The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (Persian: آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, were a Shī‘ah dynasty of Daylimite or Kurdish origin from Daylaman in Gilan. They founded a confederation that controlled most of modern-day Iran and Iraq in the 10th and 11th centuries. During the 10th and 11th centuries, just prior to the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East.
The founders of the Būyid confederation were ‘Alī ibn Būyah and his two younger brothers, al-Hassan and Aḥmad. Originally a soldier in the service of the Ziyārīds of Ṭabaristān, ‘Alī was able to recruit an army to defeat a Turkish general from Baghdad named Yaqut in 934. Over the next nine years the three brothers gained control of the remainder of the 'Abbāsid Caliphate. While they accepted the titular authority of the caliph in Baghdad, the Būyid rulers assumed effective control of the state.
The first several decades of the Būyid confederation were characterized by large territorial gains. In addition to Fars and Jibal, which were conquered in the 930s, and central Iraq, which submitted in 945, the Būyids took Ray (943), Kermān (967), Oman (967), the Jazīra (979), Ṭabaristān (980), and Gorgan (981). After this, however, the Būyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation gradually breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent.
The approximate century of Būyid rule, coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, represents a period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since it was an interlude between the rule of the 'Abbāsid Arabs and the Seljuq Turks. Indeed, as Dailamite Iranians the Būyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Persia's Sassānid dynasty. In fact, beginning with 'Adud al-Dawla they used the ancient Sassānid title Shāhanshāh (Persian: شاهنشاه), literally "king of kings".
The Buyid confederation was split between and governed by multiple members of the dynasty. In 945, Amir Mu'izz al-Dawla seized Baghdad and gained nominal control over the caliphs. The title used by the Buyid rulers was amīr, meaning "governor" or "prince". Generally one of the amīrs would be recognized as having seniority over the others; this individual would use the title of amīr al-umarā', or senior amīr. Although the senior amīr was the formal head of the Būyids, he did not usually have any significant control outside of his own personal amirate; each amir enjoyed a high degree of autonomy within his own territories. As mentioned above, some of the stronger amīrs used the Sassanid title of Shāhanshāh. Succession of power was hereditary, with fathers dividing their land among their sons.
The Būyid army consisted of their fellow Dailamite Iranians, who served as foot soldiers, and of the Turkish cavalry that had played a prominent role in the 'Abbāsid military. The Dailamites and Turks often quarreled with each other in an attempt to be the dominant force within the army. To compensate their soldiers the Būyid amīrs often distributed iqtā's, or the rights to a percentage of tax revenues from a province, although the practice of payment in kind was also frequently used.
Like most Daylamites at the time, the Būyids were originally Zaydī or Fiver Shī'as. After taking power in Iran and Iraq, however, they began to lean closer to Twelver Shī'ism, possibly due to political considerations. In fact, the Būyids rarely attempted to enforce a particular religious view upon their subjects except when in matters where it would be politically expedient. The Sunnī 'Abbāsids retained the caliphate, although they were deprived of all secular power. In addition, in order to prevent tensions between the Shī'a and Sunni from spreading to government agencies, the Būyid amirs occasionally appointed Christians to high offices instead of Muslims from either sect.
During the mid-11th century, the Buyid amirates gradually fell to the Ghaznavid and Seljuq Turks. In 1029, Majd al-Dawla, who was facing an uprising by his Dailami troops in Ray, requested assistance from Mahmud of Ghazna. When Sultan Mahmud arrived, he deposed Majd al-Dawla, replaced him with a Ghaznavid governor and ended the Buyid dynasty in Ray.
Buyids were Shia and have been called Twelver Shia. However, it is more likely that they began as Zaydi Shia'. As the reason of this turning from Zaydis to Twelver Moojen Momen suggests that since the Buyids were not descendants of Ali, the first Shia Imam, Zaydis Shi'ism doctrine would have urged them to install an Imam from Ali's family. For that reason Buyids tended toward Twelver Shia' which its occulted Imam was more politically attractive to them.
Generally, the three most powerful Buyid amirs at any given time were those in control of Fars, Jibal and Iraq. Sometimes a ruler would come to rule more than one region, but no Buyid rulers ever exercised direct control of all three regions.
Daylamids of Fars
- Ali b. Buya ('Imad al-Dawla) 934–949
- Fana Khusraw ('Adud al-Dawla) 949–983
- Shirzil b. Fana Khusraw (Sharaf al-Dawla) 983–989
- Marzuban b. Fana Khusraw (Samsam al-Dawla) 989–998
- Firuz b. Fana Khusraw (Baha' al-Dawla) 998–1012
- Abu Shuja' b. Firuz (Sultan al-Dawla) 1012–1024
- Abu Kalijar Marzuban b. Abu Shuja' (Imad al-Din) 1024–1048
- Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun 1048–1062
Power in Fars seized by the Shabankara Kurdish Chief Fadluya
Daylamids of Rey
- Rukn al-Dawla 935–976
- Fakhr al-Dawla 976–980
- Mu'ayyad al-Dawla 980–983
- Fakhr al-Dawla (restored) 984–997
- Majd al-Dawla 997–1029
To the Ghaznavids.
Daylamids of Iraq
- Mu'izz al-Dawla 945–967
- 'Izz al-Dawla 966–978
- 'Adud al-Dawla 978–983
- Samsam al-Dawla 983–987
- Sharaf al-Dawla 987–989
- Baha' al-Dawla 989–1012
- Sultan al-Dawla 1012–1021
- Musharrif al-Dawla 1021–1025
- Jalal al-Dawla 1025–1044
- Abu Kalijar 1044–1048
- al-Malik ar-Rahim 1048–1055
To the Seljuqs.
It was not uncommon for younger sons to found collateral lines, or for individual Buyid members to take control of a province and begin ruling there. The following list is incomplete.
Buyids of Basra
- Diya' al-Dawla 980s
To the Buyids of Fars.
Buyids of Hamadan
To the Kakuyids.
Buyids of Kerman
- Qawam al-Dawla 1012–1028
To the Buyids of Fars.
Buyids of Khuzistan
- Taj al-Dawla 980s
To the Buyids of Fars.
|Ali 'Imad al-Daula|
|Hasan Rukn al-Daula|
|Ahmad Mu'izz al-Daula|
|Ali Fakhr al-Daula|
|Panah Khosro 'Adud al-Daula|
|Abu-Mansur Mu'ayyed al-Daula|
|Bakhtiar 'Izz al-Daula|
|Abu Taher Shmas al-Daula|
|Abu Taleb Majd al-Daula|
|Shirzil Sharaf al-Daula|
|Marzuban Samsam al-Daula|
|Fana Khosro Baha' al-Daula|
|Abu'l-Fawaris Qawam al-Daula|
|Abushoja' Sultan al-Daula|
|Abu Ali Musharrif al-Daula|
|Abu Kalijar Emad al-Daula|
|Abu Taher Jalal al-Daula|
|Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun|
|Abu Nasr Khosro Firuz|
 The Buyid Domination as the Historical Background for the Flourishing of Muslim Scholarship During the 4th/10th Century by Dr. M. Ismail Marcinkowski*
- ↑ Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, transl.Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 2002), 143.
- ↑ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, 154-155.
- ↑ JAN RYPKA. History of Iranian Literature. Dordrecht: D. REIDEL PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1968. pg 146
- ↑ Lokman I. Meho,Kelly L. Maglaughli (1968). "Kurdish culture and society: an annotated bibliography". p. 11. ISBN 9780313315435. http://books.google.com/?id=sl4PIeyWriUC&dq=Among+those+dynasties+were+the+Mamlanids+or+the+Rawwadids&q=Buwayhid#v=snippet&q=Buwayhid&f=false.
- ↑ Iranica,Encyclopedia Iranica: BUYIDS:Their father, a certain Būya b. Fannā (Panāh) Ḵosrow was a humble fisherman from Daylam in Gīlān.
- ↑ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, (Brill, 2002), 8. – via Questia (subscription required)
- ↑ The Rulers of Chaghāniyān in Early Islamic Times, C. E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 19, (1981), 6.
- ↑ Blair, Sheila (1992). "The Monumental Inscriptions From Early Islamic Iran and Transoxiana". E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09367-2.
- ↑ Arthur Goldschmidt, "A Concise History of the Middle East: Seventh Edition ", Westview Press, 2001. pg 87.
- ↑ Clawson, Patrick; Rubin, Michael (2005). "Eternal Iran: continuity and chaos". Palgrave Macmillan. p. 19. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Mafizullah, Kabir (1964). "The Buwayhid dynasty of Baghdad, 334/946-447/1055". Iran Society.
- ↑ Abbasids, B. Lewis, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, 19.
- ↑ Sohar and the Daylamī interlude (356–443/967–1051), Valeria Fiorani Piacentini, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Vol. 35, Papers from the thirty-eighth meeting of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held in London, 22–24 July 2004 (2005), 196.
- ↑ Busse, Heribert (1975). "The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs". In Frye, R. N.. Cambridge University Press. pp. 265, 298. ISBN 0-521-20093-8.
- ↑ Sourdel-Thomine, J. "Buwayhids." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume I. New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960. p. 1353.
- ↑ Berkey, Jonathan Porter. The Formation of Islam London: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-58813-8. p. 135
- ↑ Heribert, pp. 287-8
- ↑ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids 994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 53,59,234.
- ↑ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids 994-1040, 53,59,234.
- ↑ The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000-1217), C.E. Bosworth, Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. V, ed. J. A. Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 37.
- ↑ André Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol. 2, (Brill, 2002), 9. – via Questia (subscription required)
- ↑ Bernard Lewis, The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years, (New York: Scribner, 1995) p. 89.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Momen, Moojan (1985). "An Introduction to Shi'i Islam". Yale University Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.
Another excellent discussion of the Buyids is Harvard professor Roy Mottahedeh's Loyalty and Leadership in an Early Islamic Society
- "Buyids" Tilman Nagel
- Encyclopedia Iranica: DEYLAMITES
-  The Buyid Domination as the Historical Background for the Flourishing of Muslim Scholarship During the 4th/10th Century by Dr. M. Ismail Marcinkowski
- The Buwaihids in Iran and Iraq
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