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Battle of Mir (1812)
Part of the French invasion of Russia (1812)
Platov3.jpg
Cossack cavalry deployed at Mir (by V. Mazurovsky)
Date9–10 July 1812
LocationMir, Russian Empire (present-day Belarus)
53°27′N 26°28′E / 53.45°N 26.467°E / 53.45; 26.467Coordinates: 53°27′N 26°28′E / 53.45°N 26.467°E / 53.45; 26.467
Result Tactical Russian victory, followed by withdrawal[2]
Belligerents
Flag of the Duchy of Warsaw.svg Duchy of Warsaw Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg Russian Empire[1]
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Duchy of Warsaw.svg Alexander Rozniecki
Tyszkiewicz
Coat of Arms of Russian Empire.svg Matvei Platov
Alexander Vasilchikov
Strength

~3000 men, ~ 2 guns:

  • 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 11th, 15th, and 16th Uhlan Regiments
  • Polish 4th Chasseurs
  • One horse battery

~9000 men, 24 guns:

  • Eight Cossack regiments
  • Two Don batteries
  • Akhtyrka Hussars
  • Kiev and New Russia Dragoons
  • Two horse batteries
  • Lithuanian Uhlans
  • 5th Jaegers
Casualties and losses
700 killed, 248 taken prisoner Around 180 killed and wounded, but according to Poles much higher than Polish.,[2] including two Cossack colonels killed

The Battle of Mir took place on 9 and 10 July 1812 during Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Three Polish Lancers divisions battled against Russian cavalry,[3] ending in the first major Russian victory in the French invasion of Russia.[4]

Russian general Matvei Platov had eight Cossack regiments and two Don batteries deployed south of the village of Mir, when one brigade of the Polish Fourth Light Cavalry attacked his advance posts, numbering about 100 men. These advance posts had the dual job of both observation and sentry duty, and to entice the enemy to attack; ambushes of a hundred men each were set up farther down the road to Mir, on either side of it.[5] The Polish general Alexander Rosniecki's forces clashed with Russian Alexander Vasilchikov's cavalry, resulting in hand-to-hand combat with fairly even losses. Followed by Uhlans, they swept through the village, attacking Platov's main force. A third Polish brigade attempting to join the fight was encircled and broken by Cossacks, after which the entire Polish force gave ground, driven back with the aid of Russian Hussars.[6] After the arrival of Vasilchikov's Akhtyrka Hussars, Dragoons, and other reinforcements, the battle raged for six hours, shifting to the nearby village of Simiakovo. Platov defeated the enemy there, and moved on to Mir, where he inflicted further losses on the enemy before tactically withdrawing.[7] A complete rout was only averted by Tyszkiewicz's brigade, which covered the Polish retreat.[6]

Polish Lancers clashed with Russian Alexander Vasilchikov's cavalry, resulting in hand-to-hand combat with fairly even losses. Followed by Uhlans, they swept through the village, attacking Platov's main force. A Polish Light Cavalry Brigade attempting to join the fight was encircled and broken by Cossacks, after which the entire Polish force gave ground, driven back with the aid of Russian Hussars.[6] After the arrival of Vasilchikov's Akhtyrka Hussars, Dragoons, and other reinforcements, the battle raged for six hours, shifting to the nearby village of Simiakovo. Platov's Cossacks defeated the enemy there, and moved on to Mir, where they were stopped by Polish 4th Chasseur a Cheval Regiments and 2 Polish Horse Artillery cannons which arrived here with gen.Tyszkiewicz. Cossacks tactically withdrew.[7]

However, Polish Lancer fought hard at six hours this day they were heavily outnumbered and must reteated. A complete rout of Polish 4th Light Cavalry Division was only averted by Tyszkiewicz's reinforcements, which covered the Polish retreat.[6]

After retreating from Mir, the castle there was destroyed with gunpowder. The town of Mir and fort ruins were used as a headquarters by Jérôme Bonaparte, on his way to Moscow.[8]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Note that although no official flag existed during this period, the tricolour represents the officer sash colours and the Double Eagle represents the Tsar's official state symbol.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Smith, Digby (1998) The Napoleonic Wars Data Book, Greenhill, London: ISBN 1-85367-276-9
  3. http://theminiaturespage.com/boards/msg.mv?id=214236
  4. http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/listings/c_russia.html
  5. Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, Volume 19. 1896. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Foord, Edward A. (1915). Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812. Little, Brown and Co.. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 http://www.napolun.com/mirror/napoleonistyka.atspace.com/cossacks.htm
  8. Davies, Norman (1998). Europe: a History. HarperCollins. http://books.google.com/books?id=7zN4crdeEWoC&dq=mir+cossacks+1812&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 

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