The Battle of Panasowka, which took place on September 3, 1863, near the village of Panasowka (currently Bilgoraj County, Lublin Voivodeship), was one of the largest battles of the January Uprising. A unit of Polish rebels of some 1,200 defeated here a Russian army detachment. The Poles were supported by some 40 Hungarian volunteers under Count Edward Nyary, who himself was wounded and died.
Polish insurgents were divided into two units. One was commanded by Colonel Marcin “Lelewel” Borelowski, and consisted of some 700 - 800 irregulars. Secon unit was led by Kajetan “Cwiek” Cieszkowski, and had some 400 irregulars. Facing them was a Russian unit under a Major named Sternberg, which had up to 3,000 soldiers, including dragoons, Cossacks and four cannons.
Borelowski placed his soldiers on a Polak hill, and this location is now marked with a commemorative monument with tablets in Polish and Hungarian languages. After an artillery barrage, Russian infantry attacked Polish positions, but the Russians were stopped by Polish cavalry, and their attack collapsed. Some time later, the Poles counterattacked, breaking through Russian lines, and destroying the cannons. One of Polish infantry units was commanded by a Hungarian aristocrat, Major Edward Nyary, who was hit by bullets in a leg, and then in the stomach. Heavily wounded, Nyary died next day in a military hospital.
After the battle, Polish units split again into two groups. Borelowski and his men marched towards the village of Batorze, while Cieszkowski headed northwest.
A mass grave of those who were killed in the battle is located near Panasowka, along the road to Zwierzyniec. Count Nyary has a separate tomb. Poles lost some 35 dead, while Russian losses amounted to 300.
- Jan Buraczynski, Roztocze. Dzieje osadnictwa, Lublin 2008, s. 346–347, ISBN 978-83-60594-20-9.
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