|Battle of St. Matthew's Day|
|Part of Northern Crusades|
|Counties of Ancient Estonia||
|Commanders and leaders|
|Lembitu of Lehola†||
Caupo of Turaida†
|Casualties and losses|
|1000 - 1400||?|
The Battle of Matthew's Day (Estonian language: Madisepäeva lahing ) was fought near Viljandi (probably in Vanamõisa) on September 21, 1217  during the Livonian Crusade. The adversaries were the German crusading order the Sword Brethren with their recently converted Livonian and Latgalian allies and an army of 6000 Estonian men from different counties, led by Lembitu, who had attempted to unify the Estonians. The Germans won, Lembitu and Caupo of Turaida (converted Livonian chieftain, fought on the order's side) were killed. Also many others were forced to convert.
- Battle of St. Matthew's Day on September 21, 1217 @ Frucht, Richard (2005). Eastern Europe. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=lVBB1a0rC70C&pg=PA69&dq=%22Battle+of+St.+Matthew%27s+Day%22&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U0GDcbGx-p3uPTO7_7WF-m5yjJ8uA.
- Battle of St. Matthew's Day (September 21) @ Miljan, Toivo (2004). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-4904-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=XKWRct15XfkC&pg=PA2&dq=%22Battle+of+St.+Matthew%27s+Day%22&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U2nNmOrTYWc6pc_L9MFgvcf9ejYgA#PPA2,M1.
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