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Battle of Changde
Part of World War II - the Second Sino-Japanese War
300px
Chinese soldiers in combat in a gas attack
DateNovember 2, 1943 (1943-11-02) - December 20, 1943 (1943-12-21)
LocationChangde and vicinity
Result
  • Japanese capture of the town[1]
  • Japanese planned withdrawal in January 1944[1]
  • Decisive Chinese victory[2][3]
Belligerents
Taiwan Republic of China Japan Empire of Japan
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg Sun Lianzhong Japan Isamu Yokoyama
Strength
100,000 100,000
Casualties and losses
50,000 Chinese and American claim: 40,000+ killed and wounded[4]


The Battle of Changde (simplified Chinese: 常德会战; traditional Chinese: 常德會戰; pinyin: Chángdé Huìzhàn) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War in and around the Chinese city of Changde in the province of Hunan. During the battle, Japan extensively used biological and chemical weapons.

The purpose of the Japanese offensive was not to hold the city, but to maintain pressure on the Chinese National Revolutionary Army "in order to destroy their main units, to deny them the time needed for recuperation, regrouping, and retraining, and to make sure that no Chinese troops could be spared for the Burma front."[1]

Although the Japanese army initially successfully captured the city, the Chinese 57th division was able to pin them down long enough for reinforcements to arrive and encircle the Japanese. The Chinese army then cut off the Japanese supply lines, forcing them into retreat, whereupon the Chinese pursued their enemy.[2][3]

Contemporary Western newspapers depicted the battle as a Chinese victory.[5][6][7][8][9] American government film footage shows victorious Chinese troops with Japanese prisoners and captured Japanese flags and equipment on display after the battle.[10] In addition, an American newsreel titled "Chinese troops drive Japs from Changteh" showed Chinese troops firing, with dead and captured Japanese on display.[4]

Battle[edit | edit source]

On 2 November 1943, Isamu Yokoyama, commander of the Imperial Japanese 11th Army, deployed the 39th, 58th, 13th, 3rd, 116th and 68th divisions, a grand total of around 60,000 troops, to attack Changde from the north and the east. The Changde region was protected by the Chinese 6th war area's 10th, 26th, 29th and 33rd army groups, as well as a river defense force, and two other corps, for a grand total of 14 corps.

On the 14th, the Japanese 13th division, with aid from collaborators, drove south to break through the defense lines of the Chinese 10th and 29th group armies. On the 16th, Japanese paratroopers landed on Taoyuan, a county in the Changde region. At the same time, the Japanese 3rd and 116th divisions reached Changde. The city was guarded by the Chinese 74th corps' 57th division, whose commander, Yu Chengwan, led his single division of 8,000 soldiers to fight against the overwhelming attack of 2 Japanese divisions. 11 days and nights of fierce fighting saw heavy casualties on both sides. When Chinese reinforcements finally arrived, the remaining 100 survivors of the 57th division, all of whom were wounded, escaped the city. On the 6th of December, Changde was lost.

While the Chinese 57th division pinned down the Japanese in the city, the rest of the 74th corps, and 18th, 73rd, 79th, and 100th corps, as well as the 9th war area's 10th corps, 99th corps and Jiangxi's 58th corps arrived at the battlefield, forming a counter-encirclement on the Japanese forces.

Fang Xianjue's 10th corps was first to strike, successfully retaking Deshan on the 29th of November, before attacking the Japanese positions at Changde from the south. Unable to withstand the fierce Chinese assault, the Japanese utilized chemical weapons.[2] The battle lasted for 6 days and nights. The Chinese 10th division's commander Sun Minjin was shot 5 times in the body and killed in action.

At this time, the other Chinese units were pressing onto the Japanese positions. On the 11th of December, the Chinese army broke through the Japanese lines and into the city, whereupon intense house to house fighting occurred. The Chinese army then proceeded to intercept the Japanese army's supply lines . Without food and ammunition, the Japanese army retreated on the 13th. Upon leaving, their Unit 731 spread bubonic plague, while the army burned buildings and killed civilians in frustration.

The Chinese units pursued the retreating Japanese army for more than 20 days. By the January 5, 1944, the Japanese forces were pushed back to their original positions prior to the invasion, thus concluding the engagement as a decisive Chinese victory.

During this campaign, besides the 10th division's Sun Minjin, two other Chinese division commanders died. One was the 44th corps' 150th division's Lieutenant General Xu Guozhang, while the other one was the 73rd corps' 5th division's Lieutenant General Peng Shiliang. General Xu was killed at Taifushan in Changde's northwest, aged 37. General Peng was killed at the Taoyuan-Shimen line, aged 38.

The Changde campaign had the largest participation of the Chinese air force since the Battle of Wuhan.[2][3]

Reporter Israel Epstein witnessed and reported on the battle. Witold Urbanowicz, a Polish pilot fighting in China in 1943, saw the city just after the battle. According to Urbanowicz, nearly 300,000 civilians died in Changde.[1]

Biological attacks[edit | edit source]

During the Khabarovsk War Crimes Trials, some witnesses, such as Major General Kiyoshi Kawashima, testified that, as early as November 1941, about 40 members of Unit 731 airdropped fleas contaminated with bubonic plague on Changde and that this caused outbreaks of plague epidemics. Overall, 7,643 Chinese died in 1942 following this infestation.[11] 10,000 Japanese soldiers were also infected with the plague, and 1,700 died.[12] Some Japanese soldiers, notably Yoshio Shinozuka, also admitted to have spread bubonic plague within a 36-kilometer (22 mi) radius around the city. However, the Japanese actions did not achieve their objective, as the Chinese defenders continued to resist.

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

Although the Japanese army was initially able to capture Changde and cause terror among the civilians, the Chinese were ultimately able to liberate the city and defeat their enemy, inflicting severe losses.

Gallery[edit | edit source]

<templatestyles src="Template:Gallery/styles.css"></templatestyles>



This template provides advanced gallery building functionality (fine-tuned formatting control). For creating generic galleries, use the Gallery tag.

This template displays a gallery of images in an array, left-to-right in rows. Global parameters |width= and |height= control the size of all images in the gallery. The number of images per row is based upon the image width parameters and the width of the screen. The number of images per row can change when the user resizes the window.

Blank syntax[edit source]

{{Gallery
| title        = 
| align        =
| footer       =
| style        =
| state        =
| height       =
| width        =
| captionstyle =
| File:
 | alt1=
 | Write a caption here
| File:
 | alt2=
 | Write a caption here
| File:
 | alt3=
 | Write a caption here
| File:
 | alt4=
 | Write a caption here
| File:
 | alt5=
 | Write a caption here
}}

Parameters[edit source]

For each image[edit source]

Specify a line of the following form for each image.

|File:Filename |altn=Alt text |Caption

Where:

|File:Filename – the image's file name. Either File: or File: prefix may be used
|Altn=alt attribute: |alt1= for the first image, |alt2= for the second image, etc
Alt text – the alternative text for the image, used by visually impaired or other readers who cannot see the image clearly. If omitted, the image's alt text will be blank.
|Caption – the caption under the image; see Manual of Style/Captions

Optional parameters[edit source]

These parameters apply to the gallery:

|title= – The gallery's title
|align= – The alignment of the gallery on the page, left (default), center, or right; ignored when |state= is set
|footer= – Small, right-aligned text below the images
|style=CSS style directives for the whole gallery (see Help:Cascading Style Sheets)
|state= – Sets the default state of collapsible galleries; use |state=expanded or |state=collapsed; collapsible galleries occupy the full page width
|mode= – Sets the mode used by the inner gallery tag. Common values include |mode=packed and |mode=nolines (see Help:Gallery tag for more options)

These parameters apply to all of the images in the gallery:

|noborder= – Cancel the border surrounding the images, use |noborder=yes to set.
|whitebg= – Cancel the white background after the images, use |whitebg=no to set.
|height= – Maximum height of each image. If this parameter is not included, |height= defaults to 180 pixels.
|width= – Maximum width of each image, default is 180 pixels.
|captionstyle=CSS style directives for the captions (see Help:Cascading Style Sheets)

The image's original ratio of width to height cannot be modified by |width= or |height= – a rectangular image will not be made square if |width= and |height= are set to the same value.

Examples[edit source]

{{Gallery
|title=Cultural depictions of George Washington
|width=160 | height=170
|align=center
|footer=Example 1
|File:Federal Hall NYC 27.JPG 
 |alt1=Statue facing a city building with Greek columns and huge U.S. flag
 |Statue of Washington outside [[Federal Hall National Memorial]] in [[New York City]], overlooking [[Wall Street]]
|File:Mount Rushmore2.jpg 
 |alt2=Profile of stone face on mountainside, with 3 workers.
 |Construction of Washington portrait at [[Mount Rushmore]], c. 1932
|File:2006 Quarter Proof.png 
 |alt3=Shiny silver coin with profile of Washington bust. 
 |Washington is commemorated on a [[Quarter (United States coin)|quarter]].
|File:George Washington Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png 
 |alt4=Gold coin with bust of Washington facing slightly left
 |Washington on a [[dollar coin (United States)|dollar coin]]
}}

Template loop detected: Template:Gallery

{{Gallery
|title=Cultural depictions of George Washington
|width=120 |height=100
|align=center
|footer=Example 2a
|File:Federal Hall NYC 27.JPG
 |alt1=Statue facing a city building with Greek columns
 |Statue of Washington outside [[Federal Hall National Memorial]] in [[New York City]], overlooking [[Wall Street]]
|File:Mount Rushmore2.jpg
 |alt2=Profile of stone face on mountainside, with 3 workers.
 |Work on Washington portrait at [[Mount Rushmore]], c. 1932
|File:2006 Quarter Proof.png
 |alt3=Shiny silver coin with profile of Washington bust. 
 |Washington on a [[Quarter (United States coin)|quarter]]
|File:United_States_one_dollar_bill,_obverse.jpg
 |alt4=Front side of U.S. dollar bill, with Washington portrait in center.
 |[[United States one-dollar bill|U.S. one-dollar bill]]
|File:George Washington Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png
 |alt5=Gold coin with bust of Washington facing left
 |Washington on a [[dollar coin (United States)|dollar coin]]
}}

Template loop detected: Template:Gallery

Template loop detected: Template:Gallery

TemplateData[edit source]

Place this template on an article or user page to create a gallery of images on that page along with captions. Anyone may place this template.

Template parameters

ParameterDescriptionTypeStatus
titletitle

Title for the overall gallery

Example
Pictures of chickens
Stringsuggested
alignalign

Alignment of the gallery on the page; possible values include left, right, and center

Default
left
Example
center
Stringoptional
footerfooter

Creates a footer which will appear in the lower right corner of the overall gallery, in small font, of whatever text the editor placing it wishes to put there

Example
Early works
Stringoptional
stylestyle

This parameter allows an editor to utilize Cascading Style Sheet code

Unknownoptional
captionstylecaptionstyle

This parameter allows an editor to utilize Cascading Style Sheet code for caption

Unknownoptional
statestate

This parameter allows the editor to determine whether or not the gallery will initially appear as either expanded or collapsed for readers

Default
expanded
Example
collapsed
Stringoptional
heightheight

determines the maximum height for any image within the gallery

Default
180px
Example
100px
Stringoptional
widthwidth

Analogous to height parameter; sets maximum width for any image in the gallery

Default
180px
Example
120px
Stringoptional
modemode

Sets the mode used by the inner gallery tag, see Help:Gallery tag for more options

Default
traditional
Stringoptional
nobordernoborder

Cancel the border surrounding the images

Default
no
Example
yes
Stringoptional
whitebgwhitebg

Used to disable the white background in the inner gallery tag

Default
yes
Example
no
Stringoptional

Tracking categories[edit source]

See also[edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 ed. Hsiung, James C. and Steven I. Levine China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan 1937-1945, p.161
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Program about the Battle of Changde http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qHfhPMTndus&feature=related
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Documentary about the Battle of Changde http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JE4hm2A367I
  4. 4.0 4.1 Newsreel 'Chinese troops drive Japs from Changteh' US Government Archive number for this video is: 208 UN 91 FGMC
  5. Simon Newton Dexter North, Francis Graham Wickware, Albert Bushnell Hart (1944). The American Year Book: Volume 29. T. Nelson & Sons. p. 94. http://www.google.com/search?tbs=bks%3A1&tbo=1&q=+employed+five+divisions+along+the+Hupeh-Hunan+border%2C+aiming+at+Ichang+and+Changteh.+Compelled+to+retreat+from+their+drive+in+the+direction+of+Chungking%2C+they+yielded+the+Chinese+a+major+victory%3B+the+joint+Chinese-American+. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. George Creel (1949). Russia's race for Asia. Bobbs-Merrill Co.. p. 214. http://www.google.com/search?tbs=bks%3A1&tbo=1&q=The+battle+of+Changteh%2C+waged+from+November+2+to+December+25%2C+1943%2C+was+another+Chinese+victory. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. Free world, Volume 8. Free World, Inc.. 1944. p. 309. http://www.google.com/search?tbs=bks%3A1&tbo=1&q=Nurse+Tu+came+from+Changteh%2C+where+the+battle+was+fierce+and+the+Chinese+victory+was+hard+won+last+winter.+Her+family+lost+all+its+household+belongings+while+the+Japs+were+in+the+city.+f%5C+REFUGEE+merchant+recently+arrived+. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. Philip J. Jaffe (1943). Amerasia, Volume 7. Amerasia, inc.. http://www.google.com/search?tbs=bks%3A1&tbo=1&q=Chinese+forces+recapture+Changteh+as+the+climax+of+a+fierce+six-+week+battle%2C+and+follow+up+their+victory+by+taking+a+number+of+towns+northeast+and+northwest%2C+and+pushing+the+Japanese+back+from+the+vital+%22rice+bowl&btnG=Search+Books. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  9. LIFE Feb 21, 1944
  10. Chinese troops defeat the Japanese in Changteh China and capture their military equipment during World War II. US Government Archive number for this video is: 208 UN 89 FGMC
  11. Vet refuses to take Unit 731 to his grave, Japan Times, 2004
  12. David C. Rapoport. "Terrorism and Weapons of the Apoclalypse". In James M. Ludes, Henry Sokolski (eds.), Twenty-First Century Weapons Proliferation: Are We Ready? Routledge, 2001. pp. 19, 29

Sources[edit | edit source]

  • Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) 2nd Ed., 1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China. Pg. 412-416 Map 38
  • Daniel Barenblatt, A plague upon Humanity, HarperCollns, 2004, pp. 220–221

External links[edit | edit source]

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