بشار حافظ الأسد
|President of Syria|
|Assumed office |
17 July 2000
|Preceded by||Abdul Halim Khaddam (Acting)|
|Regional Secretary of the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch|
|Assumed office |
24 June 2000
|Preceded by||Hafez al-Assad|
|Member of the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch|
|Assumed office |
21 June 2000
|Born||Bashar Hafez al-Assad|
11 September 1965 (age 55)
|Political party||Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party|
|National Progressive Front|
|Alma mater||Damascus University|
|Service/branch||Syrian Armed Forces|
|Years of service||1988–|
Presently serving as commander-in-chief
|Battles/wars||Syrian civil war (2011–)|
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (Arabic language: بشار حافظ الأسد Baššār Ḥāfiẓ al-ʾAsad, Levantine pronunciation: [baʃˈʃaːr ˈħaːfezˤ elˈʔasad]; born 11 September 1965) is the President of Syria, General Secretary of the Ba'ath Party and Regional Secretary of the party's branch in Syria. He has served as President since 2000, when he succeeded his father, Hafez al-Assad, who led Syria for 30 years until his death.
Assad graduated from the medical school of Damascus University in 1988, and started to work as a physician in the army. Four years later, he attended postgraduate studies at the Western Eye Hospital, in London, specializing in ophthalmology. In 1994, after his elder brother Bassel was killed in a car crash, Bashar was recalled to Syria to take over Bassel's role as heir apparent. He entered the military academy, taking charge of the Syrian occupation of Lebanon in 1998. In December 2000, Assad married Asma Assad, née Akhras. Assad was reconfirmed by the national electorate as President of Syria in 2000 and 2007, after the People's Council of Syria had voted to propose the incumbent each time.
Initially seen by the domestic and international community as a potential reformer, this expectation ceased when he ordered a mass crackdown and military sieges on peaceful protests that arose at the time of the Arab Spring. The domestic largely Sunni Syrian opposition, the United States, Canada, the European Union states and the members of the Arab League have subsequently called for al-Assad's resignation from the presidency. He belongs to the minority Alawite sect and his government has been described as secular.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Rise to power
- 3 Presidency: 2000–present
- 4 Syrian Civil War
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Honours and awards
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Early life[edit | edit source]
Bashar al-Assad was born in Damascus on 11 September 1965, the son of Aniseh and Hafez al-Assad. His father, born to a poor family of Alawite background, rose through the Ba'ath Party ranks to take control of the Syrian branch of the Party in the 1970 Corrective Revolution, culminating in his rise to the Syrian presidency. Hafez al-Assad promoted his supporters within the Ba'ath Party, many of whom were of also Alawite background. His last name in Arabic means "the lion".
Unlike his brothers, Bassel and Maher, and sister, Bushra, Bashar was quiet and reserved and says that he lacked interest in politics or the military. He later said that he only entered his father's office once while he was in power and he never spoke about politics with him. He received his primary and secondary education in the Arab-French al-Hurriya School in Damascus. In 1982, he graduated from high school and went on to study medicine at Damascus University.
Medicine[edit | edit source]
In 1988, Assad graduated from medical school and began working as an army doctor in the biggest military hospital, "Tishrin", on the outskirts of Damascus. Four years later, he went to the United Kingdom to begin postgraduate training in ophthalmology at the Western Eye Hospital, part of the St Mary's group of teaching hospitals in London. Bashar at the time had few political aspirations. His father had been grooming Bashar's older brother Bassel as the future president, but he never declared this intent. Bashar, however, was recalled in 1994 to the Syrian Army, after Bassel's death in a car accident.
Rise to power[edit | edit source]
Soon after the death of Bassel, Hafez Assad made the decision to make Bashar the new heir-apparent. Over the next six and half years, until his death in 2000, Hafez went about systematically preparing Bashar for taking over power. Preparations for a smooth transition were made on three levels. First, support was built up for Bashar in the military and security apparatus. Second, Bashar's image was established with the public. And lastly, Bashar was familiarized with the mechanisms of running the country.
To establish his credentials in the military, Bashar entered in 1994 the military academy at Homs, north of Damascus, and was propelled through the ranks to become a colonel in January 1999. To establish a power base for Bashar in the military, old divisional commanders were pushed into retirement, and new, young, Alawite officers with loyalties to him took their place.
Parallel to his military career, Bashar was engaged in public affairs. He was granted wide powers and became a political adviser to President Hafez al-Assad, head of the bureau to receive complaints and appeals of citizens, and led a campaign against corruption. As a result of his campaign against corruption, Bashar was able to remove his potential rivals for president.
In 1998, Bashar took charge of Syria's Lebanon file, which had since the 1970s been handled by Vice President Abdul Khaddam, one of the few Sunni officials in the Assad government, who had until then been a potential contender for president. By taking charge of Syrian affairs in Lebanon, Bashar was able to push Khaddam aside and establish his own power base in Lebanon. In that same year after minor consultation with Lebanese politicians, Bashar installed Emile Lahoud, a loyal ally of his, as the President of Lebanon and pushed former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri aside, by not placing his political weight behind his nomination as prime minister.
Presidency: 2000–present[edit | edit source]
On 27 May 2007, Bashar was approved as president for another seven-year term, with the official result of 97.6% of the votes in a referendum without another candidate.
In his foreign policy, Assad is an outspoken critic of the United States, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. Until he became president, Assad was not greatly involved in politics; his only public role was head of the Syrian Computer Society, which introduced the Internet to Syria in 2001. Al-Assad was confirmed as president by an unopposed referendum in 2000. He was expected to take a more liberal approach than his father.
Immediately after he took office a reform movement made cautious advances during the Damascus Spring, which led al-Assad to shut down Mezzeh prison and release hundreds of political prisoners. However, security crackdowns commenced again within the year. By July 2012, according to analysts, Assad had amassed for himself, his family and associates a fortune of perhaps $1.5bn, which is held in Russia, Hong Kong and offshore tax havens to spread the risk of seizure.
Secularism[edit | edit source]
In an interview he stated that he saw democracy in Syria as 'a tool to a better life' but then argued that it would take time for democracy to come about and that it could not be rushed. Bashar al-Assad has been described as even more secular than his father, Hafez al Assad. This includes minimal references to religion in public speeches and minimal public association with religious figures.
Economy[edit | edit source]
Economic liberalization in Syria has been limited, with industry still heavily state-controlled. However some changes have occurred including the introduction of private banking and the encouragement of foreign involvement, most notably in the oil sector. The need for a diversification of the economy has been pressed for by some as it has been predicted that Syria will change from exporting to having to import oil by 2015. The reliance upon oil is reflected by manufacturing exports representing only 3.1 percent of Syria's GDP. These issues are especially relevant as Syria's population is predicted to more than double to over 34 million by 2050. There have been mild economic sanctions (the Syria Accountability Act) applied by the United States which further complicate the situation. Of major importance are the negotiations for a free trade association agreement with the European Union.
Human rights[edit | edit source]
A 2007 law required internet cafes to record all the comments users post on chat forums. Websites such as Wikipedia Arabic, YouTube and Facebook were blocked intermittently between 2008 and February 2011.
Human Rights groups, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, have detailed how Assads's government and secret police routinely tortured, imprisoned, and killed political opponents, and those who speak out against the government. Since 2006 it expanded the use of travel bans against dissidents. In that regard, Syria is the worst offender among Arab states.
In an interview with ABC News in 2007 he stated: "We don't have such [things as] political prisoners," yet the New York Times reported the arrest of 30 political prisoners in Syria in December 2007. Foreign Policy magazine editorialized on his position in the wake of the 2011 protests:
- "During its decades of rule... the Assad family developed a strong political safety net by firmly integrating the military into the government. In 1970, Hafez al-Assad, Bashar’s father, seized power after rising through the ranks of the Syrian armed forces, during which time he established a network of loyal Alawites by installing them in key posts. In fact, the military, ruling elite, and ruthless secret police are so intertwined that it is now impossible to separate the Assad government from the security establishment.... So... the government and its loyal forces have been able to deter all but the most resolute and fearless oppositional activists. In this respect, the situation in Syria is to a certain degree comparable to Saddam Hussein’s strong Sunni minority rule in Iraq."
Foreign relations[edit | edit source]
| This biographical article.
Needs additional citations for verification.
The Middle East Quarterly noted that "As in the case of Iraq, there are lingering questions of Syrian payments to French politicians. Many French politicians join associations and charitable boards both for financial and political gain."[Clarification needed]
The United States, European Union, the March 14 Alliance, Israel, and France accuse Assad of providing practical support to militant groups active against Israel and against opposition political groups. The latter category would include most political parties other than Hezbollah, Hamas, and Islamic Jihad. According to the Middle East Media Research Institute, Assad claimed the United States could benefit from the Syrian experience in fighting organizations like the Muslim Brotherhood at the Hama Massacre.
Assad opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq despite a long-standing animosity between the Syrian and Iraqi governments. Assad used Syria's seat in one of rotating positions on the United Nations Security Council to try to prevent the invasion of Iraq. Following the Iraq invasion by US and allied forces, Assad was accused of supporting the Shia insurgency in Iraq. A US general accused him of providing funding, logistics, and training to Iraqi and foreign Shia fundamentalists to launch attacks against U.S. and allied forces occupying Iraq.
Assad argued that Syria's gradual withdrawal of troops from Lebanon, beginning in 2000, was precipitated as a result of the assassination of Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri and ended in May 2005.
In 2011, Assad told the Wall Street Journal that he considered himself "anti-Israel" and "anti-West", and that because of these policies he was not in danger of being overthrown.
Involvement in Lebanon[edit | edit source]
Despite gaining re-election in 2007, Assad’s position was considered by some to have been weakened by the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon following the Cedar Revolution in 2005. There has also been pressure from the U.S. concerning claims that Syria is linked to terrorist networks, exacerbated by Syrian condemnation of the assassination of Imad Mughniyeh, Hezbollah military leader, in Damascus in 2008. Interior Minister Bassam Abdul-Majeed stated that, "Syria, which condemns this cowardly terrorist act, expresses condolences to the martyr family and to the Lebanese people.”
Arab–Israeli conflict[edit | edit source]
In a speech about the 2006 Lebanon War in August 2006, Assad said that Hezbollah had "hoisted the banner of victory," hailing its actions as a "successful resistance." He claimed that Arab resistance was growing stronger, and warned Israel that "your warplanes, rockets, and your atomic bomb will not protect you in the future." He called Israel an enemy with whom no peace could be achieved as long as they and their allies (especially the U.S.) support the practice of preemptive war. In the same speech, he also called Arab leaders that have criticized Hezbollah "half-men."
In April 2008, Assad told a Qatari newspaper that Syria and Israel had been discussing a peace treaty for a year, with Turkey as a go-between. This was confirmed in May 2008, by a spokesman for Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. As well as a peace treaty, the future of the Golan Heights is being discussed. Assad was quoted in The Guardian as telling the Qatari paper:
... there would be no direct negotiations with Israel until a new US president takes office. The US was the only party qualified to sponsor any direct talks, [Assad] told the paper, but added that the Bush administration "does not have the vision or will for the peace process. It does not have anything."
According to leaked American cables, Assad called Hamas an "uninvited guest" and said "If you want me to be effective and active, I have to have a relationship with all parties. Hamas is Muslim Brotherhood, but we have to deal with the reality of their presence," comparing Hamas to the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood which was crushed by his father Hafez al-Assad. He then claimed Hamas would disappear if peace was brought to the Middle East.
Assad has indicated that the peace treaty that he envisions would not be the same kind of peace treaty Israel has with Egypt where there is a legal border crossing and open trade. In a 2006 interview with Charlie Rose, Assad said "There is a big difference between talking about a peace treaty and peace. A peace treaty is like a permanent ceasefire. There's no war, maybe you have an embassy, but you actually won’t have trade, you won't have normal relations because people will not be sympathetic to this relation as long as they are sympathetic with the Palestinians: half a million who live in Syria and half a million in Lebanon and another few millions in other Arab countries."
During the visit of Pope John Paul II to Syria in 2001, Assad requested an apology to Muslims for the medieval Crusades and criticised Israeli treatment of Palestinians. Comparing their suffering to that endured by Jesus Christ in Palestine, Assad claimed that followers of Judaism "tried to kill the principles of all religions with the same mentality in which they betrayed Jesus Christ and the same way they tried to betray and kill the Prophet Muhammad." Responding to claims that his comment was antisemitic, Assad said that whereas Judaism is a racially heterogeneous religion, the Syrian people are the core of the Semitic race and therefore are opposed to the term antisemitism. When offered to retract his comment implying that the Jews were responsible for Jesus' suffering, Assad replied, "As always, these are historical facts that we cannot deny," and stressed that his remarks were not anti-Jewish. In February 2011, Bashar backed an initiative to restore 10 synagogues in Syria, which had a Jewish community numbering 30,000 in 1947 but has only 200 Jews today.
International public relations[edit | edit source]
In order to promote their image and media-portrayal overseas, Bashar al-Assad and his wife Asma al-Assad hired American-based PR firms and consultants. Notably, these liaised with, and secured, photoshoots for Asma al-Assad with fashion and celebrity magazines. Firms such as the Bell Pottinger Group were also hired and helped to advise them on how to shape their image.
Syrian Civil War[edit | edit source]
Protests in Syria started on 26 January 2011. Protesters called for political reforms and the re-instatement of civil rights, as well as an end to the state of emergency which had been in place since 1963. One attempt at a "day of rage" was set for 4–5 February, though it ended uneventfully. Protests on 18–19 March were the largest to take place in Syria for decades and the Syrian authority responded with violence against its protesting citizens.
On 18 May 2011, U.S. President Barack Obama signed an Executive order putting into effect sanctions against Assad in an effort to pressure his government "to end its use of violence against its people and begin transitioning to a democratic system that protects the rights of the Syrian people." The sanctions effectively freeze any of the Syrian President's assets either in the United States proper or within U.S. jurisdiction. On 23 May 2011, EU Foreign ministers agreed at a meeting in Brussels to add Assad and nine other officials to a list affected by travel bans and asset freezes. On 24 May 2011, Canada imposed sanctions on Syrian leaders, including Assad.
On 20 June, in a speech lasting nearly an hour, in response to the demands of protesters and foreign pressure, Assad promised a national dialogue involving movement toward reform, new parliamentary elections, and greater freedoms. He also urged refugees to return home from Turkey, while assuring them amnesty and blaming all unrest on a small number of saboteurs.
In August, Syrian security forces attacked the country's best-known political cartoonist, Ali Farzat, a noted critic of Syria's government and its five-month crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators and dissent. Relatives of the severely beaten humorist told Western media that the attackers threatened to break Farzat's bones as a warning for him to stop drawing cartoons of government officials, particularly Assad. Farzat was hospitalized with fractures in both hands and blunt force trauma to the head.
By the end of January 2012, it was reported that over 5,000 civilians and protesters (including armed militants) had been killed by the Syrian army, militia (Shabeeha) and security agents, while 1,100 people had been killed by the anti-government forces.
On 10 January 2012, Assad gave a speech in which he accused the uprising of being plotted by foreign countries and claimed that "victory [was] near". He also said that the Arab League, by suspending Syria, revealed that it was no longer Arab. However, Assad also said the country would not "close doors" to an Arab-brokered solution if "national sovereignty" was respected. He also said a referendum on a new constitution could be held in March.
On 27 February, Syria claimed that a referendum on an update to the nation's constitution, hailed as 'a showpiece of reform' received 90% support. The referendum imposes a fourteen-year cumulative term limit for the president of Syria. The referendum has been claimed as meaningless by foreign nations including the US and Turkey, and the European Union announced fresh sanctions against key government figures. On 16 July 2012, Russia voicing concern at the blackmail on Syria by the western nations, laid to rest any speculations that it was distancing itself from Assad. Moscow also vowed not to allow a UN resolution pass that aims at sanctions against Syria.
On 15 July 2012, the International Committee of the Red Cross had officially declared Syria to be in a state of civil war, as the nationwide death toll for all sides was reported to have neared 20,000.
On 6 January 2013, Assad, in his first major speech since June, said that the conflict in his country was due to "enemies" outside of Syria who would "go to Hell" and that they would "be taught a lesson". However he said that he was still open to a political solution saying that failed attempts at a solution "does not mean we are not interested in a political solution."
Personal life[edit | edit source]
Assad speaks fluent English and basic conversational French, having studied at the Franco-Arab al-Hurriyah school in Damascus. In December 2000, Assad married Asma Assad, née Akhras, a British citizen of Syrian origin, from Acton, London. On 3 December 2001, they became the parents of their first-born child, named Hafez after the child's grandfather Hafez al-Assad. Zein was born on 5 November 2003, and Karim on 16 December 2004. Assad resides in the Presidential Palace, formerly occupied by Hafez al-Assad.
Honours and awards[edit | edit source]
|Award or decoration||Country||Date||Place||Note||Ref|
|Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Francis I||Italy||21 March 2004||Damascus||Dynastic order of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.|||
|Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic||Italy||11 March 2010||Damascus||Highest ranking honour of the Republic of Italy. Revoked by the President of the Republic on 28 September 2012 for "indignity".|||
|Collar of the Order of the Liberator||Venezuela||28 June 2010||Caracas||Highest Venezuelan state order.|||
|Grand Cross of the National Order of the Southern Cross||Brazil||30 June 2010||Brasília||Brazil's highest order of merit.|
|Grand Cordon of the National Order of the Cedar||Lebanon||31 July 2010||Beirut||Second highest honour of Lebanon.|||
|High Medal of Honor of the Islamic Republic of Iran||Iran||2 October 2010||Tehran||Highest national medal of Iran.|||
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "Syrians Vote For Assad in Uncontested Referendum". The Washington Post. 28 May 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/27/AR2007052701117.html.
- "Syria's Assad wins another term". BBC. British Broadcasting Corporation. 29 May 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6700021.stm.
- Bassem Mroue (18 April 2011). "Bashar Assad Resignation Called For By Syria Sit-In Activists". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110512045222/http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/04/18/bashar-assad-resignation-syria-protest_n_850657.html. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Arab League to offer 'safe exit' if Assad resigns". CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/22/world/meast/syria-unrest. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- Peace Out of Reach: Middle Eastern Travels and the Search for Reconciliation, Stephen Bronner - 2007 - p 63
- Zisser 2007, p. 20.
- Patrick Seale (15 June 2000). "Hafez al-Assad". London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2000/jun/15/guardianweekly.guardianweekly1. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Houghton Mifflin 2003, p. 74.
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- "Syria". November 2009. p. 9. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2009/11/syria/belt-text/2. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
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- "Асад Башар : биография" (in Russian). Bashar Assad: A Biography. http://www.ladno.ru/person/asad/bio/. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- Beeston, Richard; Blanford, Nick (22 October 2005). "‘We are going to send him on a trip. Bye, bye Hariri. Rot in hell’". London. http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/middleeast/article2604469.ece. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
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- Everyday Arab Identity: The Daily Reproduction of the Arab World, p 59, 2012
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- Roee Nahmias (30 November 2010). "Assad: Iran won't attack Israel with nukes". http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3992202,00.html. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Meris Lutz (2 December 2010). "Syria's Assad seems to suggest backing for Hamas negotiable, leaked cables say". http://articles.latimes.com/2010/dec/02/world/la-fg-wikileaks-syria-20101202. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- "Syria and Judaism: The disappearance of the Jews". 10 May 2001. http://www.economist.com/node/617242. Retrieved 1 June 2011. "The pope's pilgrimage in the steps of St Paul was widely seen as a success, even if it did not elicit an apology to the Muslim world for the medieval crusades. Syria's president, Bashar Assad, basked in international praise for his religious tolerance. But, notably, this tolerance was not extended to Judaism. Welcoming John Paul, Assad compared the suffering of the Palestinians to that of Jesus Christ. The Jews, he said, "tried to kill the principles of all religions with the same mentality in which they betrayed Jesus Christ and the same way they tried to betray and kill the Prophet Muhammad." The pope was taken on a detour to the town of Quneitra, flattened by the Israelis in their partial withdrawal from the Golan Heights, and called upon to bless the president's vision of a Christian-Islamic alliance to vanquish the common threat of colonising Jews."
- "Polish experience shaped Pope's Jewish relations". April 2005. Archived from the original on 4 Apr 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20050404003324/http://www.cbc.ca/news/obit/pope/polish_experience.html. Retrieved 7 May 2011. "The decision to beatify Pius IX, the pope who kidnapped a Jewish child in Bologna and who put Rome's Jews back in their ghetto, was one question mark. John Paul's silence in 2001 when Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad said Jews had killed Christ and tried to kill Mohammad was another."
- "Pope appeals for Mideast peace". Damascus: CNN. 5 May 2001. Archived from the original on 29 May 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110529071915/http://edition.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/meast/05/05/pope.syria/index.html. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
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- Derhally, Massoud A. (7 February 2011). "Jews in Damascus Restore Synagogues as Syria Tries to Foster Secular Image". http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-06/damascus-jews-restore-synagogues-as-syria-seeks-secular-image.html. Retrieved 8 May 2011. "The project, which began in December, will be completed this month as part of a plan to restore 10 synagogues with the backing of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and funding from Syrian Jews."
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Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Houghton Mifflin (2003). The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography. ISBN 978-0-618-25210-7.
- Blanford, Nicholas (2006). Killing Mr Lebanon: The Assassination of Rafik Hariri and Its Impact on the Middle East. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-202-8.
- Lane, Jan-Erik; Redissi, Hamadi (2004). Religion And Politics: Islam And Muslim Civilisation. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-4167-4.
- Leverett, Flynt L. (2005). Inheriting Syria: Bashar's Trial By Fire. Brookings Institution. ISBN 978-0-8157-5204-2.
- Lesch, David W. (2011). Syria: The Fall of the House of Assad. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-18651-2.
- Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32109-2.
- Ma'oz, Moshe; Ginat, Joseph; Winckler, Onn (1999). Modern Syria: From Ottoman Rule to Pivotal Role in the Middle East. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1-898723-83-4.
- Tucker, Spencer C.; Roberts, Priscilla (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-841-5.
- Zisser, Eyal (2007). Commanding Syria: Bashar Al-Asad And the First Years in Power. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-153-3.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Syria: The Fall of the House of Assad by David W. Lesch (Yale University Press; 2012) 275 pages, scholarly account
- Bashar Al-Assad (Major World Leaders) by Susan Muaddi Darraj, (June 2005, Chelsea House Publications) ISBN 0-7910-8262-8 for young adults
- Syria Under Bashar Al-Asad: Modernisation and the Limits of Change by Volker Perthes, (2004, Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-856750-2 (Adelphi Papers #366)
- Bashar's First Year: From Ophthalmology to a National Vision (Research Memorandum) by Yossi Baidatz, (2001, Washington Institute for Near East Policy) ISBN B0006RVLNM
- Syria: Revolution From Above by Raymond Hinnebusch (Routledge; 1st edition, August 2002) ISBN 0-415-28568-2
- Bashar al-Assad and John F. Kennedy, Forward Magazine (Syria) Scott C. Davis (18 May 2008). "Bashar al-Assad and John F. Kennedy". Forward Magazine. http://www.fw-magazine.com/content/bashar-al-assad-and-john-f-kennedy. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Assad: We too were not very happy with Annapolis, Forward Magazine (Syria) "Assad: We too were not very happy with Annapolis | Forward Magazine". Fw-magazine.com. 4 June 1967. http://www.fw-magazine.com/content/assad-we-too-were-not-very-happy-annapolis. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Seven years of Bashar al-Assad’s rule 2000–2007, Forward Magazine (Syria) 
[edit | edit source]
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- Official website
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- B collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English
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- B at the Notable Names Database (NNDB)
- Profile at the LookLex Encyclopedia
- Unofficial website
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- Syria’s Proxy Forces in Iraq, Al-Hayat (London), 12 April 2003 at Middle East Intelligence Bulletin
- Profile: Syria's Bashar al-Assad BBC News, 10 March 2005
- Bashar al-Assad's Lebanon Gamble, William Harris, Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2005
- Assad on the Brink, David Hirst, The Nation, 21 November 2005
- Syria's Leaders, Esther Pan, Council on Foreign Relations, 10 March 2006
- The Assad Dynasty in Syria: From Father to Son, Kristin Helberg, Deutsche Welle, 2009 at qantara.de
- Interview With Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, The Wall Street Journal, 31 January 2011
- Profile: Bashar al-Assad, Al Jazeera English, 25 March 2011
- PBS Interview on YouTube with Charlie Rose, PBS, aired 9 September 2013
- Bashar Al Assad| BY ANNIA CIEZADLO| TNR.com| DECEMBER 19, 2013
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