|A P-8A lands at Maryland's NAS Patuxent River in April 2010.|
|Role||Anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare|
|National origin||United States of America|
|Manufacturer||Boeing Defense, Space & Security|
|First flight||25 April 2009|
|Introduction||Initial operating capability planned for 2013|
|Status||Flight testing, initial production|
|Primary users|| United States Navy|
|Number built|| 15 as of July 2013|
(6 test aircraft, 9 production aircraft)
|Program cost||US$33,638 million (for FY2013)|
|Developed from||Boeing 737 Next Generation|
The Boeing P-8 Poseidon (formerly the Multimission Maritime Aircraft or MMA) is a military aircraft currently being developed for the United States Navy (USN). The aircraft is being developed by Boeing Defense, Space & Security, modified from the 737-800.
The P-8 is intended to conduct anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and shipping interdiction and to engage in an electronic intelligence (ELINT) role. This will involve carrying torpedoes, depth charges, SLAM-ER, Harpoon anti-ship missiles, and other weapons. It will also be able to drop and monitor sonobuoys. It is designed to operate in conjunction with the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance unmanned aerial vehicle. The P-8 has also been ordered by the Indian Navy.
The Lockheed P-3 Orion ASW aircraft has been in service with the U.S. Navy since 1962. In the mid-1980s the Navy began studies for a replacement aircraft for the P-3, which had its range and time on station capabilities reduced because of increasing weight and was approaching the end of its airframe fatigue life. The Navy specification also required reduced operating and support costs. In 1989, the Navy awarded Lockheed a fixed-price contract to develop the P-7, but the project was canceled the following year.
Boeing and Lockheed Martin were part of a new competition for a replacement aircraft begun in 2000. Lockheed submitted the Orion 21, an updated, new-build version of the P-3 turboprop. Boeing submitted a proposal centered around its 737-800 airliner. BAE Systems offered a new-build version of the Nimrod MRA4, the newest version of the UK's indigenous jet-powered maritime patrol aircraft. However, BAE withdrew from the competition in October 2002, recognizing the political reality that the failure to find a US-based production partner made the bid unrealistic.
On 14 May 2004, Boeing was selected winner of the competition. The following month the Navy awarded Boeing a development contract for MMA. The project was planned to be for at least 108 airframes for the U.S. Navy. More orders are possible from the other nations operating over 200 P-3s. Project value is expected to be worth at least $15 billion. Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, Spirit AeroSystems, GE Aviation Systems, Marshall Aerospace, CFMI, BAE Systems, and Marotta are major subcontractors.
In July 2004, the U.S. Navy placed an order for five MMA aircraft. The first flight-test aircraft was to be completed in 2009 before beginning testing. The first aircraft, a test aircraft, is to be converted to production standards at a later date. Boeing's MMA aircraft received the P-8A designation on 30 March 2005. The Navy later ordered another five aircraft.
Design phase and testingEdit
The P-8 is based on a proven airframe design and will at first be equipped with legacy P-3 systems with later upgrades to more advanced technology. The Government Accountability Office has credited this incremental approach with keeping the project on schedule and on budget. Timely replacement of the P-3s is vital because their airframes are breaking down from age and use.
In mid-2008, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) deleted the requirement for the P-8A to be equipped with magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) equipment. This was part of a NAVAIR-directed effort to reduce P-8A aircraft weight by 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) to improve aircraft range and endurance. P-8Is destined for the Indian Navy will continue to retain MAD. The P-8A will use a new hydrocarbon sensor to detect fuel vapors from diesel submarines and other conventionally powered ships.
The P-8's first flight occurred on 25 April 2009. The second and third P-8s have flown and begun flight testing by early August 2010. On 11 August 2010, the U.S. DoD approved the P-8 for low-rate production. A P-8 deployed sonobuoys for the first time on 15 October 2010, dropping six sonobuoys in three separate low altitude passes.
In 2011, it was found that the ice detection system on the P-8 was defective due to the use of several counterfeit components. It is alleged that these substandard parts had been poorly refurbished and sold to P-8 subcontractor BAE Systems as new by a supplier in China.
The first production P-8A was handed over to the Navy on 4 March 2012. It flew to Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida, where it will be used for aircrew training with the Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS), Patrol Squadron 30 (VP-30). On 24 September 2012, Boeing announced it had received a $1.9 billion order for another 11 aircraft. It has delivered the first three P-8As.
On 10 June 2013, a DoD Inspector General (IG) report noted that the Navy should delay full-rate production for the P-8, as they lack critical information necessary about whether the aircraft meets operational requirements to perform primary missions. Additional testing also needs to be completed to guarantee a 25-year lifespan for the airframe. Boeing executives dismissed the report, saying the flight test program is on track.
On 24 June 2013, a P-8 Poseidon successfully fired a live AGM-84D Block IC Harpoon anti-ship missile scoring a direct hit. The test was to validate the weapons' hardware and software integration onto the aircraft.
On 1 July 2013, a U.S. Navy initial operational test and evaluation (IOT&E) report found that the P-8A Poseidon was "operationally effective, operationally suitable, and ready for fleet introduction." Nine low-rate initial production aircraft have been delivered to the service.
On 31 July 2013, Boeing received a $2.04 billion contract to build 13 P-8A Poseidons as part of the fourth low-rate initial production lot. Deliveries from the fourth lot will raise the fleet to 37 aircraft by the end of 2016. The contract also funds long-lead parts to build 16 P-8As for the first full-rate production lot, scheduled to be awarded in 2014. The decision for the contract to be part of low-rate production is in response to the 10 June Inspector General report. Full-rate production has been delayed until the aircraft demonstrates it can survive its 25-year lifespan without structural fatigue, overcome mission-limited deficiencies, track surface ships, and perform other primary missions.
Boeing approached the U.S. Air Force in 2010 about replacing the E-8C Joint STARS fleet with a modified version of the P-8 at the same cost Northrop Grumman proposed for re-engining and upgrading the E-8s. The proposed version is named P-8 Airborne Ground Surveillance (AGS) and would integrate an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, and have ground moving target indicator (GMTI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capabilities.
The main distinguishing feature of the P-8 AGS is pod-mounted radar, fixed to the lower centerline of the fuselage; the pod is lowered so the engine nacelles do not interrupt the radar's line of sight. Two aft ventral fins on lower aft provide stability for the aircraft. The P-8 AGS also uses the P-8A's Raytheon AN/APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar. Boeing has campaigned for a fleet of P-8 AGS aircraft instead of re-engining the E-8s. The Air Force’s Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) of the JSTARS platform began in March 2010 to review options for performing the JSTARS mission. An initial decision on the AOA was expected in September 2011. At a Senate Armed Services Committee meeting on 20 March 2012, the Air Force said they did not have the resources to buy a new business-class ISR platform.
|P-8 Poseidon cutway showing weapons bay|
|Cutaway of P-8 from Flightglobal.com|
The P-8 is a militarized version of the 737-800 with 737-900-based wings. The airframe uses a 737-800-based fuselage that is similar to but longer than the 737-700-based C-40 Clipper. The P-8 has a strengthened fuselage and 767-400ER-style raked wingtips, instead of the blended winglets available on 737NG variants. The five operator stations (two Naval Flight Officers plus three enlisted Aviation Warfare Operators/Naval Aircrewman) are mounted in a sideways row, along the port side of the cabin. None of these crew stations have windows. One observer window is located on each side of the forward cabin.
The P-8 features the Raytheon APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar. The P-8I will feature an international version of the APY-10. A short bomb bay for torpedoes and other stores opens behind the wing. The aircraft also includes six additional body fuel tanks for extended range from Marshall Aerospace; three of the tanks are located in the forward cargo compartment and three in the rear. In-flight refueling is via a receptacle on top of the forward fuselage, just aft of the cockpit. This receptacle will receive a flying boom that is typically used to refuel US Air Force aircraft, as opposed to the hose-and-drogue system used by other US Navy aircraft. In order to power the additional electronics, the P-8 has a 180kVA electric generator on each engine instead of the 90kVA generator found on civilian 737s. This required a redesign of the nacelles and their mountings to the wings.
In U.S. service, the Poseidon will be complemented by around 40 MQ-4C Triton UAVs for the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance system to provide continuous surveillance. Because of the cancellation of Lockheed Martin's Aerial Common Sensor project, Boeing will propose a signals intelligence variant of the P-8 to service the requirement for the U.S. Navy.
In February 2012, the P-8 made its mission debut during "Bold Alligator" 2012, an annual littoral warfare exercise. In April 2012, the aircraft took part in Exercise Joint Warrior, flying out of RAF Lossiemouth. During RIMPAC 2012 in the Hawaiian area, two P-8As participated in 24 exercise scenarios as part of Air Test and Evaluation Squadron One (VX-1) forward deployed at Marine Corps Base Hawaii in Kaneohe Bay. Initial operating capability is expected in 2013.
U.S. Navy P-8s may rotate through American allies such as "the Philippines or Thailand to help those nations with maritime domain awareness."
Exports and foreign involvementEdit
The U.S. Department of Defense wants to follow a program template similar to that of the F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, with international cooperation from prospective MMA users. Boeing publicly identified New Zealand as a potential customer. Italy indicated interest in purchasing MMA aircraft, with fleet support provided by Alitalia in 2004. However, in December 2008, Italy announced the purchase of four ATR 72 turboprop aircraft to replace its aging Atlantic Maritime Patrol Aircraft, possibly as a temporary solution because Italy remained interested in the P-8.
The Australian Minister for Defence announced on 20 July 2007 that the P-8A MMA had been selected as the preferred aircraft to replace the Royal Australian Air Force's fleet of AP-3C Orions in conjunction with a yet-to-be-selected unmanned aerial vehicle. The last RAAF AP-3C is scheduled to be retired in 2018, after nearly 30 years of service. A memorandum of understanding (MOU) will be signed that will help Australia to gain access to classified data and help to input specific requirements. In March 2009, Australia's Chief of Air Force stated that subject to anticipated government approval, the RAAF would begin to add the P-8 to their fleet in 2016.
In October 2012, Australia formalized its participation in the program with a commitment of A$73.9m (US$81.1m) in an agreement with the U.S. Navy. Eight P-8 aircraft are planned to replace the RAAF's AP-3C aircraft by 2017-18, and reach operational capability by 2019. Air Marshal Geoff Brown, head of the Royal Australian Air Force, has said Australia is considering purchasing more manned P-8 Poseidons, and reducing the number of MQ-4C Triton unmanned aircraft than it originally planned to buy.
In January 2008, Boeing proposed the P-8I, a customized export variant of the P-8A, for the Indian Navy. On 4 January 2009, India's Ministry of Defence signed an agreement with Boeing for the supply of eight P-8Is at a total cost of US$2.1 billion. These aircraft would replace Indian Navy's aging Tupolev Tu-142M maritime surveillance turboprops. Each aircraft has an average cost of about US$220 million. The deal makes India the first international customer of the P-8, and also marks Boeing's first military sale to India. In October 2010, India's Defence Acquisition Council of the Ministry of Defence approved the purchase of four additional P-8Is. In March 2011, it was reported that India was to order four additional P-8s from Boeing later in the year. India plans to order another 12 P-8Is at a later time.
The Data Link II communications technology for the P-8I was received by Boeing from Bharat Electronics Limited in April 2010. The communications system will enable exchange of tactical data and messages between Indian Navy aircraft, ships and shore establishments. Boeing will install the system during P-8I final assembly. The IFF, system from BEL was also handed over to Boeing for integration with P-8I in December 2010. India buying AGM-84L Harpoon Block II Missiles and Mk 54 All-Up-Round Lightweight Torpedoes for the P-8I.
Flight testing of P-8Is began in July 2012, with deliveries planned to start in 2013. The first P-8I was handed over to an Indian naval team at the Boeing facility at Seattle on 19 December 2012. The Indian Navy is to fly it to India along with the second and third aircraft after they are handed over in May and June 2013. The Indian Navy inducted its first Boeing P-8I Poseidon aircraft on 15 May 2013.
In August 2012, AirForces Monthly reported that "Boeing sees the UK as a prime market for its P-8A Poseidon" following the cancellation of Nimrod MRA4. However, the UK has indicated it is not interested in a "silver bullet" solution like the P-8. Boeing is now repackaging the P-8 systems in a cheaper airframe, the Bombardier Challenger 605 business jet. This proposed Maritime Surveillance Aircraft (MSA) has been depicted with the AN/APY-10 radar, an electro-optical sensor in a retractable turret, and a CAE Inc. magnetic anomaly detector.
- P-8A Poseidon – Production variant for the U.S. Navy.
- P-8I Neptune – Export variant for the Indian Navy.
- P-8 AGS – An Airborne Ground Surveillance variant proposed to the U.S. Air Force in 2010 as an alternate to upgrades to the Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS fleet. Its design adds a pod-mounted, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar on the bottom of the fuselage.
- United States Navy plans to acquire 122 aircraft. The 11th P-8 was delivered on September 4, 2013.
- Crew: Flight: 2; Mission: 7
- Length: 129 ft 5 in (39.47 m)
- Wingspan: 123 ft 6 in (37.64 m)
- Height: 42 ft 1 in (12.83 m)
- Empty weight: 138,300 lb (62,730 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 189,200 lb (85,820 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × CFM56-7B turbofan, 27,000 lbf (120 kN) each
- Maximum speed: 490 knots (907 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 440 kn (815 km/h)
- Range: 1,200 nmi (2,222 km)4 hours on station (Anti-submarine warfare mission)
- Service ceiling: 41,000 ft (12,496 m)</ul>Armament
- (5 internal and 6 external) AGM-84H/K SLAM-ER missiles, mines, torpedoes, and a new High Altitude Anti-Submarine Warfare Weapon Capability (HAAWC).</ul>
- Raytheon APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar
- (Advanced Airborne Sensor surface search radar and SIGINT package to be follow on system)
- Boeing 737 AEW&C
- Boeing C-40 Clipper
- Airbus A319 MPA/MMA
- BAE Systems Nimrod MRA4
- Kawasaki P-1
- List of active United States military aircraft
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 "Boeing P-8A Poseidon successfully completes 1st flight." Boeing, 27 April 2009.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Majumdar, Dave. "Picture: Boeing delivers first production P-8A." Flight International, 8 March 2012.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 P-8A judged ready for fleet introduction - Flightglobal.com, 9 July 2013
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "GAO-13-294SP DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs". US Government Accountability Office. March 2013. pp. 103–4. http://www.gao.gov/assets/660/653379.pdf. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- ↑ Bailey, John. "Lockheed loses to Survive." Flight International, 1–7 August 1990.
- ↑ "Boeing 737 MMA." Flug Revue, 17 June 2004.
- ↑ Cortes, Lorenzo and Amy Butler. "Boeing wins navy's $3.88 Billion MMA bid over Lockheed Martin." Defense Daily, 15 June 2004.
- ↑ Lewis, Paul. "BAE pulls out of MMA competition; Lack of US partner prompts Nimrod MRA4 withdrawal." Flight International, 8 October 2002, p. 5. Retrieved: 6 December 2006.
- ↑ LeMond-Holman, Ellen et al. "Boeing team wins $3.89 Billion multi-mission Maritime Aircraft Program." Boeing, 14 May 2004. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- ↑ "Boeing to develop navy's multi-mission maritime aircraft." U.S. Navy, 15 June 2004. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
- ↑ Lemond, Ellen, Chick Ramey and Debiie Gann. "Boeing-led Poseidon team begins production of first P-8A fuselage." Boeing, 12 December 2007. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- ↑ Hatcher, Renee. "MMA is designated P-8A." U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), 1 April 2005. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
- ↑ Freedberg, Sydney J. Jr. "Navy's P-8 Sub Hunter Bets On High Altitude, High Tech; Barf Bags Optional." AOL Defense, 2 October 2012.
- ↑ GAO-09-326SP "Assessments of major weapon programs." GAO. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- ↑ Ramey, Chick and Doug Abbotts. "Boeing P-8A Poseidon aircraft T3 enters flight test." Boeing, 2 August 2010.
- ↑ Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing P-8A approved to launch production." Flight International, 13 August 2010. Retrieved: 28 September 2011.
- ↑ "P-8A Poseidon milestone reached." AirForces Monthly, 13 August 2010.
- ↑ Goettee, Liz. "U.S. Navy Boeing P-8A Poseidon launches first sonobuoys." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 22 October 2010. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
- ↑ Reed, John. "Counterfeit Parts found on the P-8." defensetech.org, 8 November 2011. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- ↑ ""Boeing Receives $1.9 Billion Contract for 11 P-8A Poseidon Aircraft." Boeing, 24 September 2012.
- ↑ Audit: Submarine Hunter Needs ‘Critical’ Testing - Defensetech.org, 12 July 2013
- ↑ Boeing Dismisses Pentagon’s P-8 Poseidon Audit - Defensetech.org, 17 June 2013
- ↑ P-8 Poseidon fires first Harpoon anti-ship missile - Flightglobal.com, 9 July 2013
- ↑ Boeing receives $2bn contract to build 13 P-8As - Flightglobal.com, 1 August 2013
- ↑ McGarry, Brendan. "Navy P-8 Deal Tops $17 Billion in July Awards." Dodbuzz.com, 6 August 2013.
- ↑ Greenert, Admiral Jonathan (18 September 2013). "Statement Before The House Armed Services Committee On Planning For Sequestration In FY 2014 And Perspectives Of The Military Services On The Strategic Choices And Management Review" (pdf). US House of Representatives. http://docs.house.gov/meetings/AS/AS00/20130918/101291/HHRG-113-AS00-Wstate-GreenertUSNJ-20130918.pdf. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- ↑ Rector, Gene. "Uncertainty, perseverance characterized local joint STARS mission." The Warner Robins Patriot, 4 March 2011.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing pitches P-8 variant to replace JSTARS." Flight International, 18 February 2010.
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 31.2 "Overview: P-8 airborne ground surveillance." Boeing. Retrieved: 3 February 2012.
- ↑ Cohen, Aubrey. "Boeing looks to sell more 737-based military jets." Seattle PI, 9 June 2011.
- ↑ "Joint STARS mission area analysis of alternatives (AoA) RFI." hanscom.af.mil. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- ↑ Air Force Won’t Replace JSTARS Fleet - Defensetech.org, 23 March 2012
- ↑ "B-8A Poseidon: Overview." Boeing. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- ↑ Warwick, Graham. "New MMA wingtips combat icing." Flight International, 7 June 2005. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 "AN/APY-10 maritime, littoral and overland surveillance radar." Raytheon, 2011.
- ↑ "Raytheon to develop international version of APY-10 radar for P-8I." Theasiandefence.blogspot.com, 18 July 2010. Retrieved: 13 March 2011.
- ↑ "CUTAWAY: P-8A Poseidon - A Boeing with boost of bravado."
- ↑ Wastnage, Justin. "Boeing unveils new 737 signals intelligence concept." Flight International, 26 January 2006. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- ↑ Cavas, Christopher P. "P-8A makes debut in 'Bold Alligator' exercise." Navy Times, 7 February 2012. Retrieved: 10 April 2012.
- ↑ Crowther, Stuart. "Senior RAF officer reveals MoD may be considering Nimrod replacement." STV Local, 18 April 2012.
- ↑ "VX-1 flies P-8 Poseidon during RIMPAC 2012 (NNS120729-04)." RIMPAC Public Affairs, 29 July 2012. Retrieved: 30 July 2012.
- ↑ Shalal-Esa, Andrea and Eveline Danubrata. "U.S. Navy may station ships in Singapore, Philippines." Reuters, 16 December 2011.
- ↑ Baglole, Joel. "P-8 Poseidon: Future aircraft of the U.S. Navy." About.com, 7 June 2011.
- ↑ "Farnborough News: P-8 Program already looking into crystal ball." Defense News. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- ↑ "U.S. MMA decision reverberates in Italy". Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 June 2004.
- ↑ "Eyes Forward: Italy choses ATR 72s for sea surveillance, but still awaits UAV type selection". Aviation Week and Space Technology, 15 December 2008. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- ↑ Cenciotti, David. "Four ATR72MP to replace the ageing Italian fleet of Br.1150 Atlantic." The Aviationist, 22 December 2008.
- ↑ Alegi, G. Dedalonews "Quattro ATR 72 da pattugliamento marittimo" (in Italian). l’Aeronautica Militare, 12 December 2008. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- ↑ "First pass approval for Orion replacement." The Hon. Dr Brendan Nelson, Minister for Defence, 20 July 2007. Retrieved: 16 September 2007.
- ↑ "Asia Pacific: Avalon 2009: Australia looks set to join P-8 programme." Jane's. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- ↑ "Address to the Air Power Conference." Minister of Defence (Australia), 10 May 2012. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- ↑ Waldron, Greg. "Australia signs A$73.9m deal to participate in P-8A development." Flight International, 5 October 2012. Retrieved: 6 October 2012.
- ↑ "AIR 7000: Phases 1B and 2B." Defense Department (Australian Government), 2 October 2012. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
- ↑ "P-8A Poseidon." Royal Australian Air Force. Retrieved: 3 July 2013.
- ↑ Australia plans to procure more P-8 Poseidon MPA than planned, reducing MQ-4C Triton UAS order - Airrecognition.com, 18 July 2013
- ↑ Pandit, Rajat. "India eyes $2b defence deal with US." The Times of India, 29 January 2008. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- ↑ Pandit, Rajat. "India inks largest-ever defence deal with US." The Times of India, 5 January 2009. Retrieved: 5 January 2009.
- ↑ Ramey, Chick. "2nd Boeing P-8I aircraft for India completes 1st flight." Boeing, 17 July 2012.
- ↑ "India, US to ink arms deal worth Rs 10,700 crore." Rediff News, 17 March 2012. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- ↑ "P-8 replacing Tu-142." strategypage.com, 29 December 2008. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- ↑ 63.0 63.1 Ratnam, Gopal and Edmond Lococo. "Boeing to sell eight reconnaissance planes to India." Bloomberg, 6 January 2009.
- ↑ "Rs 20,000-cr booster for Navy's sea lift, snooping capabilities." The Times of India, 6 October 2010. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- ↑ Raman, P.K. "Navy stamps blue Water presence across IOR, bolsters capacity with induction of MiG-29k, INS Shivalik." India: Press Information Bureau English Releases, 2010. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- ↑ Gulati, Nikhil. "India orders more Boeing maritime planes." The Wall Street Journal, 31 March 2011.
- ↑ Luthra, Gulshan. "Indian Navy to induct 24 Boeing P8-I maritime reconnaissance aircraft." India Strategic, December 2011.
- ↑ 68.0 68.1 "P-8i: India’s Navy picks its future high-end maritime patrol aircraft." Defense Industry Daily, 14 February 2012. Retrieved: 28 November 2012.
- ↑ "Boeing gets equipment from BEL for Indian Navy aircraft." Deccan Herald, 12 May 2012. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- ↑ "Boeing to use BEL designed Datalink-II." The Siasat Diary, 12 May 2010. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- ↑ "BEL supplies P-8I aircraft equipment to Boeing." The Hindu, 23 December 2010. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- ↑ "Indian Navy gets its most sophisticated system yet in P8-I Maritime Aircraft". India Strategic, January 2013.
- ↑ "Боинг" начал программу летных испытаний первого самолета БПА Р-8I "Нептун" ВМС Индии: Boeing launched the first aircraft flight test program BKA p-8I "Neptune" Indian Navy (in Russian)." flotprom, 13 July 2012. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
- ↑ Wallace, James. "Boeing wins first military contract with India." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 6 January 2009. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
- ↑ 75.0 75.1 75.2 "Navy gets first long-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft." The Times of India. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
- ↑ "Indian Navy Anti-submarine aircraft." India Today. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
- ↑ Navy Inducts Boeing Poseidon-8I to Tighten Coastal Security - TimesofIndia.com, May 15, 2013
- ↑ "UK eyes maritime surveillance aircraft." AirForces Monthly, August 2012, p. 5.
- ↑ Osborne, Anthony (12 September 2013). "U.K. Maritime Patrol Capability Re-Enters The Fray". Aviation Week. http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=/article-xml/awx_09_12_2013_p0-615385.xml.
- ↑ "Maritime Surveillance Aircraft: Boeing selects a Bombardier 'Bizjet', the Challenger 605, as the preferred airframe for its proposed MSA". Canadian American Strategic Review. July 2013. http://www.casr.ca/ai-boeing-msa-challenger.htm.
- ↑ Hoyle, Craig. "Picture: India's first 737-based P-8I nears flight debut." Flight, 21 September 2011. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- ↑ Moran, Captain Michael T. "P-8A Poseidon." NAVAIR – U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command – Navy and Marine Corps Aviation Research, Development, Acquisition, Test and Evaluation. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- ↑ Boeing delivers U.S. Navy's 11th P-8A Poseidon
- ↑ "Boeing Delivers 12th Production P-8A Poseidon Maritime Patrol Aircraft to US Navy". November 1, 2013. http://www.navyrecognition.com/index.php/news/defence-news/year-2013-news/november-2013-navy-naval-forces-maritime-industry-technology-security-global-news/1324-boeing-delivers-12th-production-p-8a-poseidon-maritime-patrol-aircraft-to-us-navy.html.
- ↑ Ramey, Chick and Amrita Dhindsa. "Boeing Delivers 1st P-8I Maritime Patrol Aircraft." Boeing. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
- ↑ "P-8A Multi-mission maritime aircraft." United States Navy, 25 January 2007. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- ↑ "P-8A Poseidon". Boeing. Retrieved: 6 July 2007.
- ↑ Ramey, Chick. "P-8A Poseidon: Backgrounder." Boeing, May 2012. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- ↑ "US Navy to start P-8 operational tests in the summer". Flightglobal.com
- ↑ Conway, Thais C. "Raytheon secures prime development contract for advanced airborne sensor." Raytheon, 31 July 2009. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- Endres, Günter. The Illustrated Directory of Modern Commercial Aircraft. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1125-0.
- Norris, Guy and Mark Wagner. Modern Boeing Jetliners. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0717-2.
- Shaw, Robbie. Boeing 737-300 to 800. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0699-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to P-8 Poseidon.|
- P-8 NAVAIR page and P-8 fact file on Navy.mil
- P-8A Poseidon – Australian International Airshow 2009
- MMA Page on Globalsecurity.org
- Boeing P-8A on Defense-Update.com
- P-8 Poseidon God of the Sea site
- "Navy Selects Three Teams To Develop Concepts For Follow-On To EP-3". Defense Daily, 8 February 2008.
- "U.S. OKs record $2.1 billion arms sale to India". Reuters, 16 March 2009
- "EP-X Program Starts To Take Shape". Aviation Week, 12 April 2009.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|