The Battle of Cape Henry was a naval battle in the American War of Independence which took place near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay on 16 March 1781 between a British squadron led by Vice Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot and a French fleet under Admiral Charles René Dominique Sochet, Chevalier Destouches. Destouches, based in Newport, Rhode Island, had sailed for the Chesapeake as part of a joint operation with the Continental Army to oppose the British army of Brigadier General Benedict Arnold that was active in Virginia.
Admiral Destouches was asked by General George Washington to take his fleet to the Chesapeake to support military operations against Arnold by the Marquis de Lafayette. Sailing on 8 March, he was followed two days later by Admiral Arbuthnot, who sailed from eastern Long Island. Arbuthnot's fleet outsailed that of Destouches, reaching the Virginia Capes just ahead of Destouches on 16 March. After manoeuvring for several hours, the battle was joined, and both fleets suffered some damage and casualties without losing any ships. However, Arbuthnot was positioned to enter the Chesapeake as the fleets disengaged, frustrating Destouches' objective. Destouches returned to Newport, while Arbuthnot protected the bay for the arrival of additional land troops to reinforce General Arnold.
Background[edit | edit source]
In December 1780, British General Sir Henry Clinton sent Brigadier General Benedict Arnold (who had changed sides to the British the previous September) with about 1,700 troops to Virginia to do some raiding and to fortify Portsmouth. General George Washington responded by sending the Marquis de Lafayette south with a small army to oppose Arnold. Seeking to trap Arnold between Lafayette's army and a French naval detachment, Washington asked the French admiral Destouches, the commander of the fleet at Newport, Rhode Island for help. Destouches was wary of the threat posed by the slightly larger British North American fleet anchored at Gardiner's Bay off the eastern end of Long Island, and was reluctant to help.
A storm in early February damaged some of Arbuthnot's fleet, which prompted Destouches to send a squadron of three ships south shortly after. When they reached the Chesapeake, the British ships supporting Arnold moved up the shallow Elizabeth River, where the French ships were unable to follow. The French fleet returned to Newport, having as their only success the capture of HMS Romulus, a heavy frigate that was one of several ships sent by the British to investigate the French movements. This modest success, and the encouragement of General Washington, prompted Destouches to embark on a full-scale operation. On 8 March, Washington was in Newport when Destouches sailed with his entire fleet, carrying 1,200 troops for use in land operations when they arrived in the Chesapeake.
Vice Admiral of the White Mariot Arbuthnot, the British fleet commander in North America, was aware that Destouches was planning something, but did not learn of Destouches' sailing until 10 March, and immediately led his fleet out of Gardiner Bay in pursuit. He had the speed advantage of copper-clad vessels and a favourable wind, and reached Cape Henry on 16 March, slightly ahead of Destouches.
Battle[edit | edit source]
Although the two fleets both had eight ships in their lines, the British had an advantage in firepower: the 90-gun HMS London was the largest ship of either fleet (compared to the 84-gun Duc de Bourgogne), while the French fleet also included the recently captured 44-gun Romulus, the smallest vessel on either line. When Arbuthnot spotted the French fleet to his northeast at 6 am on 16 March, they were about 40 nmi (74 km) east-northeast of Cape Henry. Arbuthnot came about, and Destouches ordered his ships to form a line of battle heading west, with the wind. Between 8 and 9 am the winds began shifting, but visibility remained poor, and the two fleets manoeuvred for several hours, each seeking the advantage of the weather gage. By 1 pm the wind had stabilised from the northeast, and Arbuthnot, with superior seamanship, was coming up on the rear of the French line as both headed east-southeast, tacking against the wind. Destouches, in order to escape this position, gave orders to wear ship in sequence, and brought his line around in front of the advancing British line. With this manoeuvre he surrendered the weather gage (giving Arbuthnot the advantage in determining the attack), but it also positioned his ships relative to the wind such that he could open his lower gundecks in the heavy seas, which the British could not do without the risk of water washing onto the lower decks.
Arbuthnot responded to the French manoeuvre by ordering his fleet to wear. When the ships in the van of his line made the maneuver, they were fully exposed to the French line's fire, and consequently suffered significant damage. Robust, Europe, and Prudent were virtually unmanageable due to damage to their sails and rigging. Arbuthnot kept the signal for maintaining the line flying, and the British fleet thus lined up behind the damaged vessels. Destouches at this point again ordered his fleet to wear in succession, and his ships raked the damaged British ships once more, taking off London's topsail yard before pulling away to the east.
Aftermath[edit | edit source]
French casualties were 72 killed and 112 wounded, while the British suffered 30 killed and 73 wounded. Arbuthnot pulled into Chesapeake Bay, thus frustrating the original intent of Destouches' mission, while the French fleet returned to Newport. After transports delivered 2,000 men to reinforce Arnold, Arbuthnot returned to New York. He resigned his post as station chief due to age and infirmity in July and left for England, ending a stormy, difficult, and unproductive relationship with General Clinton.
General Washington, unhappy that the operation had failed, wrote a letter that was mildly critical of Destouches. This letter was intercepted and published in an English newspaper, prompting a critical response to Washington by the Comte de Rochambeau, the French army commander at Newport. The Comte de Barras, who arrived in May to take command of the Newport station, justified Destouches' failure to pursue the attack: "It is a principle in war that one should risk much to defend one's positions, and very little to attack those of the enemy." Naval historian Alfred Thayer Mahan points out that "this aversion from risks [...] goes far to explain the French want of success in the war."
Lafayette, when he learned of the French failure, turned back north to rejoin Washington. Washington then ordered Lafayette to stay in Virginia, having learned of the reinforcements sent to Arnold. Although the French operation to support Lafayette was unsuccessful, the later naval operations by the Comte de Grasse that culminated in the French naval victory in the September 1781 Battle of the Chesapeake paved the way for a successful naval blockade and land siege of Lord Cornwallis' army at Yorktown, Virginia.
The battle has been memorialized by American singer-songwriter Todd Snider in "The Ballad of Cape Henry". Although there is a marker commemorating the Battle of the Chesapeake at the Cape Henry Memorial in Virginia, there is no recognition of this battle at the site.
Order of battle[edit | edit source]
Basic information (ship names and gun counts) are provided by Morrissey unless otherwise cited. The names of ship captains are provided by Mahan unless otherwise cited, and casualty figured are provided by Lapeyrouse. Mahan and Lapeyrouse disagree on the casualty count; Mahan reports that the British had 30 killed and 73 wounded, and that the French had 72 killed and 112 wounded.
Sources also disagree on which ship carried Destouches and his flag. The English-language sources (Mahan, p. 492, and Morrissey, p. 51) list his flag on board the Neptune, while Lapeyrouse (p. 170) lists the Duc de Bourgogne. The Duc de Bourgogne was the flagship of Destouches' predecessor, the Chevalier de Ternay, during which time Destouches was captain of the Neptune; Destouches may have moved to the Duc de Bourgogne upon Ternay's death.
|Robust||Third rate||64||Captain Phillips Cosby||15||21||36|
|Europe||Third rate||64||Captain Smith Child||8||19||27|
|Prudent||Third rate||64||Captain Thomas Burnet||7||24||31|
|Royal Oak||Third rate||74||Captain William Swiney||0||3||3||Arbuthnot's flag|
|London||Second rate||90||Captain David Graves||0||0||0||Sir Thomas Graves' flag|
|Adamant||Fourth rate||50||Captain Gideon Johnstone||0||0||0|
|Bedford||Third rate||74||Captain Edmund Affleck||0||0||0||Morrissey probably incorrectly lists Bedford with 64; others, e.g. Mahan (1898), p. 492, list her as carrying 74 guns.|
|America||Third rate||64||Captain Samuel Thompson||0||0||0|
|Casualty summary: 30 killed, 67 wounded, 97 total|
- Other ships
- Guadalupe (frigate, 28, Hugh Robinson)
- Pearl (frigate, 32, George Montagu)
- Iris (frigate, 32, George Dawson)
- Medea (frigate, 28, Henry Duncan)
|Conquérant||Third rate||74||La Grandière||31||41||72|
|Neptune||Third rate||74||Médine||4||2||6||Morrissey and Mahan claim the Neptune as Destouches' flagship.|
|Duc de Bourgogne||Third rate||80–84||Durfort||6||5||11||Morrissey apparently confuses this ship with the Bourgogne, 74 guns; other sources uniformly identify her as the Duc de Bourgogne. Lapeyrouse (p. 170) claims she carried only 80 guns, and Destouches' flag. Mahan (p. 492) claims she carried 84 guns.|
|Jason||Third rate||64||La Clocheterie||5||1||6|
|Romulus||Fifth rate||44||La Villébrun||2||1||3||This was a two-deck frigate built by the British in 1777.|
|Casualty summary: 69 killed, 95 wounded, 164 total|
- Other ships
- Hermione (frigate, 36, Latouche)
- Gentille (frigate, 32, M. de Maingand)
- Fantasque (14, M. de Vaudoré)
Notes[edit | edit source]
- Mahan (1898), p. 491
- Lapeyrouse, pp. 169–170
- Russell, p. 217–218
- Russell, p. 254
- Mahan (1898), p. 489
- "Coppering" a ship had, among other benefits, the reduction of accumulations on the hull of foreign matter that increased drag. (McCarthy, p. 103).
- Mahan (1898), p. 490
- Perkins, pp. 322–323
- Davis, p. 45
- Mahan (1898), p. 492
- Mahan (1898), p. 493
- Russell, pp. 274–305
- LastFM: The Ballad of Cape Henry
- National Park Service: Cape Henry Memorial
- Morrissey, p. 51
- Laypeyrouse, p. 165
- Gardiner, p. 129
- Gardiner, p. 140
- Balch, p. 175
- Gardiner, p. 112
- de La Jonquière, p. 95
- Mascart, p. 453
- Goodwin, p. 88
- Beatson, p. 273
- Most sources list Fantasque as 64 guns en flûte. She was an older ship of the line, converted for use as a transport and hospital ship. (Smith, p. 58)
References[edit | edit source]
- Balch, Thomas Willing; Balch, Edwin Swift; Balch, Elise Willing (1895). The French in America During the War of Independence of the United States, 1777–1783, Volume 2. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates. OCLC 2183804. http://books.google.com/books?id=wXgsAAAAMAAJ&dq=marigny%20ardent%201781&pg=PA175#v=onepage&q=marigny%20ardent%201781&f=false.
- Beatson, Robert (1804). Naval and military Memoirs of Great Britain, From 1727 to 1783, Volume 6. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme. OCLC 4643956.
- Davis, Burke (1970). The Campaign That Won America: the Story of Yorktown. New York: Dial Press. OCLC 248958859.
- Gardiner, Asa Bird (1905). The Order of the Cincinnati in France. United States: Rhode Island State Society of Cincinnati. OCLC 5104049. http://books.google.com/books?id=J_hl5NVWljwC&dq=medine%20neptune%201781&pg=PA112-IA14#v=onepage&q=medine%20neptune%201781&f=false.
- de La Jonquière, Christian (1996) (in French). Les Marins Français sous Louis XVI: Guerre d'Indépendance Américaine. Issy-les-Moulineaux Muller. ISBN 978-2-904255-12-0. OCLC 243902833.
- Goodwin, Peter (2002). Nelson's Ships: A History Of The Vessels In Which He Served, 1771–1805. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-1007-7. OCLC 249275709.
- Lapeyrouse Bonfils, Léonard Léonce (1845) (in French). Histoire de la Marine Française, Volume 3. Paris: Dentu. OCLC 10443764. http://books.google.com/books?id=p7BCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA166#v=onepage&f=false.
- Mahan, Alfred Thayer (1898). Major Operations of the Royal Navy, 1762–1783: Being chapter XXXI in The royal navy. A history. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 46778589. http://books.google.com/books?id=hpI_AAAAYAAJ&dq=mahan%20arbuthnot%201781&pg=PA492#v=onepage&q=arbuthnot&f=false.
- Mascart, Jean (2000) (in French). La Vie et les Travaux du Chevalier Jean-Charles de Borda, 1733–1799. Paris: Presses Paris Sorbonne. ISBN 978-2-84050-173-2. OCLC 264793608. http://books.google.com/books?id=ddmYrCGV5B0C&lpg=PA453&dq=jason%20clocheterie%201781&pg=PA453#v=onepage&q=jason%20clocheterie%201781&f=false.
- McCarthy, Michael (2005). Ships' Fastenings: From Sewn Boat to Steamship. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-58544-451-9. OCLC 467080350.
- Morrissey, Brendan (1997). Yorktown 1781: the World Turned Upside Down. London: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85532-688-0. OCLC 39028166.
- Perkins, James Breck (1911). France in the American Revolution. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 177577. http://books.google.com/books?id=OFIsAAAAMAAJ.
- Russell, David Lee (2000). The American Revolution in the Southern Colonies. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0783-5. OCLC 44562323. http://books.google.com/books?id=5DFy0eWaPxIC.
- Smith, Fitz-Henry (1913). The French at Boston during the Revolution: With Particular Reference to the French Fleets and the Fortifications in the Harbor. Boston: self-published. OCLC 9262209. http://books.google.com/books?id=yvRDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA58#v=onepage&q=fantasque&f=false.
- "LastFM: The Ballad of Cape Henry". Last.fm Ltd. http://www.last.fm/music/Todd+Snider/_/The+Ballad+Of+Cape+Henry. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
- "National Park Service: Cape Henry Memorial". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100828210947/http://www.nps.gov/came/index.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
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