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Bergmann Offensive
Date2 November 1914 - 16 November 1914
LocationErzurum Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
Result Decisive Ottoman victory[citation needed]
 Ottoman Empire  Russian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Hasan Izzet Pasha Georgy Bergmann
118,000 100,000
Casualties and losses
14,000 total 40,000 total

The Bergmann Offensive (Turkish language: Bergmann Atağı; Russian: Берхманнский прорыв; in Russian literature Russian: Кёприкейская операция, "Köprüköy operation") was the first engagement of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I. General Georgy Bergmann, commander of I Caucasian Army Corps, took the initiative against the Ottoman Empire.[1] Contact between the armias began on 6 November.[1]

On 15 November, Bergmann's troops crossed the border in the general direction of Köprüköy. On the right flank, a brigade under Istomin moved from Oltu in the direction of İd.[1] On the left flank a Cossack division under Baratov moved into the Eleşkirt valley towards Yuzveran, after it crossed the Aras River.[1] In response the Ottoman 3rd Army went on a general counter-offensive.[1] As a result Russian forces were threatened by an enveloping movement on both sides. Only quick arrival of Russian reinforcements saved the situation. The fighting finally died away on 29 November.[1] Russian losses were up to 40% and their morale was shaken. Meanwhile, Turkish morale was high. The success during this first engagement encouraged Enver Pasha in his plan to attack at Sarıkamış.[1][2]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Hinterhoff, Eugene (1984). The Campaign in Armenia. Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War I, vol ii. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. pp. 500. ISBN 0-86307-181-3. 
  2. Zayonchkovskiy, A. M. (2000) (in Russian). Первая мировая война (Pervaya mirovaya voyna) [World War I]. Saint-Petersburg: Poligon. pp. 878. ISBN 5-89173-082-0. 

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