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Battle of Flodden Field
Part of the War of the League of Cambrai
Flodden Memorial - geograph.org.uk - 39370.jpg
Flodden Memorial at the site of the battle
Date9 September 1513
LocationNear Branxton, Northumberland, England
Result English victory
Belligerents
 Kingdom of England  Kingdom of Scotland
Commanders and leaders
Coat of Arms of Catherine of Aragon.svg Catherine, Queen Regent of England
Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey;
Lord High Admiral Thomas Howard;
Thomas Dacre, 2nd Baron Dacre;
Sir Edward Stanley;
Marmaduke Constable;
Edmund Howard
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg James IV;
Alexander Home, 3rd Lord Home;
William Graham, Earl of Montrose;
Adam Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell;
Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox;
Archibald Campbell, Earl of Argyll
Strength
~26,000 English 30-34,000 Scottish
Casualties and losses
1,500[1] 5,000-17,000[2][3]

The Battle of Flodden or Flodden Field or occasionally Battle of Branxton (Brainston Moor[4]) was a conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. The battle was fought in the county of Northumberland in northern England on 9 September 1513, between an invading Scots army under King James IV and an English army commanded by the Earl of Surrey.[5] It was an English victory. In terms of troop numbers, it was the largest battle fought between the two Kingdoms.[6] James IV was killed in the battle, becoming the last monarch from the British Isles to suffer such a death.

Background[]

This conflict began when James IV, King of Scots declared war on England to honour the Auld Alliance with France by diverting Henry VIII's English troops from their campaign against the French king Louis XII. Henry VIII had also opened old wounds by claiming to be the overlord of Scotland which angered the Scots and the King. At this time England was involved in the War of the League of Cambrai—defending Italy and the Pope from the French (see Italian Wars) as a member of the "Catholic League".

Pope Leo X, already a signatory to the anti-French Treaty of Mechlin, sent a letter to James threatening him with ecclesiastical censure for breaking his peace treaties with England on 28 June 1513, and subsequently James was excommunicated by Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge. James also summoned sailors and sent the Scottish navy, including the Great Michael to join the ships of Louis XII of France.[7]

Henry was in France with the Emperor Maximilian at the siege of Thérouanne. The Scottish Lyon King of Arms brought James IV's letter of 26 July [8] to him. James asked him to desist from attacking France in breach of their treaty. Henry's exchange with Islay Herald or the Lyon King at his tent at the siege of Thérouanne on 11 August was recorded. The Herald declared that Henry should abandon his efforts against the town and go home. Henry angrily replied that James had no right to summon him, and ought to be England's ally, as he was married to his sister Margaret, declaring;

"And now, for a conclusion, recommend me to your master and tell him if he be so hardy to invade my realm or cause to enter one foot of my ground I shall make him as weary of his part as ever was man that began any such business. And one thing I ensure him by the faith that I have to the Crown of England and by the word of a King, there shall never King nor Prince make peace with me that ever his part shall be in it. Moreover, fellow, I care for nothing but for misentreating of my sister, that would God she were in England on a condition she cost the Schottes King not a penny.[9]

Henry also replied by letter on 12 August that James was mistaken and resistance to any of his attempts on England would be in place.[10] A year earlier, Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, had been appointed Lieutenant-General of the army of the north and was issued with banners of the Cross of St George and the Red Dragon of Wales.[11] Using the pretext of revenge for the murder of Robert Kerr, a Warden of the Scottish East March who had been killed by John "The Bastard" Heron in 1508, James invaded England with an army of about 30,000 men.[6]

Invasion[]

Sketch of Edinburgh in 1544, detail showing the Netherbow Port with St Mary's Wynd running north

On 18 August, five cannon brought down from Edinburgh Castle to the Netherbow Gate at St Mary's Wynd for the invasion set off towards England dragged by borrowed oxen. On 19 August two 'gross culverins', four 'culverins pickmoyance' and six (mid-sized) 'culverins moyane' followed with the gunner Robert Borthwick and master carpenter John Drummond. The King himself set off that night with two hastily prepared standards of St Margaret and St Andrew.[12]

James IV captured Ford Castle from Lady Heron

Catherine of Aragon was Regent in England and, on 27 August she issued warrants for the property of all Scotsmen in England to be seized.[13] On hearing of the invasion on 3 September she ordered Thomas Lovell to raise an army in the Midland counties.[14]

In keeping with his understanding of the medieval code of chivalry, King James sent notice to the English, one month in advance, of his intent to invade. This gave the English time to gather an army and, as importantly, to retrieve the banner of Saint Cuthbert from Durham Cathedral, a banner which had been carried by the English in victories against the Scots in 1138 and 1346.[15][16] After a muster on the Burgh Muir of Edinburgh, the Scottish host moved to Ellemford, to the north of Duns, and camped to wait for Angus and Home. The Scottish army then crossed the River Tweed near Coldstream and on 24 August James IV held a council or parliament at Twiselhaugh and made a proclamation for the benefit of the heirs of anyone killed during this invasion.[17] By 29 August Norham Castle was taken and partly demolished. The Scots moved south, capturing the castles of Etal and Ford.[18]

A later Scottish chronicle writer, Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, tells the story that James wasted valuable time at Ford enjoying the company of Elizabeth, Lady Heron and her daughter.[19] Edward Hall says that Lady Heron was a prisoner (in Scotland), and negotiated with James IV and the Earl of Surrey her own release and that Ford Castle would not be demolished for an exchange of prisoners. The English herald, Rouge Croix, came to Ford to appoint a place for battle on 4 September, with extra instructions that any Scottish heralds who were sent to Surrey were to be met where they could not view the English forces.[20] Raphael Holinshed's story is that a part of the Scottish army returned to Scotland, and the rest stayed at Ford waiting for Norham to surrender and debating their next move. James IV wanted to fight and considered moving to assault Berwick-upon-Tweed, but the Earl of Angus spoke against this and said that Scotland had done enough for France. James sent Angus home, and according to Holinshed, the Earl burst into tears and left leaving his two sons, the Master of Angus and Glenbervie, with most of the Douglas kindred to fight.[21]

Battle[]

External images
Events of the 9th September 1513 - Map

The battle actually took place near the village of Branxton, in the county of Northumberland, rather than at Flodden—hence the alternative name is Battle of Branxton. The Scots had previously been stationed at Flodden Edge, to the south of Branxton. The Earl of Surrey, writing at Wooler Haugh on Wednesday 7 September, compared this position to a fortress in his challenge sent to James IV by Thomas Hawley, the Rouge Croix Pursuivant. He complained that James had sent his Islay Herald agreeing that they would join in battle on Friday between 12.00 and 3.00 pm, and asked that James would face him on the plain at Milfield as appointed.[22]

Next, Surrey moved to block off the Scots' route north and so James was forced to move his army and artillery two miles to Branxton Hill.[23] The Scottish artillery, as described by an English source, included five great curtals, two great culverins, four sakers, and six great serpentines.[24] The King's secretary, Patrick Paniter was in charge of these cannon.[25] When the armies were within three miles of each other Surrey sent the Rouge Croix pursuivant to James, who answered that he would wait till noon. At 11 o'clock, Thomas, Lord Howard's vanguard and artillery crossed the Twizel Bridge.[26] (Pitscottie says the king would not allow the Scots artillery to fire on the vulnerable English during this manouevre.)[27] The Scots army was in good order in five formations, after the Almain (German) manner. On Friday afternoon the Scots host descended without speaking any word to meet the English.[28]

Western side of the battlefield, looking south-south-east from the monument erected in 1910. The Scottish army advanced down the ploughed field, the English down the grassy field in the foreground, and they met, presumably at the valley boundary between the two fields.

The English army had formed two "battles" each with two wings. Lord Howard combined his "vanguard" with the soldiers of his father's "rearward" to meet the Scots.[29] According to English report, the groups commanded by the Earls of Huntly and Crawford and Erroll, totalling 6000 men, engaged Lord Howard and were repulsed and mostly slain.

Then James IV himself leading a great force came on to Surrey and Lord Darcy's son who "bore all the brunt of the battle". Lennox and Argyll's commands were met by Sir Edward Stanley.[30]

After the artillery fire ended, according to the English chronicler Edward Hall, "the battle was cruel, none spared other, and the King himself fought valiantly".[31] James was killed within a spear length from Surrey and his body taken to Berwick-upon-Tweed. Hall says the King was fatally wounded by an arrow and a bill.[32] Meanwhile, Lord Howard's brother, Edmund Howard, commanding men from Cheshire and Lancashire, fought the section of the Scottish army commanded by the Chamberlain of Scotland, Alexander, Lord Home, and Thomas, Lord Dacre's force, who had been fighting Huntley, came to assist him.[33]

The Earl of Surrey captured the Scottish guns, including a group of culverins made in Edinburgh by Robert Borthwick called the "seven sisters", which were dragged to Etal Castle. The Bishop of Durham thought them the finest ever seen.[34]

Tactics and aftermath[]

Soon after the battle, the council of Scotland decided to send for help from Christian II of Denmark. The Scottish ambassador, Andrew Brounhill, was given instructions to explain "how this cais is hapnit." [35] Brounhill's instructions blame James IV for moving down the hill to attack the English on marshy ground from a favourable position, and credits the victory to Scottish inexperience rather than English valour. The letter also mentions that the Scots placed their officers in the front line in medieval style who were vulnerable and killed, contrasting this loss of the nobility with the English great men who took their stand with the reserves and at the rear.[36] The English generals stayed behind the lines in the Renaissance style. The loss of so many Scottish officers meant there was no one to coordinate a retreat.[37]

However, according to contemporary English reports, Thomas Howard marched on foot leading the English vanguard to the foot of the hill. Howard was moved to dismount and do this by taunts of cowardice sent by James IV's heralds, apparently based on his role at sea and the death two years earlier of the Scottish sailor Andrew Barton.[38] A version of Howard's declaration to James IV that he would lead the vanguard and take no prisoners was included in later English chronicle accounts of the battle. Howard claims his presence in "proper person" at the front is his trial by combat for Barton's death.[39]

Weaponry[]

Flodden was essentially a victory of bill used by the English over the pike used by the Scots. As a weapon, the pike was effective only in a battle of movement, especially to withstand a cavalry charge. The Scottish pikes were described by the author of the Trewe Encounter as "keen and sharp spears 5 yards long."[40] Although the pike had become a Swiss weapon of choice and represented modern warfare, the hilly terrain of Northumberland, the nature of the combat, and the slippery footing did not allow it to be employed to best effect.[41] Bishop Ruthall reported to Thomas Wolsey, 'the bills disappointed the Scots of their long spears, on which they relied.'[42] The infantrymen at Flodden, both Scots and English, had fought in a fashion that in essence would have been familiar to their ancestors, and it has rightly been described as the last great medieval battle in the British Isles. This was the last time that bill and pike would come together as equals in battle. Two years later Francis I defeated the Swiss pikemen at the Battle of Marignano, using a combination of heavy cavalry and artillery, ushering in a new era in the history of war. An official English diplomatic report issued by Brian Tuke noted the Scots' iron spears and their initial "very good order after the German fashion" but concluded "the English halberdiers decided the whole affair, so that in the battle the bows and ordnance were of little use."[43]

Despite Tuke's comment (he was not present), tactically, this battle was one of the first major engagements on the British Isles where artillery was significantly deployed. John Lesley, writing sixty years later, noted the Scottish bullets flew over the English heads while the English cannon was effective, the one army placed so high and the other so low.[44]

The Scots advance down the hill was resisted by a hail of arrows, an incident celebrated in later English ballads. Hall says the armoured front line was mostly unaffected, confirmed by the ballads which note some few Scots were wounded in the scalp and, wrote Hall, James IV sustained a significant arrow wound.[45] Many of the archers were recruited from Lancashire and Cheshire. Sir Richard Assheton raised one such company from Middleton, near Manchester. He rebuilt his parish church St. Leonard's, Middleton, which contains the unique "Flodden Window." It depicts and names the archers and their priest in stained glass. The window has been called as the oldest known war memorial in the UK. The success of the Cheshire yeomanry, under the command of Richard Cholmeley, led to his later appointment as Lieutenant of the Tower of London.[46]

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk was given an augmentation of honour to commemorate the Battle of Flodden Field

Honours[]

As a reward for his victory, Thomas Howard was subsequently restored to the title of "Duke of Norfolk", lost by his father's support for Richard III. The arms of the Dukes of Norfolk still carry an augmentation of honour awarded on account of their ancestor's victory at Flodden, a modified version of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland with an arrow through the lion's mouth.

At Framlingham Castle the Duke kept two silver-gilt cups engraved with the arms of James IV, which he bequeathed to Cardinal Wolsey in 1524.[47] The Duke's descendants presented the College of Arms with a sword, a dagger, and a turquoise ring in 1681. The family tradition was either that these items belonged to James IV, or were arms carried by Thomas Howard at Flodden. The sword blade is signed by the maker Maestre Domingo of Toledo.[48] There is some doubt whether the weapons are of the correct period.[49] The Earl of Arundel was painted by Philip Fruytiers, following Anthony van Dyck's 1639 composition, with his ancestor's sword, gauntlet and helm from Flodden.[50]

Legends of a lost king[]

Lord Dacre discovered the body of James IV at the battlefield. He later wrote that the Scots "love me worst of any Inglisheman living, by reason that I fande the body of the King of Scotts."[51] The chronicle writer John Stow gave a location for the King's death; "Pipard's Hill," now unknown, which may have been the small hill on Branxton Ridge overlooking Branxton church.[52] Dacre took the body to Berwick-upon-Tweed, where according to Hall's Chronicle, it was viewed by the captured Scottish courtiers William Scott and John Forman who acknowledged it was the King's. (Forman, the King's sergeant-porter, had been captured by Richard Assheton of Middleton.[53]) The body was then embalmed and taken to Newcastle upon Tyne.[54] From York, a city that James had promised to capture before Michaelmas,[55] the body was brought to Sheen Priory near London.[56] James's banner, sword and his cuisses, thigh-armour, were taken to the shrine of Saint Cuthbert at Durham Cathedral.[57] Much of the armour of the Scottish casualties was sold on the field, and 350 suits of armour were taken to Nottingham Castle. A list of horses taken at the field runs to 24 pages.[58]

Thomas Hawley, the Rouge Croix pursuivant, was first with news of the victory. He brought the "rent surcoat of the King of Scots stained with blood" to Catherine of Aragon at Woburn Abbey. She sent news of the victory to Henry VIII at Tournai with Hawley, and then sent John Glyn on 16 September with James's coat (and iron gauntlets) and a detailed account of the battle written by Lord Howard. Brian Tuke mentioned in his letter to Cardinal Bainbridge that the coat was lacerated and chequered with blood.[59] Catherine suggested Henry should use the coat as his battle-banner, and wrote she had thought to send him the body too, as Henry had sent her the Duke of Longueville, his prisoner from Thérouanne, but "Englishmen's hearts would not suffer it."[60]

Soon after the battle there were legends that James IV had survived; a Scottish merchant at Tournai in October claimed to have spoken with him,[61] Lindsay of Pitscottie records two myths; "thair cam four great men upon hors, and every ane of thame had ane wisp upoun thair spear headis, quhairby they might know one another and brought the king furth of the feild, upoun ane dun hackney," and also that the king escaped from the field but was killed between Duns and Kelso.[62] Similarly, John Lesley adds that the body taken to England was "my lord Bonhard" and James was seen in Kelso after the battle and then went secretly on pilgrimage in far nations.[63]

A legend arose that James had been warned against invading England by supernatural powers. While he was praying in St Michael's Kirk at Linlithgow, a man strangely dressed in blue had approached his desk saying his mother had told him to say James should not to go to war or take the advice of women. Then before the King could reply, the man vanished. David Lindsay of the Mount and John Inglis could find no trace of him. The historian R. L. Mackie wondered if the incident really happened as a masquerade orchestrated by an anti-war party: Norman Macdougall doubts if there was a significant anti-war faction.[64] Three other portents of disaster were described by Paolo Giovio in 1549 and repeated in John Polemon's 1578 account of the battle. When James was in council at the camp at Flodden Edge a hare ran out of his tent and escaped the weapons of his knights; it was found that mice had gnawed away the strings and buckle of the King's helmet; and in the morning his tent with spreckled with a bloody dew.[65]

Scotland after Flodden[]

The wife of James IV, Margaret Tudor, is said to have awaited news of her husband at Linlithgow Palace, where a room at the top of a tower is called 'Queen's Margaret's bower.' Ten days after the Battle of Flodden, the Lords of Council met at Stirling on the September 19, and set up a General Council of the Realm "to sit upon the daily council for all matters occurring in the realm" of thirty-five lords including clergyman, lords of parliament, and two of the minor barons, the lairds of The Bass and Inverrugy. This committee was intended to rule in the name of Margaret Tudor and her son James V of Scotland.

The full Parliament of Scotland met at Stirling Castle on 21 October, where the 17 month-old King was crowned in the Chapel Royal. The General Council of Lords made special provisions for the heirs of those killed at Flodden, following a declaration made by James IV at Twiselhaugh, and protection for their widows and daughters.[66] Margaret Tudor remained guardian or 'tutrix' of the King, but was not made Regent of Scotland.

The French soldier Antoine d'Arces arrived at Dumbarton Castle in November with a shipload of armaments which were transported to Stirling. The English already knew the details of this planned shipment from a paper found in a bag at Flodden field.[67] Now that James IV was dead, Antoine d'Arces promoted the appointment of John Stewart, Duke of Albany, a grandson of James II of Scotland as Regent to rule Scotland instead of Margaret and her son. Albany, who lived in France, came to Scotland on 26 May 1515.[68] By that date Margaret had given birth to James's posthumous son Alexander and married the Earl of Angus.[69]

A later sixteenth century Scottish attitude to the futility of the battle was given by Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, in the words he attributed to Patrick Lord Lindsay at council before the engagement. Lord Lindsay advised the King withdraw, comparing their situation to an honest merchant playing dice with a trickster, and wagering a gold rose-noble against a bent halfpenny. Their King was the gold piece, England the trickster, and Thomas Howard the halfpenny.[70]

Casualties[]

The Flodden memorial cross, erected in 1910, contemplated by David Starkey.

Surrey's army lost 1,500 men killed.[1] There were various conflicting accounts of the Scottish loss. A contemporary French source, the Gazette of the Battle of Flodden, said that about 10,000 Scots were killed,[3] a claim made by Henry VIII on 16 September while he was still uncertain of the death of James IV. William Knight sent the news from Lille to Rome on 20 September, claiming 12,000 Scots had died with less than 500 English casualties.[71] Italian newsletters put the Scottish losses at 18 or 20 thousand and the English at 5000. Brian Tuke, the English Clerk of the Signet, sent a newsletter stating 10,000 Scots killed and 10,000 escaped the field. Tuke reckoned the total Scottish invasion force to have been 60,000 and the English army at 40,000.[72] George Buchanan wrote in his History of Scotland (published in 1582) that, according to the lists that were compiled throughout the counties of Scotland, there were about 5,000 killed.[2] A plaque on the monument to the 2nd Duke of Norfolk (as the Earl of Surrey became in 1514) at Thetford put the figure at 17,000.[2] Edward Hall, thirty years after, wrote in his Chronicle that "12,000 at the least of the best gentlemen and flower of Scotland" were slain.[73]

As the nineteenth century antiquarian John Riddell supposed, nearly every noble family in Scotland would have lost a member at Flodden.[74] The dead are remembered by the song (and pipe tune) "Flowers of the Forest":

We'll hae nae mair lilting, at the yowe-milking,
Women and bairns are dowie and wae.
Sighing and moaning, on ilka green loaning,
The flowers of the forest are all wede away.

Contemporary English ballads also recalled the tragedy of the Scottish losses:

To tell you plaine, twelve thousand were slaine,
that to the fight did stand;
And many prisoners tooke that day,
the best in all Scotland.
That day made many a fatherlesse childe,
and many a widow poore;
And many a Scottish gay Lady,
sate weeping in her bowre.[75]

A legend grew that while the artillery was being prepared in Edinburgh before the battle, a demon called Plotcock had read out the names of those who would be killed at the Mercat Cross on the Royal Mile. According to Pitscottie, a former Provost of Edinburgh, Richard Lawson, who lived nearby threw a coin at the Cross to appeal from this summons and survived the battle.[76]

Branxton Church was the site of some burials from the battle of Flodden.[77]

After Flodden many Scottish nobles are believed to have been brought to Yetholm for interment, as being the nearest consecrated ground in Scotland.[78]

Notable men who died[]

  • James IV, King of Scots (1488–1513);[4][79]:21–22[80]
  • Alexander Stewart, Archbishop of St. Andrews and Lord Chancellor of Scotland, natural son of James IV, King of Scots[4][81]
  • John Douglas, 2nd Earl of Morton, grandson of James I of Scotland [82]
  • Sir William Seton, grandson of James I of Scotland and 3rd son of 2nd Earl of Huntly. p. 520 [83]
  • Lieutenant General Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll.[81]
  • William Graham, 1st Earl of Montrose; led part of the Scottish vanguard; died with his brother George Graham of Calendar, and brother-in-law, Sir William Edmonstone.[4][82]
  • Adam Hepburn, 2nd Earl of Bothwell Lord High Admiral of Scotland p. 156 [84]
  • George Hepburn, Bishop of the Isles and commendator of Arbroath and Iona.[4] p. 150 [84] p. 150 [82][84]
  • Bishop of Caithness [4][85]
  • Laurence Oliphant, Abbot of Inchaffray, 2nd son of Lord Oliphant.[4] p. 542 [82][86]
  • William Bunche, Abbot of Kilwinning [4][82]
  • Earl of Argyle Clan Campbell [4][82] Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll, with two sons. p. 178,[84] bro-i-law of Lennox p. 335 [80]
  • Earl of Athole [82] John Stewart, 2nd Earl Atholl. p. 443 [80] John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl. Pedigree CXCII [87]
  • Earl of Bothwell Adam Hepburn, 2nd Earl of Bothwell [4][82] Patrick or Adam Hepburn, 2nd Earl [88]
  • Earl of Caithness; Sir William Sinclair, 2nd Earl of Caithness, 12th Baron of Roslin Barony of Roslin.,[81] p. 207 [82] with 300 men who all perished [89]
  • Earl of Cassilis, 3rd Lord Kennedy and 1st Earl David Kennedy, 1st Earl of Cassilis [4][82] p. 461,[84] p. 149 [90][91]
  • Earl of Crawford John Lindsay, 6th Earl of Crawford [4][82] p. 24,[92] Scots Peerage, Vol.III], p. 454, ed. Sir James Balfour Paul.[88] p. 290, no. 1326 [93]
  • Earl of Erroll (William Hay 4th Earl of Erroll, Constable of Scotland ) (Arroll) [4] p. 567 [82][92]
  • Earl of Glencairn [4] (Possibly Wm Cunynghame of Craigends, son of Alexander Cunynghame, Earl of Glencairn who d.1488)
  • Earl of Lennox Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox [4][82] p. 335 [80][90]
  • Earl of Marr. Robert Erskine. Pedigree CLXII [94]
  • Earl of Montrose William Graham, 1st Earl of Montrose [4][82]
  • Earl of Morton John Douglas, 2nd Earl of Morton;[82]
  • Earl of Rothes William Leslie, 3rd Earl of Rothes; Earl of Rothes. p. 279 [82][95] with his bro-in-law, Sir Michael Balfour. George, 2nd Earl of Rothes & his brother, William, p. 375 [81][96]
  • Lord Askill [4] Robert Erskine, 4th Lord Erskine
  • Lord Avondale, Andrew Stewart, 1st Lord Avondale (second creation) Lord of the Bedchamber, son-i-law of 2nd Lord Kennedy. p. 510 [86]
  • Lord Bothwell, John Ramsay, 1st Lord Bothwell p. 480;[82][97] p. 134 [84]
  • Lord Borthwick William Borthwick, 3rd Lord Borthwick or Borthike [4][82][98]
  • Lord Crichton (Sir Robert, 2nd Lord) p. 224 [92]
  • Lord Culwen [4]
  • Lord Dawissie possibly SirAlexander Ramsay of Dalhousie Clan Ramsay [4] p. 92 [82][92]
  • Lord Duffus (William Sutherland) p. 195 [92]
  • Lord Elphinstone (Elweston), Alexander Elphinstone, 1st Lord Elphinstone[4] p. 531 [92] Alexander, 1st Lord Elphinstone. p. 55 [82][88]
  • Lord Erskine of Ovir Achlesky, Strathearn. Robert Erskine, 4th Lord Erskine Lord Askill [4] p. 588 [82][97]
  • Lord Forbes [4]
  • Lord Garlies (Alexander Stewart) p. 152 [88]
  • Lord John of Graunte (Grant ?) [4]
  • Lord Hay of Yester [82]
  • Lord Herries (possibly Andrew Herries, 2nd Lord of Terregles) p. 405 [82][88]
  • Lord Innermeath or Innermath (Thomas Stewart, 2nd Lord); p. 4;[81][82][90]
  • Lord Jederby (Jedburgh ?) [4]
  • Lord Keith and his bro William, sons of the 3rd Earl Marshall.[82] Pedigree CIX [99]
  • Lord Knolis (Sir Wm Knolls, Lord of Saint Johns) [82][100]
  • Lord Lorn [82]
  • Lord Lovat [4]
  • Lord Mackeyn [4]
  • Lord MacCleen Hector Odhar Maclean, 9th Chief Clan Maclean, (Macklean of Dowart) killed with his son Lachlan Maclean.[4][82]
  • Lord Maxwell John Maxwell, 4th Lord Maxwell & 4 brethren.[4] p. 478 [82][86]
  • Lord Ross (Sir John Ross of Halkhead. 2nd Lord Ross) or Roos [4] p. 81,[86] p. 251,[82][95]
  • Lord of Saint John, William Knolis, Lord High Treasurer of Scotland.[82]
  • Lord Seton, George, 5th Lord. p. 152,[84] p. 580 [82][98]
  • Lord Sempill. John, 1st Lord Sempill of Eliotstoun.[4] p. 532 [82][95]
  • Lord Sinclair or Sinclare. p. 150 [82][84]
  • James Abercromby of Ley or Birkenbog [82]
  • William Adair of Kinhilt Stranraer Wigtownshire & Dunskey Castle with bros-in-law Alex Stewart of Garlies & John Dunbar Mochrum p. 486 [97]
  • David Allerdes of Scatoquhy [101]
  • Andrew Anstruther Clan Anstruther, p. 384 [98]
  • Robert Arnot of Woodmill. Comptroller of Scotland.[81][82][101][102]
  • Andrew Aytoun or Ayton of Dunmure, Captain of Stirling Castle Master of Works.
  • John Balfour of Denmill (Dene Myln), Fife. p. 495 [81][82][97]
  • John Balfour of Balgarvy, Cupar, Parish Abdie, co Fife [103]
  • Sir Michael Balfour of Munquhanny, with bro-i-law of Earl of Rothes. p. 134 [104]
  • Alexander Bannachtyne of Lowpas, Bute, p. 596 (Letaliter vulneratus et inde obiit: fatally wounded and died from it) [97]
  • Robert Blackader. Robert Blackadder of Blackadder Blackadder House Clan Blackadder p. 189 [80][81][82]
  • Sir Alexander Boswell of Balmuto. Clan Boswell; died in battle [82]
  • Thomas Boswell of Auchinleck House. p. 2, no.7 [93]
  • Mathew Brisbane of Bishopton. p. 333 [105]
  • William Bunche, Abbot of Kilwinning [82]
  • Buntyne, of Ardoch, Dumbarton, p. 587 (Qui obiit in campo in Anglia.) [97]
  • Donald Campbell of Duntroon. Duntrune Castle ; said to have died in battle
  • Sir Duncan Campbell, 2nd of Glenorchy, son of Sir Colin Campbell of Kilchurn Castle. eld.son of Earl of Argyll. p. 179,[84] p. 413 [82][86]
  • George Campbell of Cessnock; died in battle. married Janet Montgomerie Earl of Eglinton p. 438 [92]
  • George Campbell gardener at Stirling, p. 38 [97]
  • John Campbell of Lawers, died with bro Sir Dundan & father, Earl of Argyll. p. 178 [84]
  • John Campbell of Auchreoch. p. 499 [90]
  • Niall Campbell of Melfort; died in battle [106]
  • John Carnegie, 4th or 5th of Kinnaird, Clan Carnegie, p. 51 [82][98]
  • William Carr or Kerr [82]
  • Alan or Adam Cathcart, Master of Cathcart, eld. son of 2nd Lord Cathcart, died with bros John & Robert. p. 510,[84] p. 555 [82][90]
  • John Cathcart of Cathcart & Glendowis,son of 2nd Lord Cathcart. died with bros of Alan and Robert. p. 510 [82][84]
  • Robert Cathcart of Cathcart, with bros Alan and John [82]
  • Caulfield or Caulfelde [82]
  • Sir William Cockburn, Baron of Langtoun & his eldest son, Alex. Sir William Cockburn p. 274 [107][108] Sir Wm was son-i-law of Earl of Home.
  • Alexander Cockburn, son of Sir William Cockburn. p. 269 [109]
  • Master Cawell (Colville or Caldwell), clerk of the Chancery [82]
  • Robert Colville of Hiltoun & Tillicultrie. p. 544 [84]
  • Sir Robert Colville of Ochiltree [82] p. 276 [110]
  • Sir William Colville of Ochiltree. p. 546 [84]
  • John Cornwall of Bonhard; later Scottish legends claimed his body was mistaken for that of James IV. p. 157 [82][86]
  • William Craig of Craigfintry; died in battle
  • James Crammond of (Crammond Regis ?) and Fullerton, Forfarshire, pp. 571, 574 [97]
  • John Craufurd of Craufurdland. p. 232 [111]
  • John Crawford of Ardagh [79]
  • Robert Crawford of Achnames [82]
  • James Crichton of Rothven, p. 383, no. 1723 [93]
  • William Dempster of Carastoun, Forfarshire, p. 584 [97]
  • Master Thomas Dikson, Dene of Restalrig [101]
  • Archibald Douglas of Craigmoy, Galloway, p. 484.[97]
  • George Douglas, Master of Angus father of 6th Earl & son of Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus with his bro. pp. 182 & 187,[80] p. 279 [82][98]
  • Master of Angwis or Angus [4] George Douglas, Master of Angus father of 6th Earl & son of Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus with his bro. pp. 182 & 187,[80] p. 279 [82][98]
  • Sir John Douglas John Douglas, 2nd Earl of Morton; died in battle. grandson of James I of Scotland [82]
  • Robert Douglas of Almornes, Galloway, p. 481.[97]
  • Robert Douglas, familiar servant to James IV, killed sub vexillo.[112]
  • Sir William Douglas of Drumlanrig Drumlanrig with bros-in-law, Sir Alexander Gordon of Lochinvar and Kenmure, & Lord Alexander Stewart of Garlies. p. 105,[90] p. 118 [95]
  • Sir William Douglas of Glenbervie; died in battle with his bro, George Douglas, sons of earl of Angus. p. 184 [80]
  • Sir William Douglas of Glenbervie, 2nd son of Earl of Angus with his bro. George. p. 382 [113]
  • Sir James Dunbar of Dumboy, Galloway, p. 483 [97]
  • Sir John Dunbar, Mochrum, Wigtownshire with bro-in-law William Maclellan. p. 259;[90] pp. 483–6 [81][82][97]
  • Patrick Dunbar, Mochrum, bro-in-law of Uchtred MacDowall of Garthland p. 278 [92]
  • Alexander Dundas of Fingask with four sons. p. 114 [104]
  • William Edmonstoun of Redinach, Monteith,probably same person as below, p. 579 [97]
  • Sir William Edmonstone of Duntreath, Dumbarton with his bro-in-law, William Graham, 1st Earl of Montrose his brother George Graham of Caldendar, another bro-in-law Lord Ross;[97][114]
  • Robert Elliott, chief of the Elliotts; died in battle
  • Master Ellot [82]
  • Baron Sir Alexander Elphinstone Alexander Elphinstone, 1st Lord Elphinstone. p. 436 [115]
  • Sir John Erskine, younger, of Dun. p. 268,[84] p. 259 [88]
  • Robert Erskine, 4th Lord Erskine
  • Gilbert Ferguson [101]
  • William Fleming of Barochen [82][116]
  • David Forsyth of Cadintoun, Aberdeen, p. 627 [97]
  • Thomas Fraser, master of Lovat. Lord Lovat [81]
  • William Frazer, 6th of Philorth (possibly) p. 435 [95]
  • Sir Alexander (Alexandri) Gordon (Gordoune), (militis) of Knockenshene and Barskeauch, Galloway, p. 484 [97]
  • Sir Alexander Gordon, younger, of Lochinvar and Kenmure. p. 103 [82][90]
  • George Gordon, Schevis, Aberdeenshire, p. 587 [97]
  • John Gordon of Auchlenchries. p. 46 [117]
  • Robert Gordon, Ardes Uvir, Nethir and Myddill, Galloway, p. 484 [97]
  • William Gordon, Laird of Gight and Master of Inverlochy Castle; died in battle commanding the Clan Cameron.
  • Archibald Graham, 3rd of Garvock.[81][82]
  • George Graham of Calendar, bro. of William Graham, 1st Earl of Montrose. p. 223;[81][86] p. 244, no. 1120, and p. 633 no.2738.[82][93]
  • George Graham, of Kinkellis, Strathearn, p. 512 [97]
  • Master John Grant [81][82]
  • Robert Gray of Leitfie, son of 2nd Lord Gray. p. 277 [88]
  • Sir Alexander Guthrie with three bros-in-law. David Guthrie (Lord Treasurer) [82][118]
  • James Haig of Bermeside [81][82]
  • William Haig of Bemersyde
  • Sir John Haldane of Gleneagles Clan Haldane [81][82]
  • George Halkerstoun, burgess of Edinburgh. p. 67;[92] p. 52 [97]
  • Adam Hall, ancestor to the laird of Fulbar Clan Hall [81][82]
  • Thomas Hamilton, Prestonfield House [119]
  • ...... Hare, of Bold, Peebles, p. 583 [97]
  • John Hay, 2nd Lord Hay of Yester. son of John Hay, 1st Lord Hay of Yester, p. 433 [98][120]
  • Thomas Hay of Logie with his brothers. p. 566 [92]
  • William Hay, 4th Earl of Erroll, Constable of Scotland p. 567 [92]
  • James Henderson of Fordell, Fife; Lord Justice Clerk; died in battle.[82]
  • Robert Henderson, younger of Fordell; killed with his father.
  • Adam Hepburn of Craggis
  • Sir Adam Hepburn [82]
  • George Hepburn, Bishop of the Isles and commendator of Arbroath and Iona. p. 150 [84]
  • Patrick Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell [81]

  • Andrew Herries, 2nd Lord Herries of Terregles, p. 405 [88]
  • John Herries & brother Mungo Herries p. 404 [88]
  • Mungo Herries & brother John Herries p. 404 [88]
  • Robert Heris of Laggan, Galloway, p. 483 [97]
  • Cuthbert Home of Fast Castle (Fastcastell) [4] p. 437,[92] pp. 451 & 455 [82][88]
  • Cuthbert Hume of Fast Castle [81]
  • Sir John Home [4][82]
  • John Home of Synlaws. p. 468 [88]
  • Sir Davy Home [4]
  • Sir David Hume of Wedderburn (or Home) & his son George p. 281 [81][82][92][121]
  • George Hume (or Home) of Wedderburn, son of Sir David Hume p. 281 [82][92]
  • Sir Patrick Houston [82]
  • Sir Peter Houstoun of Gervock Houston died defending James IV Clan Houston [81][122]
  • John Inche of Parkhill, Fife, p. 495 [97]
  • ....... Inglis of Douchlas, Strathearn, p. 586 [97]
  • Thomas Inglis of Murthocarney, Fife, p. 494 [97]
  • Lord Keith and his bro William, sons of the 3rd Earl Marshall [82]
  • Sir William Keith of Inverugie and Ackergill, with 2 elder sons of his Chief, the Earl of Marischal Keith.[82][123][124]
  • David Kennedy, 1st Earl of Cassilis. p. 149.[90] Pedigree CLXXIII [125]
  • ........... Kennedy of Ballathis, Annandale, p. 579 [97]
  • John Kinnaird of Inchture. p. 206 [90]
  • Symon Kirkcaldy, Hill of Lumquhat, Fife, p. 496 [97]
  • Sir William Knolls, Lord Saint Johns.[100]
  • Sir Alexander Lauder of Blyth, Provost of Edinburgh. p. 52 [82][97]
  • Sir George Lauder Sir George Lauder of Haltoun [82]
  • James Lauder of Norton
  • Sir John Liddel of Panlathyne, son-in-law of Sir Thomas Maule. p. 9 [95]
  • David Lindsay, son of 4th Lord Lindsay of the Byres. p. 396 [90]
  • Herbert Lindsay, Barskeauch, Galloway, pp. 482–3 [97]
  • John Lindsay, 6th Earl of Crawford, Scottish field commander.
  • Walter Lindsay (son of Sir David Lindsay of Edzell & father of 9th Earl of Crawford) p. 19 [82][92]
  • James Livingston, 3rd Laird of Kilsyth. p. 186 [90]
  • Livingston, son of Laird of Kilsyth. p. 435 [90]
  • Sir Robert Livingston of Drumry and East Wemyss [81][82]
  • Sir John Logan of Restalrig, died in battle. (refer Robert Logan of Restalrig )
  • Master of Lovat [82]
  • David Lyon of Baky and Cossins, son of John Lyon, 3rd Lord Glamis. p. 276 [98]
  • George Lyon, son of John Lyon, 3rd Lord Glamis. p. 276 [98]
  • William Lyon, owner of Little Mill, Forfarshire.[126]
  • Aula Macaulay of Doune, Monteith, p. 577 [97]
  • Sir Alexander MacCulloch of Myretoun, King's guard, clad in same Coat of Armour as the King.[127]
  • Charles McCulloch of Myrtoun Wigtownshire
  • Thomas MacDowall of Renfrewshire, son of Uchtred; died in battle. Clan MacDowall
  • Thomas McDowell, younger of Garthclone, p. 485 [97]
  • Uchtred MacDowall, 9th of Garthland, Stoneykirk, Wigtownshire; Clan MacDowall bro-in-law of Patrick Dunbar of Mochrum, Wigtownshire
  • Uchtred Makdowell, Lord of Garthclon,(Pater et avus decesserunt in campo: father and uncle died in battle) p. 480 [97]
  • Sir Iain MacFarlane, 11th Captain of Clan Pharlane; died in battle
  • Col. John McGuffie of Cubbicks Kirkcudbrightshire [128]
  • MacKeyne (possibly Mackaye) [82]
  • Mackenzie of Kintail [82]
  • Hector Odhar Maclean, 9th Chief Clan Maclean, (Macklean of Dowart) killed with his son Lachlan Maclean.[82]
  • Lachlan MacLean, 10th Captain of Clan Maclean
  • Patrick M'Lellane of Gelstoun.[101]
  • Maclellan of Gelston. p. 259 [90]
  • Thomas Macklelan of Bomby [81]
  • Sir William MacLellan Clan MacLellan (de Bombie or Bomby) with bro-in-law Sir John Dunbar. p. 259 [82][90]
  • Sir William Maitland of Lithington Clan Maitland, heir of Sir John Maitland & son-i-law of 4th Lord Seton (Winton), p. 291 [81][82][90]
  • Thomas Masterson, of Cheshire [129]
  • Sir Thomas Maule of Panmure. p. 9 [81][82][95]
  • Edward Maxwell of Tynwald, p. 481 [97]
  • John Maxwell, 4th Lord Maxwell, p. 478.[86]
  • William Melvile de Raithe [82]
  • Rankine Menteith of Bothkennar, Stirlingshire, p. 477 [97]
  • William Moncreiff of Estercolsie, Fife, p. 577 [97]
  • Cuthbert Montgomerie p. 438 [92]
  • Andrew Moray of Abercairny with his eldest son, George. p. 621 [130]
  • George Moray of Abercairny with his father, Andrew. p. 621 [130]
  • Monsieur de la Motte, French ambassador to Scotland [101]
  • ....... Mowat of Stanehous, Lanark, p. 586 [97]
  • John Multrar, Newtoun of Markindie, Fife, p. 498 [97]
  • Sir Adam Mure of Caldwell, p. 455 [131]
  • John Mure of Rowallan; died in battle
  • .....Mure of Torrous Mure, (Torhous Mure), Wigtown p. 585 [97]
  • John Murehede of Bully, pp. 482–3 [97]
  • John Murray of Blackbarony
  • Sir William Murray of Castleton. son-in-law of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Athol Duke of Atholl. p. 460 [80]
  • Sir Alexander Napier of Merchiston Clan Napier p. 412 [82][86][101]
  • Archibald Naper of Marchiston (Marchistoun) (Napier of Merchiston) [81]
  • ........Nelson of Madinpap, Dumfries. (Sub vexillo regis) p. 572 [97]
  • Huchoun Neilsoun, of Craigcaffy, Wigton.[132]
  • Alexander Ogilvy. p. 19 [88]
  • James Ogilvy. p. 31 [88]
  • Colin Oliphant, Master of Oliphant; pp. 45 & 543 [82][86]
  • Laurence Oliphant, Abbot of Inchaffray, 2nd son of Lord Oliphant p. 542 [82][86]
  • Thomas Otterburn, burgess of Edinburgh, (p. 1, no.2) [93]
  • Andrew Pitcairn of Pitcairn [82][133]
  • David Pringle, son of the Laird of Smailholm, killed in battle alongside his four sons.
  • Sir Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie; died in battle. Clan Ramsay p. 92 [82][92]
  • Henry Ramsay of Cotland of Bondhalf, Fife, p. 496 [97]
  • Sir John Ramsay of Trarinzeane (Trarinyeane, Galloway). p. 134 [84] p. 482 [97]
  • Nicholas Ramsay of Foulden, Berwick, p. 592 [97]
  • Sir John Rattray; died in battle. Clan Rattray [101]
  • .........Rettray, Barony of Rettray, part of Murthly, Perthshire, p. 594 [97]
  • Robert Rollo of Duncrub Clan Rollo. p. 186 [95][101]
  • William Rollo of Duncrub with his son. p. 185 [95]
  • .........Rorison, of Dunragane, Dumfries, p. 580 [97]
  • Sir John Ross John Ross, 2nd Lord Ross of Halkhead; died in battle (with his bro-in-law Sir William Edmonstone) p. 81 [86]
  • .........Ross of Cragy, Perthshire, p. 579 [97]
  • John Roy. p. 161 [95]
  • .........Rutherford of Swynside, Roxburgh, p. 600 [97]
  • Master of Ruthven, an eldest son. p. 259 [82][88]
  • William Ruthven of that ilk; died in battle (with Lord Forbes ?)
  • William Ruthven of Ruthven, Perthshire, p. 571 [97]
  • John St.Clair of Herdmanston (possibly). p. 581 [95]
  • John Sandilands. p. 385 [98]
  • Christopher or Edmund Savage of Clifton called Rocksavage, Cheshire[134]
  • Thomas Schaw, Chief Cook (taken prisoner), p. 53 [97]
  • Sir Alexander Scot of Hassendean [82]
  • Patrick Scott, farmer in Stratherne, p. 489 [97]
  • Sir William Scott of Balwery, Fife (taken prisoner: identified the body of James IV at Berwick-upon-Tweed), (Sub vexillo regis) p. 80 [97]
  • John Scrimgeour of Glassary p. 310 [92]
  • Sir Alexander Seton, 2nd of Touch or Sir Alexander Seton of Parbroath.[81][82]
  • Sir Alexander Setton [4]
  • George Seton, 5th Lord Seton; died in battle. 3rd Lord Seton, p. 152 [84]
  • Sir Ninian Seyton of Brutcastell, p. 603 [97]
  • Sir William Seton 3rd son of 2nd Earl of Huntly and grandson of James I of Scotland. p. 520 [83]
  • William Simpson of Logie, Stirlingshire, p. 477 [97]
  • Andrew Simson of Grange of Bothkennar, Stirlingshire, p. 477 [97]
  • Sir William Sinclair, 2nd Earl of Caithness, 12th Baron of Roslin Barony of Roslin.,[81] p. 207 [82]
  • Henry Sinclair, 3rd Lord Sinclair Clan Sinclair
  • Henry Sinclair, Lord Orkney (Qui obiit sub vexillo domini regis) p. 32 [97]
  • Sir John Somerville of Cambusnethan; died in battle.[81][82][101]
  • William Spotswood of Spotswood. William Spottiswood.[82][135]
  • Sir Alexander Stewart of Greenan (or Grenan), son of Alexander Stewart of Garlies.[136]
  • Alexander Stewart 4th of Garlies. Alexander Stewart, 1st Earl of Galloway p. 152 [88] (with his bro-in-law, William Adair) [82]
  • Andrew Stewart, Lord Avandale; died in battle
  • James Stewart, laird of Traquair. p. 367,[95] p. 398 [98]
  • John Stewart, Earl of Athole [81]
  • Sir John Stewart of Minto Lord Provost of Glasgow [82]
  • Malcolm Stewart, Earl of Lenox [81]
  • Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox; died in battle
  • Thomas Stewart, 2nd Lord Innermeath,[81] p. 4 [90]
  • John Striveling, Mylntoun of Creauch, in Stewartoune. (Qui obiit in bello cum rege. Sub vexillo regis) p. 491 [97]
  • Sir John Stuart (or Stewart) 2nd son of the Earl of Buchan [82]
  • Alexander Strathauchin of Balmady.[118]
  • Alexander Thomson [137]
  • Sir Brian Tunstall of Thurland Castle; died in battle
  • William Wallace of Craigie [82]
  • Willielmi Wallace de Carnell [138]
  • Henry Wardlaw of Kilbaberton, Edinburgh, p. 574 [97]
  • Sir David Wemyss, bro-i-law of Robert Gray. p. 278,[88] p. 14 [86] "[82][139]
  • William Wood of Raik, Aberdeenshire, p. 576 [97]

Names of Scottish casualties from property records[]

A number of subsequent property transactions give names of the fallen. A register of royal charters was kept and published as the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland. The battle was mentioned because of the declaration James IV had made at Twiselhaugh respecting the heritage of the heirs of potential casualties, which waived feudal fees. Some of the lands noted were those held under Matthew, Earl of Lennox, who died in the battle of Flodden Field, "in campo bellico de Flodoun" (in the field of war at Flodden). Other great seal charters mentioned an altar dedicated for remembrance at St Giles', Edinburgh and the effect of the battle on Selkirk, a border town.[93][140]

The Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, a record of royal income, also gives names of the fallen. These were feudal tenants who held their lands from the King, and would pay their dues directly to the exchequer. The names of landless men or those who held their lands from a landlord would not appear in this record. The preface to the published volume of the Exchequer Rolls gives this explanation and guide to the variety of Latin phrases used to describe deaths in the campaign;

"The usual form of entry is "qui obiit in bello" (who died in the war), "in campo bellico" (in field of war), or "in campo" (in the field); but the forms also occur "qui obiit sub vixillo regis", (who died under the king's banner) which probably denotes with certainty that the death was at Flodden, or "qui obiit in exercitu in Northumberland" (who died in the army in Northumberland), which perhaps indicates that the death occurred elsewhere than at Flodden, or that the place of death was unknown. In the Responde Books the earlier Sasines (property documents) are silent as to the campaign. The later Sasines refer to it as "bellum", or "campus bellicus," and it is not till 1518 that Flodden is named, and then only about half-a-dozen times. ..., It must be borne in mind that it is only the King's vassals or tenants who left heirs in lands in the comparatively small portion of Scotland then held by the King, whose names can be expected to appear in the present Accounts. Besides the names in the following list, there are many other instances of Sasines taken in favour of the heirs of persons whom we know from other sources to have died at Flodden." p.clxii [97]

English soldiers knighted at Flodden[]

Around forty five English soldiers were knighted by the Earl of Surrey after the battle.[141] Edward Hall mentions some of their positions in the army's advance from Newcastle.[142]

Battlefield today[]

The battlefield still looks much as it probably did at the time of the battle, but the burn and marsh which so badly hampered the Scots advance is now drained. A monument, erected in 1910, is easily reached from Branxton village by following the road past St Paul's Church. There is a small car park and a clearly marked and signposted battlefield trail with interpretive boards which make it easy to visualise the battle. Only the chancel arch remains of the medieval church where James IV's body was said to have rested after the battle—the rest is Victorian, dating from 1849 in the "Norman" style.

Each year, the neighbouring Scottish town of Coldstream marks the Battle of Flodden by a traditional horse-ride to the battlefield and then having a service to mark all those who perished during the fight during the town's "Civic Week"—held on the first week of August.

500th Anniversary[]

On the 500th anniversary of the battle a minute's silence for the town's dead was observed at the Mercat Cross in Edinburgh

The Quincentennial of the battle in 2013 was commemorated by a programme of projects and events bringing together communities from both sides of the border.[143] A number were funded by an £887,300 Heritage Lottery Fund grant[144] including the expansion of the Flodden 1513 Ecomuseum and archaeology, documentary research and education projects, exhibitions and a solemn commemoration.

In fiction[]

  • "Marmion: A Tale of Flodden Field" (1808), an epic poem in six cantos by Sir Walter Scott[145]
  • The Battle of Flodden Field, told from several different perspectives, is the subject of the novel, Flodden Field, by Elisabeth McNeill, published 2007.
  • Flodden from the perspective of a Yorkshire archer is the subject of the novel Tom Fleck, by Harry Nicholson, published 2011.
  • The Flowers of the Forest, a historical novel by Elizabeth Byrd, chronicles the life of Queen Margaret Tudor of Scotland and culminates in the Battle of Flodden.
  • Arthur Sullivan wrote an overture, his Overture Marmion (1867), inspired by the Scott poem.
  • There is no historical record of anyone from the Clan Munro taking part in the Battle of Flodden Field, however there is an old tradition that the Munros of Argyll are descended from a Flodden survivor. One of these descendants was Neil Munro.[146]

See also[]

  • Percy Folio
  • Selkirk Common Riding
  • Teribus ye teri odin

Footnotes[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Paterson, p. 147
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Elliot, p. 117
  3. 3.0 3.1 Elliot, p. 118
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.34 4.35 Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Vol.1: 1509-1514
  5. "Remembering Flodden | Map of the Battle". Flodden.net. http://www.flodden.net/pages/map. Retrieved 2013-09-04. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 ”The Seventy Greatest Battles of All Time”. Published by Thames & Hudson Ltd. 2005. Edited by Jeremy Black. Pages 95 to 97.ISBN 978-0-500-25125-6.
  7. Hannay, Robert Kerr, ed., Letters of James IV, SHS (1953), 307-8, 315-6, 318-9.
  8. 'Henry VIII: July 1513, 16-31', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, vol. 1: 1509-1514 (1920), pp. 952-967. Date accessed: 26 July 2012
  9. Brewer, J. S., ed., Letters & Papers, Henry VIII, vol. 1, (1920), pp. 972 no. 2157, (Henry VIII refers to the issue of money possibly owed as a legacy to Margaret Tudor, see Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1920), p. 623 no. 1342)
  10. Foedera, vol.6 part 1 (1741), p.52: Foedera, vol.13, London (1712), p.382
  11. Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1920), p. 609 no. 1317, p. 623 no. 1342, wardrobe warrant for banners for Earl of Surrey, 1 Aug. 1512.
  12. Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, vol.4, (1902), pp.515-522
  13. Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol.1 (1920), no. 2222, item 16.
  14. Rymer, Thomas, ed., Foedera, vol.6 part 1, Hague (1741), pp.49-50: Foedera, vol.13 (1712), pp. 375-6
  15. Schwarz, Arthur L., VIVAT REX! An Exhibition Commemorating the 500th Anniversary of the Accession of Henry VIII (The Grolier Club, 2009), p.76 "Flodden Field".
  16. Archaeologia Aeliana, Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, Series 2: Vol. 2 (1858), "The Banner and Cross of Saint Cuthbert", page 61; accessed 4 SEP 2010.
  17. Tytler, Patrick Fraser, History of Scotland, vol.5 (1841), p.57: Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, vol.2 (1814), p.278
  18. Macdougal, Norman, James IV, 272-3.
  19. Lindsay of Pitscottie, Robert, History and Chronicle of Scotland, various editions.
  20. Hall, Edward, Chronicle: Union of the two noble and illustrious Houses, 1548, London (1809), pp. 558–9
  21. Holinshed, Raphael, The Scottish chronicle or, a complete history and description of Scotland, vol.1, Arbroath (1805), pp. 142–144.
  22. Ellis, Henry, ed., Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 1st Series, vol.1, Richard Bentley, London (1825), 85-87.
  23. Macdougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell, (1997), 274.
  24. Petrie, George, "An account of Floddon", Proceedings Society Antiquaries Scotland, (1866–7), 146.
  25. Mackie & Spilman ed., Letters of James IV, Scottish History Society, (1953), p.xxxi
  26. "Twizel Bridge History". Flodden1513.com. http://www.flodden1513.com/index.php/site/subpage/history/Twizel_Bridge. Retrieved 2013-09-04. 
  27. Lindsay of Pitscottie, Robert, History of Scotland, vol. 1, Edinburgh (1814), 276–7.
  28. State Papers Henry VIII, vol. iv part iv (1836), 1: Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol 1 (1920), no. 2246 modern spelling.
  29. English Heritage (1995), p.3, quoting PRO Articles of the Battail.
  30. State Papers Henry, vol. iv part iv, (1836), 1-2: Letters Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1920), no. 2246.
  31. Hall, Chronicle, (1809), 562.
  32. State Papers Henry, vol. iv part iv, (1836), 2: Ellis, Henry, ed., (1846), 164, has regem occisum fuisse non longius latitudine lanceae ab illo: Hall (1809), 564.
  33. Letters and Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1920), no. 2913 Dacre to Council 17 May 1514.
  34. Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1920), no. 2283, 2284: Pitscottie, Robert Lindsay of, The History and Chronicles of Scotland, vol. 1, Edinburgh (1814), 266: Lord Herbert also calls the guns the seven sisters.
  35. Hannay, R.K., editor, Acts of the Lords of Council in Public Affairs 1501-1554, Edinburgh (1932) pp.3.
  36. Hay, Denys, Letters of James V, HMSO (1954), 4-5, instruction for Sir Andrew Brownhill, 16 January 1514: Ruddiman, Thomas, Epistolae Regum Scotorum, vol. 1 (1722), 186-187: Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1864), no. 2578
  37. Jeffrey Regan, Military Blunders
  38. Calendar of State Papers Milan, vol.1 (1912), p.406 no.660, Brian Tuke to Richard Pace, 22 September 1513
  39. Grafton, Richard, A Chronicle at Large, 1569, vol.2 (1809), p.271: Holinshed, Raphael, Cronicles of England, Scotland and Wales, vol.3, London (1808) p.593
  40. Laing, David, PSAS, vol.7, 151.
  41. Macdougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell (1997), pp.274-5
  42. Macdougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell (1997), 274-5.
  43. Calendar State Papers Milan, vol. 1 (1912), 407, (translated from Latin).
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References[]

The earliest accounts of the battle are English. These contemporary sources include; the Articles of the Bataill bitwix the Kinge of Scottes and therle of Surrey in Brankstone Field said to be a field despatch; Brian Tuke's news-letter to Cardinal Bainbridge; an Italian poem, La Rotta de Scosesi in part based on Tuke's letters; a news-sheet printed in London, The Trewe Encountre; another lost news-sheet printed by Richard Pynson which was the source used in Edward Hall's Chronicle. These sources are compared and contrasted in the 1995 English Heritage report.

External links[]

Flodden 500 year anniversary projects[]

Coordinates: 55°37′37″N 2°10′31″W / 55.62693°N 2.1753°W / 55.62693; -2.1753

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