloading each tube as in earlier versions, thus greatly reducing the reload time.
- A-100E - Export variant of the AR-1A. In service with the Pakistan Army.
- AR-2 - Chinese development of the AR-1/1A manufactured by Norinco, with range increased to 130 km.
- AR-3 - Chinese development of the AR-2 manufactured by Norinco, with its caliber increased to 370 mm; (BRE6 Fire Dragon 220 guided rockets with maximum range of 220 km, CEP of no more than 50 m) although it can still fire the BRE3 300 mm rockets. As with the AR-1/1A/2, the AR-3 adopts a modular design by incorporating two launching boxes containing several launching tubes, with the launching boxes replaced after the launching of rockets. When using 300 mm caliber rockets, each launching box contains five launching tubes like the earlier AR-1/1A/2, and when using 370 mm caliber rockets, each launching box contains four launching tubes. Can also launch two 750 mm BRE8 Fire Dragon 480 ballistic missiles with a 480 kg warhead and range of 290 km.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Katyusha, BM-13, BM-8, and BM-31 multiple rocket launchers of World War II
- BM-14 140mm multiple rocket launcher
- BM-21 Grad 122mm multiple rocket launcher
- BM-27 Uragan 220mm multiple rocket launcher
- M270, U.S. multiple rocket launcher
- Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher, 214mm Indian multiple rocket launcher
- TOS-1 Buratino Heavy Flame Thrower System (multiple rocket / thermobaric weapon launcher)
References[edit | edit source]
300mm Smerch Multiple Rocket Launcher:|
0:48 - Cluster - fragmentation
1:30 - Separable HE-Frag warhead
2:00 - Cluster - self-guided EFP (AT) elements
3:00 - Cluster - anti-tank mines
3:30 - Cluster - shaped charge/frag elements
3:50 - Unmanned aerial vehicle
5:20 - Thermobaric warhead
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- The Military Balance 2010. p.-372
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Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Jamie Prenatt and Adam Hook, Katyusha – Russian Multiple Rocket Launchers 1941–Present, New Vanguard 235, Osprey Publishing Ltd, Oxford 2016. ISBN 978 1 4728 1086 1
[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category:BM-30 Smerch.|
- Smerch - 9A52 - 300mm multi-barreled rocket launcher – Walk around photos
- Splav State Research and Production Enterprise
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