Military Wiki
Advertisement
Battle of Andalal
Part of the Naderian Wars
Date1741 (duration; 4 days and 4 nights)
LocationDagestan
Result Persian withdrawal harried,[1]
causing heavy casualties[2]
Belligerents
Flag of the Lak People v2.svg Avar Khanate
Lezgis
Nader Shah Flag.svg Afsharid Empire
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Lak People v2.svg Murtazali-Khan
Flag of the Lak People v2.svg Qadi Pir Muhammad
Nader Shah Flag.svg Nader Shah[citation needed]
Nader Shah Flag.svg Lutf Ali Khan
Nader Shah Flag.svg Haydar Bek
Strength
Unknown, presumably numerically inferior Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Heavy[3]


The Battle of Andalal[4][5][better source needed] commenced in the autumn of 1741, [6] and resulted in the decisive victory[citation needed] by the Avars over Nader Shah of Afsharid Persia. However, there is no mention of any pitched battle around Andalal in any of the primary or secondary material in the established historiography of the Naderian Wars.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

The Battle[]

The battle took place in Andalal; the mountainous part of Avaria. The previous years and months during Nader's Dagestan campaign had been bloody years with firm resistance offered by the Lezgins, Tabasarans, Avars, and others, as well as the relentless counter-attacks by Nader Shah due to this, whose campaigning in Dagestan was a devastating one to everyone. However, by September 1741, all of Dagestan - except several Avar territories - had fallen under Persian hegemony.[18] Nader decided to attack from two flanks; at Andalal and Avaria, through the Aimakin Gorge.[19] As commented by English historian L. Lockhart;[20]

"With the Avars remaining unconquered, the key to all of Dagestan remains out of reach of Nader Shah."

The terrible danger looming over Avaria, rallied Avar society. An important Avar leader, Qadi Pir Muhammad (ru), sent a message of support to all societies. Religious leader Ibrahim Haji Andalan Gidatlinsky twice before turned to the Shah of Persia, trying to persuade him not to conduct an unnecessary war with the Avar Muslims. Moreover, by Nadir Shah, according to legend, they were sent letters and legates from Andalal. Following the rejection by Nader, Qadi Pir Muhammad replied: "Now, between us can not be peace. As long as our mind is not going blur, we will fight and destroy the invading enemy.

Avars threw rocks from above the mountain on the troops who were passing by. In September 1741 there was a battle in Aymakinskom gorge. Here the Persian army led by Lutf Ali Khan and Haydar-Bek was utterly defeated. Most of the 20-thousand army was wiped out. From the 4,000 large detachment Haidar Bek led only 500 people survived. And from the 6,000 large detachment survived only 600 people. The winners got a lot of trophies: 19 guns, lots of ammo and all the baggage.[citation needed] The Battle at Andalal turned out in a decisive defeat. Following the sound defeat,[21][better source needed] the Persian army retreated through Kumukh, Khorsekh, Tchyrag, Richa, Kurakh, and eventually to the Iranian town of Derbent.[22] Nader himself was forced to flee for the mountains following the defeat that followed after four days and four nights.[23][better source needed]

Historiography of the conflict[]

There is no mention of a set-piece battle fought in the vicinity of Andalal in any of the primary sources,[24][25][26][27][28][29] nor is there any reference to such an engagement in any of the secondary source material focusing on the subject of the Naderian Wars.[30][31][32][33][34]

There are however well established accounts of the withdrawing Persian columns coming under constant harrying by the Lezgis and their allies. The Lezgis who refused to commit to any set piece battles,[35] repeatedly harassed the withdrawing Persian army, making Andalal a "calamitous region"[36] for Nader Shah's forces as they suffered from a combination of terrible weather conditions, strained logistics, outbreaks of disease and ceaseless harassment by Lezgi skirmishers.[37]

Nader Shah's ultimately failed attempts at annexing Dagestan became a source for legends, myths and folk-tales amongst the people of the north Caucasus. The Avar epic Srazhenie s Nadir Shakhom, (The battle with Nāder Shah), and the Lak Pesnya o geroe Murtazaali, (Epic of the hero Mortażā ʿAlī), provide a vivid and colourful picture of the triumph over “the scourge of the universe.” These works represent the pinnacle of the Dāḡestānī epic genre; their significance to the mountain peoples “can be compared to that of Slovo o polku Igoreve (The lay of the army of Igor) in Russian epic poetry”.[38]

References[]

  1. Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  2. "History of Nadir Shah's Wars" (Taarikhe Jahangoshaaye Naaderi), 1759, Mirza Mehdi Khan Esterabadi, (Court Historian)
  3. Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  4. "The heavenly rose-garden". 29 October 2015. https://books.google.nl/books/about/The_heavenly_rose_garden.html?hl=nl&id=2x0jAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  5. "Russia and the Caucasus". 29 October 2015. https://books.google.nl/books/about/Russia_and_the_Caucasus.html?hl=nl&id=cAYhAQAAMAAJ. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  6. G., I.. "HEROIC RESISTANCE OF THE AGULS AGAINST IRANIAN CONQUEROR NADER SHAH IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY" (in ru). ISSN 1994-5094. http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/heroic-resistance-of-the-aguls-against-iranian-conqueror-nader-shah-in-the-first-half-of-the-18th-century. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  7. Kashmiri, Abdol-Karim, "Bayān-e Vāghe", Edited by K. B. Nasim Lahur, 1970
  8. Vatazes, Basile, Persica; Histoire de Chah-Nader, ed. N Iorga, Bucharest 1939
  9. Mohsen, Mohammad,"Zobdat-ol-Tavarikh", edited by Behruz Gudarzi, Tehran 1375
  10. "History of Nadir Shah's Wars" (Taarikhe Jahangoshaaye Naaderi), 1759, Mirza Mehdi Khan Esterabadi, (Court Historian)
  11. Mohammad Kazem Marvi Yazdi, Rare views of the world" 3 vols., Ed Amin Riahi, Tehran, Third Edition, 1374
  12. Hanway, Jonas, An Historical Account of the British Trade, 1: 251–3
  13. Floor, Wiilem(2009). The rise & fall of Nader Shah: Dutch East India Company Reports 1730-1747, Mage Publishers
  14. Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  15. Malcom, "History of Persia"
  16. Ghafouri, Ali (2008). History of Iran's wars: from the Medes to now. Etela'at Publishing
  17. Lockhart, Laurence, "Nadir Shah: A Critical Study Based Mainly upon Contemporary Sources", London, 1938
  18. АВПР, ф. «Сношения России с Персией», 1741 г.
  19. Ramazan Gadzhimuradovich Abdulatipov. ["Russia and the Caucasus". 29 October 2015. https://books.google.nl/books/about/Russia_and_the_Caucasus.html?hl=nl&id=cAYhAQAAMAAJ. Retrieved 19 November 2015.  Russia and the Caucasus: On the Arduous Path to Unity] Edwin Mellen Press, 2000 ISBN 978-0773431942 p 15
  20. Lawrence Lockhart, 1938. Р. 202.
  21. Ramazan Gadzhimuradovich Abdulatipov. Russia and the Caucasus: On the Arduous Path to Unity Edwin Mellen Press, 2000 ISBN 978-0773431942 p 15
  22. G., I.. "HEROIC RESISTANCE OF THE AGULS AGAINST IRANIAN CONQUEROR NADER SHAH IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY" (in ru). ISSN 1994-5094. http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/heroic-resistance-of-the-aguls-against-iranian-conqueror-nader-shah-in-the-first-half-of-the-18th-century. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  23. Ramazan Gadzhimuradovich Abdulatipov. Russia and the Caucasus: On the Arduous Path to Unity Edwin Mellen Press, 2000 ISBN 978-0773431942 p 15
  24. Kashmiri, Abdol-Karim, "Bayān-e Vāghe", Edited by K. B. Nasim Lahur, 1970
  25. Vatazes, Basile, Persica; Histoire de Chah-Nader, ed. N Iorga, Bucharest 1939
  26. Mohsen, Mohammad,"Zobdat-ol-Tavarikh", edited by Behruz Gudarzi, Tehran 1375
  27. "History of Nadir Shah's Wars" (Taarikhe Jahangoshaaye Naaderi), 1759, Mirza Mehdi Khan Esterabadi, (Court Historian)
  28. Mohammad Kazem Marvi Yazdi, Rare views of the world" 3 vols., Ed Amin Riahi, Tehran, Third Edition, 1374
  29. Hanway, Jonas, An Historical Account of the British Trade, 1: 251–3
  30. Floor, Wiilem(2009). The rise & fall of Nader Shah: Dutch East India Company Reports 1730-1747, Mage Publishers
  31. Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  32. Malcom, "History of Persia"
  33. Ghafouri, Ali (2008). History of Iran's wars: from the Medes to now. Etela'at Publishing
  34. Lockhart, Laurence, "Nadir Shah: A Critical Study Based Mainly upon Contemporary Sources", London, 1938
  35. Axworthy, Michael(2009). The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from tribal warrior to conquering tyrant, I. B. Tauris
  36. "History of Nadir Shah's Wars" (Taarikhe Jahangoshaaye Naaderi), 1759, Mirza Mehdi Khan Esterabadi, (Court Historian)
  37. Ghafouri, Ali (2008). History of Iran's wars: from the Medes to now. Etela'at Publishing
  38. N. V. Kapieva, Pesni narodov Dagestana (Songs of the peoples of Dāḡestān), Leningrad, 1970. page 19.

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Advertisement