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{{Infobox military conflict
{{more footnotes|date=May 2013}}
 
{{infobox military conflict
 
 
|conflict =Battle of Osuchy
 
|conflict =Battle of Osuchy
 
|partof =the [[Occupation of Poland]]
 
|partof =the [[Occupation of Poland]]
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|caption =Historical recreation of battle of Osuchy; summer 2009
 
|caption =Historical recreation of battle of Osuchy; summer 2009
 
|date =June 25–26, 1944
 
|date =June 25–26, 1944
|place =[[Solska Wilderness]], near [[Osuchy]], [[Poland]]
+
|place =[[Solska Wilderness]], near [[Osuchy]], Poland
|coordinates =
 
|map_type =
 
|map_relief =
 
|latitude =
 
|longitude =
 
|map_size =
 
|map_marksize =
 
|map_caption =
 
|map_label =
 
|territory =
 
 
|result =German victory
 
|result =German victory
|status =
 
|combatants_header =
 
 
|combatant1 ={{flagicon image|Flaga PPP.svg|23px}} [[Polish resistance movement in World War II|Polish resistance]]<br>([[Armia Krajowa]], [[Bataliony Chłopskie]])
 
|combatant1 ={{flagicon image|Flaga PPP.svg|23px}} [[Polish resistance movement in World War II|Polish resistance]]<br>([[Armia Krajowa]], [[Bataliony Chłopskie]])
 
|combatant2 ={{flag|Nazi Germany|23px}}
 
|combatant2 ={{flag|Nazi Germany|23px}}
 
|commander1 =[[Edward Markiewicz|mjr Edward Markiewicz "Kalina"]]<br>[[Mieczysław Rakoczy|rtm. Mieczysław Rakoczy "Miecz"]]<br>[[Konrad Bartoszewski|lt. Konrad Bartoszewski "Wir"]]
 
|commander1 =[[Edward Markiewicz|mjr Edward Markiewicz "Kalina"]]<br>[[Mieczysław Rakoczy|rtm. Mieczysław Rakoczy "Miecz"]]<br>[[Konrad Bartoszewski|lt. Konrad Bartoszewski "Wir"]]
 
|commander2 =General [[Helmut Altrichter]]
 
|commander2 =General [[Helmut Altrichter]]
|units1 =
 
|units2 =
 
 
|strength1 =~1,200
 
|strength1 =~1,200
 
|strength2 =~30,000
 
|strength2 =~30,000
 
|casualties1 =~400
 
|casualties1 =~400
 
|casualties2 =Unknown
 
|casualties2 =Unknown
|notes =
 
|campaignbox =
 
 
}}
 
}}
The '''Battle of Osuchy''' (less often referred to as the '''Battle at Sopot River''') was one of the largest battles between the [[Polish resistance movement in World War II|Polish resistance]] and [[Nazi Germany]] in [[occupied Poland]] during [[World War II]], a part of the [[Zamość Uprising]]. It took place near the village of [[Osuchy]] in the [[Solska Wilderness]] (''Puszcza Solska'') on 25-26 June 1944 during the German [[anti-partisan]] operation [[Sturmwind II]] (Operation Hurricane II). The battle ended with the defeat of the local resistance forces that suffered heavy casualties.<ref>Martin Gilbert, ''Second World War A Complete History'', Holt Paperbacks, 2004, ISBN 0-8050-7623-9, [http://books.google.com/books?id=xxdTZE2zREMC&pg=RA4-PA542&vq=osuchy&dq=Osuchy&as_brr=3&sig=eCCdHLUNRN7xjHiSVUwqK72T-To Google Print, p.542]</ref>
+
The '''Battle of Osuchy''' (less often referred to as the '''Battle at Sopot River''') was one of the largest battles between the [[Polish resistance movement in World War II|Polish resistance]] and [[Nazi Germany]] in [[occupied Poland]] during [[World War II]], a part of the [[Zamość Uprising]]. It took place near the village of [[Osuchy]] in the [[Solska Wilderness]] (''Puszcza Solska'') on 25–26 June 1944 during the German [[anti-partisan]] operation [[Sturmwind II]] (Operation Hurricane II). The battle ended with the defeat of the local resistance forces that suffered heavy casualties.<ref>Martin Gilbert, ''Second World War A Complete History'', Holt Paperbacks, 2004, ISBN 0-8050-7623-9, [http://books.google.com/books?id=xxdTZE2zREMC&pg=RA4-PA542&vq=osuchy&dq=Osuchy&as_brr=3&sig=eCCdHLUNRN7xjHiSVUwqK72T-To Google Print, p.542]</ref>
   
 
==Background==
 
==Background==
 
{{main|Sturmwind I|Sturmwind II}}
 
{{main|Sturmwind I|Sturmwind II}}
The Nazi terror since 1942 - part of the [[Generalplan Ost]] - in the [[Zamość]] region in [[occupied Poland]] had led to the creation of many active resistance units. Polish partisans (from [[Armia Krajowa]], [[Bataliony Chłopskie]] and [[Armia Ludowa]]) - with the aid of some [[Soviet partisans]] - made the region almost ungovernable to the Germans. The German garrison in the key city of [[Biłgoraj]] was mostly cut off from land communication with other forces; the town of [[Józefów, Biłgoraj County|Józefów]] was under resistance control, as were many villages and wilderness regions. Vital German communication lines with the units at the [[Eastern Front (WWII)|Eastern Front]] were in peril, and many troops were diverted from the front to deal with the partisans.
+
The Nazi terror since 1942 - part of the [[Generalplan Ost]] - in the Zamość region in [[occupied Poland]] had led to the creation of many active resistance units. Polish partisans (from [[Armia Krajowa]], [[Bataliony Chłopskie]] and [[Armia Ludowa]]) - with the aid of some [[Soviet partisans]] - made the region almost ungovernable to the Germans. The German garrison in the key city of [[Biłgoraj]] was mostly cut off from land communication with other forces; the town of [[Józefów, Biłgoraj County|Józefów]] was under resistance control, as were many villages and wilderness regions. Vital German communication lines with the units at the [[Eastern Front (WWII)|Eastern Front]] were in peril, and many troops were diverted from the front to deal with the partisans.
   
 
The Germans carried out a major anti-partisan operation in early June, [[Sturmwind I]] (German for 'Storm-Wind'). This operation, however, failed to defeat the partisans, who broke out of an encirclement in the [[Janów Forests]] (''Lasy Janowskie'') (according to some estimates, Germans suffered higher casualties than the resistance in Sturmwind I). Some partisan units moved to the [[Solska Wilderness]] and the Germans decided to start another operation - [[Sturmwind II]] - to eliminate them. By 15 June most of the Forest was surrounded; the partisan leaders assumed that the Germans would not enter it, but were proven wrong when on 21 June, after artillery and air bombardment, German forces started to advance.
 
The Germans carried out a major anti-partisan operation in early June, [[Sturmwind I]] (German for 'Storm-Wind'). This operation, however, failed to defeat the partisans, who broke out of an encirclement in the [[Janów Forests]] (''Lasy Janowskie'') (according to some estimates, Germans suffered higher casualties than the resistance in Sturmwind I). Some partisan units moved to the [[Solska Wilderness]] and the Germans decided to start another operation - [[Sturmwind II]] - to eliminate them. By 15 June most of the Forest was surrounded; the partisan leaders assumed that the Germans would not enter it, but were proven wrong when on 21 June, after artillery and air bombardment, German forces started to advance.
   
On the 22 June the [[Armia Ludowa]] unit, numbering about 700, broke through the German lines in the area of [[Górecko Kościelne]] village, suffering heavy casualties. [[Soviet partisans]] under Lt. Col. [[Nikolai Prokopiuk]] - about 1900 people - tried to break free on the night of 22 to 23 June around [[Hamernia]] village; they failed, but succeeded the following night in the area near the [[Borowiec, Lublin Voivodeship|Borowiec]] and [[Huta Różaniecka]] villages. Although Polish and Soviet commanders met, they were unable to agree on a common plan (various sources blame different sides). By then only the combined [[Armia Krajowa]] and [[Bataliony Chłopskie]] units under Major [[Edward Markiewicz]] "Kalina" - about 550 people - remained within the closing circle. The partisans were exhausted, pushed into a swampy area, 6 by 4&nbsp;km, between the [[Tanew]] and [[Sopot (river)|Sopot river]]s. The commander of the remaining partisans, Mjr. Markiewicz, suffered a nervous breakdown, transferred his command to [[Rotmistrz]] [[Mieczysław Rakoczy]] "Miecz", and committed suicide. Rakoczy in turn transferred the command to Lt. [[Konrad Bartoszewski]] "Wir" who decided that the partisans' only hope was to break through along the Sopot river toward Biłgoraj.
+
On the 22 June the [[Armia Ludowa]] unit, numbering about 700, broke through the German lines in the area of [[Górecko Kościelne]] village, suffering heavy casualties. [[Soviet partisans]] under Lt. Col. [[Nikolai Prokopiuk]] - about 1900 people - tried to break free on the night of 22 to 23 June around [[Hamernia]] village; they failed, but succeeded the following night in the area near the [[Borowiec, Lublin Voivodeship|Borowiec]] and [[Huta Różaniecka]] villages. Although Polish and Soviet commanders met, they were unable to agree on a common plan (various sources blame different sides). By then only the combined [[Armia Krajowa]] and [[Bataliony Chłopskie]] units under Major [[Edward Markiewicz]] "Kalina" - about 550 people - remained within the closing circle. The partisans were exhausted, pushed into a swampy area, 6 by 4&nbsp;km, between the [[Tanew]] and Sopot rivers. The commander of the remaining partisans, Mjr. Markiewicz, suffered a nervous breakdown, transferred his command to [[Rotmistrz]] [[Mieczysław Rakoczy]] "Miecz", and committed suicide. Rakoczy in turn transferred the command to Lt. [[Konrad Bartoszewski]] "Wir" who decided that the partisans' only hope was to break through along the Sopot river toward Biłgoraj.
   
 
==Opposing forces==
 
==Opposing forces==
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==Aftermath==
 
==Aftermath==
It is estimated that about 400 out of the 1,200-strong partisan forces that engaged the Germans on 24-25 June were killed (approximately half of the Polish losses during the Sturmwind II). Most of the rest surrendered; some were executed on the spot, and many were tortured for additional information about the resistance; survivors were sent to [[Nazi concentration camps]]. Nonetheless, while the Germans had weakened the partisans, they had failed to eliminate them. In July the Polish resistance carried out the country-wide [[Operation Tempest]], and in the [[Zamość]] region the town of [[Szczebrzeszyn]] and Zamość itself were freed by the partisans. Soon afterward, the Soviet [[Lublin-Brest Offensive]] cleared out the Germans from most of the region.
+
It is estimated that about 400 out of the 1,200-strong partisan forces that engaged the Germans on 24–25 June were killed (approximately half of the Polish losses during the Sturmwind II). Most of the rest surrendered; some were executed on the spot, and many were tortured for additional information about the resistance; survivors were sent to [[Nazi concentration camps]]. Nonetheless, while the Germans had weakened the partisans, they had failed to eliminate them. In July the Polish resistance carried out the country-wide [[Operation Tempest]], and in the Zamość region the town of [[Szczebrzeszyn]] and Zamość itself were freed by the partisans. Soon afterward, the Soviet [[Lublin-Brest Offensive]] cleared out the Germans from most of the region.
   
 
Currently in Osuchy there is a military cemetery dedicated to the partisans who fell in the battle.
 
Currently in Osuchy there is a military cemetery dedicated to the partisans who fell in the battle.
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{{Reflist}}
 
{{Reflist}}
   
  +
*
*{{iw-ref|pl|Bitwa pod Osuchami|1 November 2007}}
 
 
*{{pl icon}} Marian Kurzyna, [http://www.lublin.lasy.gov.pl/att/Aktualnosci/Osuchy_1944.doc Osuchy 1944 - tekst wystąpienia na cmentarzu wojennym w dn. 08.09.06] on the pages of Regionalna Dyrekcja Lasów Państwowych w Lublinie
 
*{{pl icon}} Marian Kurzyna, [http://www.lublin.lasy.gov.pl/att/Aktualnosci/Osuchy_1944.doc Osuchy 1944 - tekst wystąpienia na cmentarzu wojennym w dn. 08.09.06] on the pages of Regionalna Dyrekcja Lasów Państwowych w Lublinie
 
*{{pl icon}} Krzysztof Czubara, [http://www.roztocze.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=483&Itemid=94 STRZAŁY NAD SOPOTEM], Tygodnik Zamojski, 28.06.2006
 
*{{pl icon}} Krzysztof Czubara, [http://www.roztocze.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=483&Itemid=94 STRZAŁY NAD SOPOTEM], Tygodnik Zamojski, 28.06.2006
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{{coord missing|Poland}}
 
{{coord missing|Poland}}
  +
  +
{{Wikipedia|Battle of Osuchy}}
   
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Battle of Osuchy}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Battle of Osuchy}}

Latest revision as of 21:48, 23 April 2016

Battle of Osuchy
Part of the Occupation of Poland
OsuchyBitwa2009.JPG
Historical recreation of battle of Osuchy; summer 2009
DateJune 25–26, 1944
LocationSolska Wilderness, near Osuchy, Poland
Result German victory
Belligerents
Polish resistance
(Armia Krajowa, Bataliony Chłopskie)
 Nazi Germany
Commanders and leaders
mjr Edward Markiewicz "Kalina"
rtm. Mieczysław Rakoczy "Miecz"
lt. Konrad Bartoszewski "Wir"
General Helmut Altrichter
Strength
~1,200 ~30,000
Casualties and losses
~400 Unknown

The Battle of Osuchy (less often referred to as the Battle at Sopot River) was one of the largest battles between the Polish resistance and Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II, a part of the Zamość Uprising. It took place near the village of Osuchy in the Solska Wilderness (Puszcza Solska) on 25–26 June 1944 during the German anti-partisan operation Sturmwind II (Operation Hurricane II). The battle ended with the defeat of the local resistance forces that suffered heavy casualties.[1]

Background[]

The Nazi terror since 1942 - part of the Generalplan Ost - in the Zamość region in occupied Poland had led to the creation of many active resistance units. Polish partisans (from Armia Krajowa, Bataliony Chłopskie and Armia Ludowa) - with the aid of some Soviet partisans - made the region almost ungovernable to the Germans. The German garrison in the key city of Biłgoraj was mostly cut off from land communication with other forces; the town of Józefów was under resistance control, as were many villages and wilderness regions. Vital German communication lines with the units at the Eastern Front were in peril, and many troops were diverted from the front to deal with the partisans.

The Germans carried out a major anti-partisan operation in early June, Sturmwind I (German for 'Storm-Wind'). This operation, however, failed to defeat the partisans, who broke out of an encirclement in the Janów Forests (Lasy Janowskie) (according to some estimates, Germans suffered higher casualties than the resistance in Sturmwind I). Some partisan units moved to the Solska Wilderness and the Germans decided to start another operation - Sturmwind II - to eliminate them. By 15 June most of the Forest was surrounded; the partisan leaders assumed that the Germans would not enter it, but were proven wrong when on 21 June, after artillery and air bombardment, German forces started to advance.

On the 22 June the Armia Ludowa unit, numbering about 700, broke through the German lines in the area of Górecko Kościelne village, suffering heavy casualties. Soviet partisans under Lt. Col. Nikolai Prokopiuk - about 1900 people - tried to break free on the night of 22 to 23 June around Hamernia village; they failed, but succeeded the following night in the area near the Borowiec and Huta Różaniecka villages. Although Polish and Soviet commanders met, they were unable to agree on a common plan (various sources blame different sides). By then only the combined Armia Krajowa and Bataliony Chłopskie units under Major Edward Markiewicz "Kalina" - about 550 people - remained within the closing circle. The partisans were exhausted, pushed into a swampy area, 6 by 4 km, between the Tanew and Sopot rivers. The commander of the remaining partisans, Mjr. Markiewicz, suffered a nervous breakdown, transferred his command to Rotmistrz Mieczysław Rakoczy "Miecz", and committed suicide. Rakoczy in turn transferred the command to Lt. Konrad Bartoszewski "Wir" who decided that the partisans' only hope was to break through along the Sopot river toward Biłgoraj.

Opposing forces[]

Polish resistance:

  • Armia Krajowa
    • Kurs Młodszych Dowódców Piechoty Obwodu AK Biłgoraj, irregular unit under lt. Konrad Bartoszewski "Wir",
    • 1 Kompania Sztabowa Inspektoratu Zamojskiego AK irregular unit under lt. Adam Haniewicz "Woyna"
    • irregular unit under lt. Józef Stegliński "Cord" (commander of AK Region Biłgoraj)
    • irregular unit under lt. Jan Kryk "Topola"
    • irregular medical unit "Szpital Leśny Obwodu AK Biłgoraj 665" under lt. md. Lucjan Kopeć "Radwan"
  • Bataliony Chłopskie
    • part of I Battalion Hrubieszowski under mjr. Stanisław Basaj "Ryś" (left the region before the battle)
    • irregular unit under lt. Jan Kędra "Błyskawica"
    • irregular unit under lt. Antoni Wróbel "Burza"
    • irregular unit under lt. Józef Mazur "Skrzypik"

German forces:

  • 154th Reserve Division
  • 174th Reserve Division
  • 213th Security Division
  • 4th Panzer Army
  • 115 Country Rifleman Regiment
  • air support from Luftflotte 4

Battle[]

On the night of 24 to 25 June, the units of Lt. Jan Kryk "Topola" (AK) and Lt. Jozef Mazur "Skrzypik" (BCh) attempted to break through the road near the villages Fryszarka and Borowiec, but were stopped by the German forces and dispersed; both commanders died.

In the meantime, the main partisan forces reached the village of Osuchy near the Sopot river. On the dawn of 25 June, they launched an assault on the German line. The Germans, however, had fortified their position; the partisans of Mjr. Stanisław Basaj "Ryś" encountered a minefield, and found themselves under German machine gun fire. Soon, the Germans received artillery support. Finding themselves outgunned, the partisans retreated, suffering heavy casualties. The partisan unit under Lt. Jan Kędra "Błyskawica" and Lt. Antoni Wróbel "Burza" managed to break through the first German line, only to encounter a second one 300m beyond it. The most elite of the Polish units - the company of Lt. Adam Haniewicz "Woyna" - broke through the second line, but was stopped at a third line. Running out of manpower and supplies, the partisans were forced to retreat, and were further pushed back by a German counterattack. The unit of Lt. Józef Stegliński "Cord" broke through all three lines but was then engaged and destroyed by German reinforcements. The unit of Lt. Konrad Bartoszewski "Wir", fighting nearby, did however manage to break cleanly out of the German encirclement in the confusion of the battle. The remaining Polish units were forced back into the encirclement; eventually, all these partisans surrendered or were killed.

Aftermath[]

It is estimated that about 400 out of the 1,200-strong partisan forces that engaged the Germans on 24–25 June were killed (approximately half of the Polish losses during the Sturmwind II). Most of the rest surrendered; some were executed on the spot, and many were tortured for additional information about the resistance; survivors were sent to Nazi concentration camps. Nonetheless, while the Germans had weakened the partisans, they had failed to eliminate them. In July the Polish resistance carried out the country-wide Operation Tempest, and in the Zamość region the town of Szczebrzeszyn and Zamość itself were freed by the partisans. Soon afterward, the Soviet Lublin-Brest Offensive cleared out the Germans from most of the region.

Currently in Osuchy there is a military cemetery dedicated to the partisans who fell in the battle.

References[]

  1. Martin Gilbert, Second World War A Complete History, Holt Paperbacks, 2004, ISBN 0-8050-7623-9, Google Print, p.542

External links[]

Further reading[]

  • Jan Grygiel, Zygmunt Mańkowski, Związek Walki Zbrojnej—Armia Krajowa w obwodzie zamojskim 1939-1944, Państwowe Wydawn. Nauk., 1995, ISBN 83-01-05379-8
  • Zygmunt Mańkowski, Jerzy Markiewicz, Jan Naumiuk, Bataliony Chłopskie na Lubelszczyźnie, 1940-1944, Wydawnictwo Lubelskie, 1962
  • Waldemar Tuszyński, Walki partyzanckie w lasach lipskich, janowskich i Puszczy Solskiej, Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej, 1954
  • Wojciech Sulew, Lasy w ogniu: Zamojszczyzna, 1939-1944, Czytelnik, 1965
  • Various authors, Zamojszczyzna w okresie okupacji hitlerowskiej, PAX, 1968

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