|Battle of Panium|
|Part of the Syrian Wars|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Antiochus III the Great||Scopas of Aetolia|
The Battle of Panium (also known as Paneion, Ancient Greek: Πάνειον, or Paneas, Πανειάς) was fought in 200 BC between Seleucid and Ptolemaic forces as part of the Syrian Wars. The Seleucids were led by Antiochus III the Great, while the Ptolemaic army was led by Scopas of Aetolia. The Seleucids won the battle. Details of this battle are not clear, but it is known today that major factor in the Seleucid victory was that the Seleucid army used the cataphract in a decisive manner. The cataphracts attacked the Egyptian cavalry on the flanks and drove the enemy cavalry off, leaving the backs of the enemy infantry to the front of the line exposed. The Seleucid cataphracts then attacked their infantry in the rear, thus leading to an Egyptian rout. The specific equipment used by these relatively early cataphracts is not clearly known.
The battle was fought near Paneas (Caesarea Philippi), and marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Judea. Some biblical commentators see this battle as being the one referred to in Daniel 11:15, where it says, "Then the king of the North will come and build up siege ramps and will capture a fortified city."
- Translation of Zeno's Account of the Battle of Panium
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