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Cabinda conflict
Cabinda pol77
1977 map of Cabinda
Date 1975–2006
Location Cabinda Province
Result End of organized conflict between FLEC and Angola government. Sporadic attacks by gangs that use to engage in separatist violence. Issues of conflict unresolved, may flare up in future.
Flag of Angola.svg Angola Flag of Cabinda (FLEC propose).svg Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda
Communist Committee of Cabinda
Casualties and losses

The Cabinda conflict is a separatist insurgency of the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda in Cabinda Province against the government of Angola. Cabinda is an exclave bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo and Republic of Congo.

Rich in oil, it produces 60% of the total Angolan output and international corporations such as Chevron Corporation, Total and Agip operate in the country. So does the partially state-owned Sonangol, a key corporation for Angola.

The conflict started several decades ago, as both Angola and Cabinda proclaimed their independence from Portugal in early in 1975, but the first declared the second as part of its territory, invading the exclave in November 1975.[1] The provisional government, led by the FLEC, was overturned, Angola gaining control of the main cities while independentist forces moved into the countryside.

There was constant fighting for decades, as the Angolan Civil War dragged on for nearly thirty years, until 2002,[2] while Cabindan independentist movements experienced a number of splits. A ceasefire was reached between Angola and FLEC-Renovada, while FLEC-FAC denied such a treaty, supporting the Republic of Cabinda government in exile. Still, a few small steps have occurred in recent times, as some leaders have proposed a new ceasefire and peace talks.[3]

According to the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Cabinda is considered under military occupation ,[4] reinforced in recent times by Angolan forces.[5] This is especially true after the Togo national football team was attacked by the FLEC when Angola was hosting the 2010 African Cup of Nations. Rebel forces claimed it was a mistake.[6]

International intervention in the conflict has been limited until now, with Portugal offering only a mediation role and letting the FLEC rule a delegation in Lisbon.[7] Meanwhile France hosts part of the Cabindan government in the exile, the vast majority of whom are francophone. Besides, one must not forget the presence of the French oil company Total in the country. Despite not having a direct link with the region, Netherlands has also participated in the conflict, hosting some talks between the sides in recent years, while the United States and China have kept a close eye on the situation, for the sake of some of their oil corporations in the region, because or the growing relationship between Angola and China. Cuba has reduced its presence after several years of Cuban intervention in the Civil Waron behalf of the government..


  1. Global Security Military. Cabinda
  2. ¿Qué pasa en Cabinda?
  3. [1] Cabindan rebels historic leader offers a ceasefire and proposes peace talks in Luanda
  4. UNPO Resolution Concerning the Cabinda Enclave Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, July 7, 2005
  5. Angola maintains reinforced military presence in Cabinda
  6. Sturcke, James; Myers, Paul; Smith, David (2010-01-11). "Togo footballers were attacked by mistake, Angolan rebels say". The Guardian. 
  7. [2]

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