278,256 Pages

Camp Chapman attack
Location Khost Province, Afghanistan
Date December 30, 2009
Target CIA facility
Attack type
Suicide bombing
Deaths 10 (including the attacker)
Non-fatal injuries
Perpetrators al-Qaeda, Pakistani Taliban

The Camp Chapman attack was a suicide attack by Humam Khalil Abu-Mulal al-Balawi against the Central Intelligence Agency facility inside Forward Operating Base Chapman on December 30, 2009. FOB Chapman is located near the eastern Afghan city of Khost, which is about 10 miles northwest of the Pakistani border. One of the main tasks of the CIA personnel stationed at the base was to provide intelligence supporting drone attacks against targets in Pakistan.[1] Seven American CIA officers and contractors, an officer of Jordan's intelligence service, and an Afghan working for the CIA were killed when al-Balawi detonated a bomb sewn into a vest he was wearing. Six other American CIA officers were wounded. The bombing was the most lethal attack against the CIA in more than 25 years.

Al-Balawi was a Jordanian doctor and jihadist website writer who was detained and interrogated over three days by the Jordanian intelligence service, the General Intelligence Directorate (GID), in January 2009. The GID and the CIA thought they had turned al-Balawi to penetrate al-Qaeda in the Pakistani tribal areas to provide intelligence for high-level targets. Instead, al-Balawi used this trust to gain access to the CIA base in Afghanistan unsearched and perpetrate the attack. The Pakistani Taliban and al-Qaeda claimed responsibility, saying they helped al-Balawi with the attack.

Attack[edit | edit source]

On December 30, 2009, Humam Khalil Abu-Mulal al-Balawi was picked up by Arghawan, an Afghan who was the chief of external security at Camp Chapman, at the border between Miranshah, Pakistan and Khost, Afghanistan.[2](pp166–7) Arghawan drove al-Balawi to Camp Chapman, arriving around 4:30 pm.[3]

The car was waved through three security checkpoints without stopping before arriving at its destination well within the base.[2](pp170–1) Sixteen people were waiting for the car near a building set up to debrief al-Balawi.[2](p197) Al-Balawi got out of the vehicle and detonated the explosives hidden in his suicide vest.[4][5]

Nine people and al-Balawi were killed by the blast. Seven were CIA personnel: five officers, including the chief of the base, and two contractors. One was a Jordanian intelligence officer and another was the Afghan driver. Six other CIA personnel were seriously wounded in the attack, including the deputy chief of Kabul station.[6] Some of those killed had already approached the bomber to search him, whereas others killed were standing some distance away.[6] At least 13 intelligence officers were within 50 feet of al-Balawi when the bomb went off.[7]

After the attack, the base was locked down and 150 mostly Afghan workers were detained and held incommunicado for three days.[8][9] The attack was a major setback for the intelligence agency's operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan.[10][11][12] It was the second largest single-day loss in the CIA's history, after the 1983 United States Embassy bombing in Beirut, Lebanon killed eight CIA agents.[11] The incident suggested that al-Qaeda might not be as weakened as previously thought.[13]

Attacker[edit | edit source]

Humam Khalil Abu-Mulal al-Balawi[edit | edit source]

Al-Balawi was a Jordanian doctor, 32, who worked at a clinic for Palestinian refugee women and children in the Marka refugee camp near Amman, Jordan.[2](p37) He was an al-Qaeda sympathizer from the town of Zarqa, the hometown of Jordanian militant Islamist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. He was married and had two daughters.[14][15][16] Islamist websites, as well as some newspapers, characterized the attacker as a triple agent, someone who is believed to be a double agent by the intelligence organization he infiltrates.[17][18][19]

In fact, al-Balawi was not a double but a triple agent, leading an extraordinary life on the frontline of America’s war against militant Islam.                         The Times, January 6, 2010[18]

Al-Balawi had a history of supporting violent Islamist causes online under the pseudonym Abu Dujana al-Khurasani.[4] Al-Balawi became an administrator and a well-known contributor for al-Hesbah, an online jihadist forum.[20] He had tried to rehabilitate the image of al-Zarqawi in Jordan after the 2005 Amman bombings.[2](p38) Jarrett Brachman, the former director of research at West Point's Combating Terrorism Center, said "since at least 2007, [Abu Dujana had] become one of the most prominent al-Qaida jihadist pundits."[21]

Al-Balawi was arrested by Jordanian intelligence in January 2009 and held for three days. During al-Balawi's questioning, Jordanian intelligence officials threatened to have him jailed and end his medical career, and they hinted they could cause problems for his family. Al-Balawi was told that if cooperated, his slate would be wiped clean and his family left alone. After this episode, the GID and CIA believed they had turned al-Balawi into a double agent.[22] A plan was developed for al-Bawali to infiltrate al-Qaeda in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan, along the Afghan border.[5][17] In March 2009, al-Balawi left Jordan and arrived in Peshawar, Pakistan and made his way into the FATA.[2](p214) The CIA took over the management of al-Balawi from the Jordanians sometime in the second half of 2009, dictating how and when the informant would meet his handlers, according to current and former U.S. intelligence officers.[23]

Meeting at Camp Chapman[edit | edit source]

Al-Balawi had been invited to Camp Chapman after claiming to have information related to senior al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.[16] Al-Balawi was not searched because of his perceived value as someone who could infiltrate the ranks of senior al-Qaeda leaders.[24] A former U.S. counter-terrorism officer, as well as Jordanian government officials, said that he had already provided useful and actionable intelligence to the CIA over several weeks of undercover work in the region.[4][25] A former intelligence official stated that al-Balawi was "feeding us low-level operatives and we were whacking them."[26] He was seen by the CIA and the U.S. administration as the U.S. agency's best hope of tracking down the al-Qaeda leadership.[18] The CIA had come to trust the informant, and the Jordanian spy agency vouched for him, according to officials.[24]

The deputy chief of Kabul station was present for the meeting, more evidence that al-Balawi was highly valued. The CIA was "expecting the meeting to be of such substance that following the meeting their next directive was to call President Obama," a security official in Kabul said.[27]

Statements from relatives[edit | edit source]

Al-Balawi's wife, Defne Bayrak, a journalist who lives in Istanbul, Turkey, has translated several Arabic books into Turkish, including Osama bin Laden: Che Guevara of the East. She said the radicalization of al-Bawali started after the Iraq War in 2003.[28] She doubted that al-Balawi worked as a double agent for the CIA and Jordan's intelligence agency or that he was an al-Qaeda member.[29] Bayrak said that al-Balawi would have acted of his own volition because he regarded the United States as an adversary. She also said that she was proud of her husband.[30][31] In her view, al-Balawi had carried out a "very important mission in such a war."[30] Turkish police questioned and released Bayrak on January 7, 2010.[32]

Al-Balawi's family is of Palestinian origin, from a tribe in the Beersheba region.[33] His brother said al-Balawi had been "changed" by the 2008–09 Israeli offensive in Gaza, and that he had been arrested by Jordanian authorities after volunteering with medical organizations to treat wounded Palestinians in Gaza.[33][34][35] Other family members said that al-Balawi had been pressured to become an informant after Jordanian authorities arrested him in January 2009.[36] Al-Balawi's father said he was called by an Afghan after the attack who told him his son died as a hero in an operation to kill CIA agents.[37] He also said his son "sacrificed his body and soul for the oppressed."[38][39] He blamed the intelligence agencies for turning his son "from a human, a doctor, to a person with a heart full of negative and hostile emotions towards others."[38] Jordanian authorities cautioned the relatives of al-Balawi against speaking with anyone about the incident.[19][40] Members of the family said that Jordan security forces had sealed off the area in which they live, blocking journalists from entering and preventing any family gathering after they heard the news of al-Balawi's death.[34]

Casualties[edit | edit source]

Fatalities, not including the suicide bomber
Name Affiliation and position Age
Jennifer Lynne Matthews CIA, chief of base 45
Scott Michael Roberson CIA, base security chief 39
Darren LaBonte CIA, Amman station case officer 35
Elizabeth Hanson CIA, Kabul station targeter 30
Harold Brown Jr. CIA, case officer 37
Dane Clark Paresi CIA, security contractor 46
Jeremy Wise CIA, security contractor 35
Sharif Ali bin Zeid Jordanian intelligence officer 34
Arghawan Afghan external security chief 30

Not including the attacker, nine people were killed and six others were seriously wounded in the attack. Seven of the dead were Americans working for the CIA. One was al-Balawi's Jordanian case officer and another was the Afghan in charge of external security for the base who had driven al-Balawi to the base from the Pakistan border.

CIA employees and contractors[edit | edit source]

The CIA initially did not release the names of those killed in the attack.[10] All officers on the base worked undercover.[41]

The chief of the base, Jennifer Lynne Matthews, 45 and a mother of three, started tracking al-Qaeda before the September 11 attacks.[6] Joining the CIA in 1989, she had a history in counter-terrorism dating back to the agency's Bin Laden Issue Station.[2](p102)[41] A U.S. official said Matthews was "one of the US government's top experts on al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups."[42] Matthews had been chief of the base since September 2009.[2](p99)

Besides Matthews, the CIA personnel killed included:[43][44]

  • Scott Michael Roberson, 39, the CIA base security chief. Former Atlanta undercover narcotics officer who had worked with the UN in Kosovo.
  • Darren LaBonte, 35, a CIA case officer based in Amman, Jordan. He was the CIA handler for al-Balawi.[2](p77) A former Army Ranger and SWAT team officer in Libertyville, Illinois before September 11, 2001.[2](p122) He then worked for the U.S. Marshals Service and the FBI before he joined the CIA in 2006.[2](p123)
  • Elizabeth Hanson, 30, a CIA targeting analyst at Kabul Station. An economics major from Colby College.
  • Harold Brown, Jr., 37, a CIA case officer. A former Army intelligence officer.[2](p5)
  • Dane Clark Paresi, 46, a security contractor. Retired Army Master Sergeant, 1st Special Forces Group. In his 27-year Army career, Paresi was awarded the Bronze Star, the National Defense Service Medal, the Meritorious Service Medal and the NATO Medal. He served in Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, Kenya, Bosnia and Southeast Asia.[45]
  • Jeremy Wise, 35, a security contractor. Former U.S. Navy SEAL.

Wise and Paresi were security contractors working for Xe Services, a private security company.[43][46]

The bodies of the CIA operatives were transferred to the U.S., and a private ceremony was held at Dover Air Force Base to honor them. Former CIA Director Leon Panetta attended the ceremony.[47]

CIA officers who had traveled from Kabul to the base for the meeting, including the Deputy Chief of Kabul Station, were among those injured.[47] The deputy chief was in grave condition and was taken to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, a U.S. military hospital in Germany.[48] The identities of the other five officers wounded is not public.

Non-U.S. casualties[edit | edit source]

Captain Sharif Ali bin Zeid, 34, a Jordanian military intelligence officer, was killed in the attack. He was the Jordanian handler of al-Balawi and the liaison between him and the CIA.[7][23][49][50] Bin Zeid was a cousin to King Abdullah II of Jordan. Bin Zeid's wake was held in the Royal Palace. King Abdullah II and Queen Rania attended his funeral.[51][52] Official Jordanian news reports said that he died while performing humanitarian service in Afghanistan.[4][40] His death shed light on the U.S.-Jordanian intelligence partnership, which is rarely acknowledged publicly, yet seen by U.S. officials as highly important for their counter-terrorism strategy.[52]

Arghawan, 30, the base's Afghan external security chief, also died. He had picked up al-Balawi at the Pakistan border and drove him to Camp Chapman.[2](p168)

Responsibility[edit | edit source]

Al-Qaeda[edit | edit source]

Al-Qaeda praised the attack.[53] Mustafa Abu al-Yazid, the al-Qaeda leader in Afghanistan, stated that the attack was intended to avenge the deaths of three al-Qaeda and Taliban leaders who were killed in U.S. drone attacks.[36][43] "He avenged our prime martyrs, and as he wrote in his final testament, may God have mercy on him: Taking revenge for the leader the Amir Beitullah Mehsud and the leaders Abu Saleh al-Somali and Abdallah Said al-Libi and their brothers, may God have mercy on them," al-Yazid wrote.[34][54] Baitullah Mehsud was the former head of the Pakistani Taliban, Saleh al-Somali was in charge of al-Qaeda operations outside of Pakistan and Afghanistan, and Said al-Libi was a senior Libyan member of the group, and the leader of al-Qaeda's military organization in the region, the Lashkar al-Zil.[53]

Pakistani Taliban[edit | edit source]

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, an umbrella organization of the Pakistani Taliban, claimed responsibility for the attack and said that they used a turncoat CIA informant to carry it out.[55] Pakistani Taliban chief Hakimullah Mehsud claimed responsibility for the attack, and stated that the attack would avenge the killings of Taliban leader Baitullah Mehsud in a U.S. drone strike in August 2009 and of "al Qaeda's Abdullah."[12][56] He stated, "the suicide bomber was a Jordanian national. This will be admitted by the CIA and the Jordanian government."[12]

On January 9, 2010, the Pakistani television network AAJ TV showed a video that had been released by the Tehrik-i-Taliban. The video showed al-Balawi, sitting beside Hakimullah Mehsud, vowing to avenge the death of the Pakistan Taliban leadership: "We will never forget the blood of our emir, Baitullah Mehsud. We will always demand revenge for him inside America and outside." Hakimullah Mehsud replaced his cousin Baitullah Mehsud as the chief of the Tehrik-i-Taliban after Baitullah was killed by a U.S. drone attack.[57] Al-Balawi's father confirmed that the video showed his son.[38]

Analysts said that, in return for organizational support, al-Balawi probably agreed to appear in the video, and to connect the attack he was planning to the death of Baitullah Mehsud, thus raising the profile of the Tehrik-i-Taliban. Most analysts believe, however, that al Qaeda chose the CIA as the target and ran the operation.[58]

Afghan Taliban[edit | edit source]

Afghan Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid said that the attack was carried out by a Taliban sympathizer in the Afghan National Army. Mujahid said that the "well dressed" official would have been of sufficiently high rank to walk past security at the base.[59] However, this claim was never corroborated.

Background[edit | edit source]

Khost, Afghanistan and North and South Waziristan Tribal Areas, Pakistan map

Khost Province, Afghanistan and North and South Waziristan tribal areas, Pakistan. Camp Chapman is located at the airplane symbol southeast of the city of Khost. Straight-line distance from Khost to Miranshah is less than 25 miles.

The attack took place as the CIA expanded its role in the Afghanistan War, increasing paramilitary operations, including drone attacks in Pakistan. To accomplish this, the CIA had built a number of bases in the southern and eastern provinces of Afghanistan.[60]

The drone attacks carried out by the CIA in Pakistan rely on local informants, who can cross the border into Pakistan in a way CIA officers cannot.[61] CIA officers at the base were involved in the coordination, targeting and surveillance of drone strikes aimed at the Afghan Taliban, the Haqqani network, the Pakistani Taliban and al-Qaeda.[9] At the time of the attack, they were conducting an aggressive campaign against the Haqqani network, a radical group run by Jalaluddin Haqqani and his son, Sirajuddin Haqqani.[43][60]

The attack came at a time when disputes over civilian casualties between the U.S. and Pakistan, and over counter-terrorism strategies between the U.S. and Pakistan, were increasing.[62] Pakistan's security officials have warned against an escalation of the U.S. drone attacks in the country. A senior Pakistani security official urged the United States to coordinate its response to the suicide attack with the Pakistani government, in order to avoid "unnecessary and further friction" to the alliance of both countries, while a U.S. State Department official said that the U.S. counter-terrorism efforts "are coordinated with foreign governments, including with Pakistan, as needed."[63]

Forward Operating Base Chapman[edit | edit source]

Forward Operating Base Chapman is located at the site of a former Afghan army installation with an airstrip. The base is named for Sergeant First Class Nathan Chapman, the first U.S. soldier killed by enemy fire during the Afghanistan war. Chapman was killed while fighting alongside the CIA in 2002.[60] FOB Chapman is located near Forward Operating Base Salerno, a military base used by U.S. special operations forces.[9]

The CIA's base at Camp Chapman was set up at the beginning of the U.S.-led offensive against al-Qaeda and the Afghan Taliban in 2001. It began as an improvised center for operations.[11] A military base at the beginning, it was later transformed into a CIA base.[64] Camp Chapman was also used as a base for the Khost Provincial Reconstruction Team, a military-led development group.[65] In recent years, the base evolved into a major counter-terrorism hub of the CIA's paramilitary Special Activities Division, used for joint operation with U.S. special operations forces and Afghan allies. It also had a housing compound for U.S. intelligence officers.[11][66]

U.S. reaction[edit | edit source]

Drone attacks in North Waziristan[edit | edit source]

The United States responded to the attack by increasing its drone attacks against militants in Pakistan.[67] Nearly every day after the CIA facility was attacked, the U.S. military conducted drone strikes aimed at leaders of the Haqqani network in North Waziristan.[53] In the week after the attack, the U.S. military conducted five drone strikes, an unusually high number.[36] However, U.S. counter-terrorism officials cautioned against linking these attacks to the bombing.[36] After reports of attacks, Pakistan said it would not support the drone attacks in its territory, as they were counterproductive.[68]

In March 2010, the death of Hussein al-Yemeni in a drone attack was announced. Al-Yemeni was called a planner involved in the bomb attack.[69]

Investigations and security measures[edit | edit source]

U.S. officials said that the CIA is also conducting a review of intelligence supplied by al-Balawi, examining whether he supplied false information about U.S. successes amid valid data used to establish his credibility. The investigation includes a review of a list of senior al Qaeda and Taliban operatives reported killed in U.S. drone strikes since January 2009. The National Counterterrorism Center is conducting its own review of the intelligence al-Balawi provided, two officials said.[70]

Following the attack, the U.S. has issued new security guidance to its bases in Afghanistan, according to U.S. military officials. One U.S. military official said the guidance would adjust procedures as quickly as possible on a large scale.[71]

Political reactions and commentary[edit | edit source]

CIA Memorial Wall

The Central Intelligence Agency's Memorial Wall at its headquarters in Langley, Virginia

U.S. President Barack Obama praised the CIA officers who died in the bombing, and Afghan President Hamid Karzai condemned the attack.[72] All seven of the operatives killed in the attack were memorialized with a star on the agency's Memorial Wall at its headquarters.[73]

United States[edit | edit source]

President Barack Obama wrote in a letter to CIA employees: "In recent years, the CIA has been tested as never before. Since our country was attacked on September 11, 2001, you have served on the frontlines in directly confronting the dangers of the 21st century. Because of your service, plots have been disrupted, American lives have been saved, and our Allies and partners have been more secure. Your triumphs and even your names may be unknown to your fellow Americans, but your service is deeply appreciated."[74] The leaders of the House and Senate intelligence committees issued statements of condolence.[11]

Flags at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, flew at half-staff.[10] In a message to CIA employees, CIA Director Leon Panetta said: "Those who fell yesterday were far from home and close to the enemy, doing the hard work that must be done to protect our country from terrorism. We owe them our deepest gratitude."[75] In an article published by the Washington Post, Panetta strongly defended the CIA officers against criticism, and disputed that lax security measures or blind trust in the informant enabled the attacker to succeed.[76]

Islamist militants[edit | edit source]

The attack was praised by Islamist militants after it became known that al-Balawi was the author, under a pen name of Abu Dujana, of some of the anti-Western commentaries that they admired.[77] One militant wrote, referring to al-Balawi's pseudonym: "Our James Bond, who is he? / He is Abu Dujana! / His motto: Let me die or live free! / Our James Bond, what did he seek? / Not power or money, / But justice for the weak."[78]

Jordan[edit | edit source]

Jordanian intelligence officials were embarrassed by the incident due to the fact that they had vouched for al-Balawi. Jordan's government was embarrassed as well, as it did not want the extent of its cooperation with the CIA to be known.[24] Jordan's General Intelligence Department (GID), known as the Mukhabarat, works very closely with the CIA.[40] At the same time, the U.S., and the CIA in particular, are viewed very negatively by the people in Jordan, about half of which have Palestinian origins, as al-Balawi did.[24] Jordan's Prime Minister Samir Rifai defended the country's overseas deployment in support of the United States' war on terror, but the Islamist-led opposition called on the government to stop working with the CIA.[79] King Abdullah II, Queen Rania, and Crown Prince Hussein attended GID Captain Sharif Ali bin Zeid's funeral, as he was a cousin of the King. Official media only reported that bin Zeid was killed on a "humanitarian mission" in Afghanistan, with no mention of the CIA cooperation.[40] Several media analysts were called by Jordanian officials and told not to make inflammatory statements. At least one local journalist working with the foreign media was detained and questioned.[80]

Expert and media commentary[edit | edit source]

Impact[edit | edit source]

In the old days when we were running Russian operations, if you had a double agent the worst that happened was he feeds you false information. These days if you have a double agent he detonates in your face.

Gary Berntsen, former CIA officer[73]

Several former intelligence officials described the attack as emotionally distressing for the spy agency.[41][81] Former CIA deputy director John E. McLaughlin said: "It is the nightmare we've been anticipating since we went into Afghanistan and Iraq."[82] Bruce Hoffman, a professor at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service, characterized the assault as a serious reversal in NATO's war efforts.[66] Former CIA Counterterrorism Chief Robert Grenier described the attack as the Taliban equivalent of a precision guided weapon.[10] "This attack is something that will never be forgotten in Langley, Virginia," said Jack Rice, who formerly worked as a CIA officer in Afghanistan.[83]

Henry Crumpton, a former Coordinator for Counterterrorism who directed the CIA operations in Afghanistan in 2001 and 2002, said that the CIA employees were "experienced frontline officers and their knowledge and expertise will be sorely missed."[11] A NATO official in Afghanistan underscored the significance of the attack, and noted that it had shut down a key station of the CIA in Afghanistan. "These were not people who wrote things down in the computer or in notebooks. It was all in their heads," he said, adding that much of the knowledge would not be recoverable.[43] Several current and former intelligence officials, however, said that the CIA had numerous operatives with experience in Afghanistan, as the country was considered strategic during the Cold War, and because the U.S. has been involved in active warfare there for the last eight years.[84]

Security procedures[edit | edit source]

A U.S. intelligence official said the danger of using informants was inherent but unavoidable. Intelligence agencies have to rely on unsavory individuals to penetrate terrorist groups because no one else has the access. Those hazards would be neither denied nor ignored by the CIA officers.[14] Former intelligence officials said they were deeply troubled about al-Balawi's ability to get close to so many CIA officers. A former agency case officer expressed surprise that "a potential hostile" was able to be in immediate proximity to a large number of CIA operatives. "Why the officers would show a source all their faces, that alone was a terrible decision," said one former senior CIA paramilitary operative who served in Afghanistan.[85] Larry C. Johnson, a former CIA officer and counter-terrorism agent, said that a source supposedly as significant as al-Balawi should never have been brought inside the base, because it risked exposing him.[86]

I have never heard of anything as unprofessional. There's an old infantry rule: Don't bunch up.

A former CIA case officer[87]

Robert Baer, a former CIA officer, said that the agency would be outsourcing intelligence and would have to go to the Jordanians "because we simply cannot, as blond haired blue eyed Americans, cannot get into these camps." He said the attack would make the CIA more reluctant to engage with informants. He added that the attack would have been a huge setback for the CIA's intelligence collection in Afghanistan.[49] "You're talking about an institutional nightmare," said Tim Weiner, author of the book Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA.[88] Former 9/11 Commission chairman Lee H. Hamilton predicted that the attack would forever change how the CIA handles informants. "They will never forget this lesson," he said.[89]

Media reports and commentary[edit | edit source]

Media reports said the attack struck at the heart of American covert operations in the region, with some characterizing it as the CIA's Pearl Harbor.[62] It raised doubts about the reliability of the Afghan forces that are being trained by the United States and its allies, and on the practicality of Western exit strategies that involve training the Afghan army and policy with the aim of enabling them to fight the Taliban on their own.[59][66][90][91]

David Ignatius, a columnist for the Washington Post and the author of the book Body of Lies, opined that the CIA had become careless out of desperation. According to Ignatius, it would be obvious that the CIA would have been so eager to acquire knowledge about the location of Osama bin Laden that it would take every available opportunity to get information.[92] Shoshana Bryen, a U.S. security expert, said that the bombing would make Israel and the U.S. wary in their future dealings with Jordan.[93]

William Saletan noted the mischaracterization of the attack as "an act of terrorism" in many media reports. As terrorism targets civilians, and the CIA employees were conducting a war, he states that the bombing was clearly "an act of war. It was also espionage. But it wasn't terrorism."[94]

In popular culture[edit | edit source]

The Camp Chapman attack was dramatized in the 2012 film Zero Dark Thirty. The "Jessica" character, modeled on Jennifer Lynne Matthews, is killed in the attack.[95]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Lamb, Christina; Amoore, Miles (January 10, 2010). "How this suicide bomber opened a new front in Al-Qaeda’s war". The Sunday Times. http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/world_news/article194722.ece.  mirror
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 Warrick, Joby (2012). The Triple Agent. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 9780307742315. http://books.google.com/books?id=aqEwcvoakJMC. 
  3. Baer, Robert (April 2010). "A Dagger to the CIA". Gentleman's Quarterly. http://www.gq.com/news-politics/politics/201004/dagger-to-the-cia. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Warrick, Joby; Finn, Peter (January 5, 2010). "Bomber of CIA post was trusted informant". http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2010-01-05/world/36901444_1_balawi-actionable-intelligence-jordanian-informant. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Windrem, Robert; Engel, Richard (January 4, 2010). "Jordanian double-agent killed CIA officers". NBC News. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34687312/ns/world_news-south_and_central_asia/. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Smith, R. Jeffery; Warrick, Joby (January 10, 2010). "CIA bomber struck just before search". http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/09/AR2010010900758.html. Retrieved August 1, 2013. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Warrick, Joby (October 20, 2010). "CIA: Systemic failures led to suicide attack". http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/19/AR2010101907514.html. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  8. "CIA base bomber 'was double agent'". Al Jazeera. January 5, 2010. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2010/01/20101542613653890.html. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Warrick, Joby; Constable, Pamela (January 1, 2010). "CIA base attacked in Afghanistan supported airstrikes against al-Qaeda, Taliban". http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/31/AR2009123100541.html. Retrieved August 1, 2013. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Martin, David (December 31, 2009). "Afghan Attack Tremendous Setback for CIA". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/12/31/eveningnews/main6043127.shtml. Retrieved August 3, 2013. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Gorman, Siobhan (January 1, 2010). "Suicide Bombing in Afghanistan Devastates Critical Hub for CIA Activities". http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126225941186711671.html. Retrieved July 31, 2013. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Cohen, Tom (January 4, 2010). "Taliban factions compete for credit in CIA bombing deaths". CNN.com. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/US/01/03/cia.bombing.claims/. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  13. Entous, Adam (January 5, 2010). "Strike on CIA base tests U.S. assessment of al Qaeda". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE60451U20100105. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Halaby, Jamal (January 5, 2010). "CIA bomber coerced to work for Jordan spy agency". http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2010/jan/05/cia-bomber-coerced-to-work-for-jordan-spy-agency/all/?print. Retrieved July 31, 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "AP Coerced" defined multiple times with different content
  15. Ma'ayeh, Suha Philip (January 6, 2010). "CIA suicide bomber was a triple agent". The National. http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/south-asia/cia-suicide-bomber-was-a-triple-agent. Retrieved August 8, 2013. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Green, Matthew (January 5, 2010). "CIA bomber said to be al Qaeda double agent". http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a2eafc82-f9c3-11de-adb4-00144feab49a.html. Retrieved January 5, 2010. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 "CIA Afghan base bomber was Qaeda triple agent: militants". Daily Times. January 6, 2010. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. https://archive.is/vXrxV. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Sabbagh-Gargourin, Rana (January 6, 2010). "Triple agent was 'CIA's best hope for years'". http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/asia/afghanistan/article1843834.ece. Retrieved January 6, 2010.  mirror
  19. 19.0 19.1 "CIA bomber was Qaeda triple agent". January 6, 2010. http://www.kuwaittimes.net/read_news.php?newsid=OTk5MjkzNzY2. Retrieved January 6, 2010. 
  20. "Ex-pal: Bomber of CIA base deceived family". MSNBC. January 5, 2010. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34705029/ns/world_news-south_and_central_asia/. Retrieved January 5, 2010. 
  21. "Attack on CIA in Afghanistan Blamed on Double Agent". PBS Newshour. January 5, 2010. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/terrorism/jan-june10/cia_01-05.html. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  22. Green, Matthew (January 8, 2010). "How triple-agent outwitted CIA’s best". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/0b5c279a-fc72-11de-bc51-00144feab49a.html. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Finn, Peter; Warrick, Joby (January 16, 2010). "In Afghanistan attack, CIA fell victim to series of miscalculations about informant". http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/15/AR2010011504068_pf.html. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Oppel Jr., Richard A.; Mazzetti, Mark; Mekhennet, Souad (January 5, 2010). "Attacker in Afghanistan Was a Double Agent". http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/05/world/asia/05cia.html. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  25. Usborne, David (January 6, 2010). "How CIA was fatally duped by Jordanian double agent". http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/how-cia-was-fatally-duped-by-jordanian-double-agent-1859007.html. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  26. Bowman, Tom (January 12, 2010). "Stepped-Up Drone Strikes Test U.S.-Pakistan Ties". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122498263. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  27. Whittell, Giles; Starkey, Jerome (January 8, 2010). "Eager young recruit, a father to be and man in charge among CIA dead". Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. http://www.thestatesmen.net/news/crippling-blow-to-us-intelligence-cia-deputy-head-in-afghanistan-among-7-killed/. Retrieved July 31, 2013. 
  28. Demir, Adem; Dickey, Christopher (August 15, 2013). "The Bomber's Wife". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/229792. 
  29. "Wife Says CIA Bomber Saw US as Adversary". January 6, 2010. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34731462/ns/world_news-mideastn_africa/. Retrieved January 6, 2010. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 "Bomber's wife 'proud' husband killed CIA officers". Reuters India Edition. January 7, 2010. http://in.reuters.com/article/2010/01/07/qaeda-afghanistan-turkey-idINLDE6061N620100107. Retrieved August 8, 2013. 
  31. Robertson, Nick (January 21, 2010). "CIA bomber's widow: No tears for killed mom". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/01/20/turkey.widow/. Retrieved January 21, 2010. 
  32. Hacaoglu, Selcan (January 8, 2010). "CIA Bomber's Wife Says War Must Go on Against US". Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2010739125_apeuturkeyciaafghanattack.html. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 Farrell, Stephen (January 7, 2010). "Jordanian Bomber’s Path Remains a Mystery to His Family". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/07/world/asia/07jordan.html. Retrieved August 8, 2013. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Khoury, Jack (January 7, 2010). "Report: Al-Qaida CIA bomber was furious over Gaza war". Ha'aretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1140996.html. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  35. "Brother: CIA Bomber under 'Huge Pressures'". CBS News. January 7, 2010. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/01/07/world/main6068041.shtml. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Warrick, Joby (January 7, 2010). "U.S. missile strikes in Pakistan kill Taliban militants". http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/06/AR2010010604597.html. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  37. "Suicide bomber's actions 'out of character' says brother". CNN. January 6, 2010. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/asiapcf/01/06/afghanistan.jordanian.attack/index.html. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  38. "CIA 'not lax' for Afghan attack". Al-Jazeera. January 10, 2010. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2010/01/20101104442820861.html. Retrieved January 10, 2010. 
  39. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 Black, Ian (January 6, 2010). "Jordan embarrassed as bombing reveals CIA link". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jan/06/jordan-embarrassed-cia-link. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  40. 41.0 41.1 41.2 Simpson, Cam; Gorman, Siobhan; Stecklow, Steve (January 2, 2010). "Details Emerge on Victims of Afghan Blast". http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126239183887213069.html. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  41. Skalka, Jennifer (December 17, 2010). "Silents Stars". Washingtonian. http://www.washingtonian.com/articles/people/silent-stars/. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  42. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Mazzetti, Mark (January 7, 2010). "Suicide Bombing Puts a Rare Face on C.I.A.’s Work". http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/07/world/asia/07intel.html. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  43. Majors, Stephen (January 3, 2010). "Ohio native, ex-Navy Seal among CIA workers killed". http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2010/Jan/03/ohio-native-ex-navy-seal-among-cia-workers-killed/. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 
  44. Crombie, Noelle (January 6, 2010). "Army vet with deep Portland ties dies in Afghanistan". Oregonian. http://www.oregonlive.com/news/index.ssf/2010/01/army_vet_with_deep_portland_ti.html. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 
  45. "Source: CIA bomber’s intel led to successes". MSNBC. January 5, 2010. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34705029/ns/world_news-south_and_central_asia/. Retrieved January 6, 2010. 
  46. 47.0 47.1 Gorman, Siobhan; Gopal, Anand; Dreazen, Yochi J. (January 6, 2010). "CIA Blast Blamed on Double Agent". http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126264256099215443.html. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  47. Gjelten, Tom (January 8, 2010). "CIA Base Bomber Considered A Valuable Informant". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122380830. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  48. 49.0 49.1 Ross, Brian; Schifrin, Nick; Atta, Nasser; Ferran, Lee (January 5, 2010). "How a Double Agent Lured Seven CIA Operatives to Their Deaths". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/al-balawi-double-agent-turned-suicide-bomber/story?id=9486017. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  49. "Body of Jordan soldier killed in Afghanistan repatriated". January 2, 2010. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100106080744/http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h-0P80v2ssrgvplZJgprXr-nF3JA. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  50. "Bomber at CIA base was a double agent". January 5, 2010. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2010-01-04-cia-bomber-afghanistan-base_N.htm. Retrieved January 5, 2010. 
  51. 52.0 52.1 Warrick, Joby (January 4, 2010). "Jordan emerges as key CIA counterterrorism ally". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/03/AR2010010302063.html. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  52. 53.0 53.1 53.2 Schifrin, Nick (January 7, 2010). "Al Qaeda Claims Responsibility for CIA Base Bombing". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/al-qaeda-claims-responsibility-cia-base-bombing/story?id=9498684. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  53. "Al Qaeda claims attack on CIA workers in Afghanistan". January 7, 2010. http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCATRE60615X20100107. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  54. Dawar, Rasool (January 1, 2010). "Pakistan Taliban says it bombed CIA site". http://www.militarytimes.com/article/20100101/NEWS/1010303/Pakistan-Taliban-says-bombed-CIA-site. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  55. Chuchmach, Megan; Schifrin, Nick; Martinez, Luis (January 9, 2010). "Martyrdom Video from CIA Base Bomber Links Deadly Attack to Pakistani Taliban". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/cia-base-bomber-martyrdom-video-taped-deadly-afghanistan/story?id=9521756. Retrieved January 10, 2010. 
  56. Hussain, Zahid (January 11, 2010). "Attacker Of CIA Is Linked To Taliban". http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126305287870523271.html. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  57. Georgy, Michael (January 11, 2010). "ANALYSIS - CIA bomber video publicity coup for Pakistan Taliban". Reuters (India). http://in.reuters.com/article/topNews/idINIndia-45310520100111. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  58. 59.0 59.1 di Paolo, Jon (December 31, 2009). "'Brave' CIA Workers Killed By Suicide Bomb". Sky News. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/Afghanistan-CIA-Workers-Killed-By-Suicide-Bomb-As-Afghan-Officer-Apparently-Turns-On-Own-Side/Article/200912415511304. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  59. 60.0 60.1 60.2 Mazzetti, Mark (January 1, 2010). "C.I.A. Takes on Bigger and Riskier Role on Front Lines". http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/01/world/asia/01khost.html. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  60. Agha, Aleem; Schifrin, Nick (January 2, 2010). "Exclusive: CIA Attacker Driven in From Pakistan". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/WN/cia-attacker-driven-pakistan/story?id=9463880. Retrieved August 14, 2013. 
  61. 62.0 62.1 Ansari, Moin (January 1, 2010). "CIAs Pearl Harbor: Blowback stings CIAs Afghan outpost: Was it a drug hit?". Pakistan Daily. http://www.daily.pk/cias-pearl-harbor-blowback-stings-cias-afghan-outpost-was-it-a-drug-hit-13834/. Retrieved January 3, 2010. 
  62. Bokhari, Farhan; Braithwaite, Tom (January 3, 2010). "Pakistan urges united reaction after CIA blast". http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/31b2dd72-f898-11de-beb8-00144feab49a.html. Retrieved January 3, 2010. 
  63. Shah, Amir (December 31, 2009). "CIA Director: 7 CIA Workers Killed In Afghanistan". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/8879491. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  64. Webb, Angela (March 14, 2010). "Khost PRT Transfers Authority". Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System. http://www.dvidshub.net/news/46670/khost-prt-transfers-authority#.Ugzffj-t9QQ. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  65. 66.0 66.1 66.2 Sengupta, Kim (January 1, 2010). "Suicide attack inflicts worst death toll on CIA in 25 years". Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/suicide-attack-inflicts-worst-death-toll-on-cia-in-25-years-1854762.html. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  66. Shane, Scott; Schmitt, Eric (January 23, 2010). "C.I.A. Deaths Prompt Surge in U.S. Drone Strikes". http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/23/world/asia/23drone.html. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  67. Qayum, Khalid (January 7, 2010). "Pakistan Criticizes U.S. Drone Attacks After Raids Kill 17". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601091&sid=aRanzQ9zqHuw. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  68. "US drone strike in Pakistan 'killed key al-Qaeda man'". BBC. March 18, 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8573652.stm. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  69. Lake, Eli (January 13, 2010). "Double agent Al-Balawi's data reviewed". http://washingtontimes.com/news/2010/jan/13/double-agents-data-reviewed. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  70. Lawrence, Chris (January 7, 2010). "Military revising security procedures after attack on CIA". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/US/01/06/military.security.afghanistan/. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  71. "CIA mourns devastating loss in Afghanistan". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. January 1, 2010. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2010/01/01/2783984.htm. Retrieved January 3, 2010. 
  72. 73.0 73.1 Lamb, Christina (January 3, 2010). "Taliban bomber wrecks CIA’s shadowy war". Archived from the original on January 10, 2010. http://www.khilafah.com/index.php/news-watch/south-asia/8459-taliban-bomber-wrecks-cias-shadowy-war. Retrieved July 30, 2013. 
  73. Obama, Barack (December 31, 2009). "Message from the President to the CIA Workforce". Office of the Press Secretary. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/message-president-cia-workforce. 
  74. Panetta, Leon (December 31, 2009). "Statement on CIA Casualties in Afghanistan". Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/news-information/press-releases-statements/cia-casualties-in-afghanistan.html. 
  75. Panetta, Leon (January 10, 2010). "The CIA is proud to be on the front lines against al-Qaeda". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/08/AR2010010803588.html. 
  76. Maclean, William (January 10, 2010). "Bomber's betrayal shows spy challenge for West". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/01/10/us-security-espionage-analysis-idUSTRE6090TE20100110. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 
  77. "Al-Shishani’s Poem to Abu Dujana: 'Our James Bond'". jarretbrachman.net. January 9, 2010. http://jarretbrachman.net/al-shishanis-poem-to-abu-dujana-our-james-bond/. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 
  78. "Jordan opposition demands end to cooperation with CIA". January 13, 2010. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100118140109/http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5g5qJkRIdKd61wqGT6RXr0r66H3fA. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  79. Garcia-Navarro, Lourdes (January 12, 2010). "Jordan Caught Between An Ally And Its People". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122498251. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  80. Ellement, John R. (January 1, 2010). "Victim’s work was a secret to most". http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2010/01/01/work_of_afghan_bomb_victim_from_bolton_a_secret_to_most/. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  81. Nicks, Gary (January 1, 2010). "Suicide blast kills spies". http://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/view/115026/Suicide-blast-kills-spies/. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  82. Tandon, Shaun (January 1, 2010). "For CIA, Afghan attack a historic blow". Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. https://archive.is/FMjvK. Retrieved January 3, 2010. 
  83. "Al-Qaida: CIA attack avenges drone strikes". MSNBC. January 6, 2010. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34737634/ns/world_news-south_and_central_asia/. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  84. Cole, Matthew; Schifrin, Nick; Schwartz, Rhonda (January 6, 2010). "Mystery Surrounds Contractors' Role at CIA Base". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/mystery-surrounds-contractors-role-cia-base/story?id=9486136. Retrieved January 6, 2010. 
  85. MacAskill, Ewen; Nasaw, Daniel; Boone, Jon (January 6, 2010). "Barack Obama criticises CIA failures over Detroit bomb plot". London. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jan/05/cia-intelligence-weaknesses. Retrieved January 11, 2010. 
  86. Warrick, Joby; Finn, Peter (January 6, 2010). "Man who bombed CIA post provided useful intelligence about al-Qaeda". http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/05/AR2010010503298.html. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  87. "Private Ceremony Honors Slain CIA Employees". Christian Broadcasting Network. January 5, 2010. http://www.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2010/January/Bomber-at-CIA-Base-Was-a-Double-Agent-/. Retrieved January 5, 2010. 
  88. Bedard, Paul (January 8, 2010). "Hamilton Says Attack Will Forever Change CIA". http://www.usnews.com/blogs/washington-whispers/2010/01/08/hamilton-says-attack-will-forever-change-cia.html. Retrieved January 8, 2010. 
  89. "Suicide bomber infiltrates secret American base and kills eight CIA agents in massive blow to U.S intelligence". Daily Mail. London. January 1, 2010. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1239581/Eight-CIA-agents-killed-suicide-bombing-U-S-military-base.html. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  90. Klein, Joe (January 7, 2010). "The CIA Double-Cross: How Bad a Blow in Afghanistan?". Time. http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1952149,00.html. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  91. "How The "Hungry" CIA Let Down Its Guard". CBS. January 5, 2010. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/01/05/eveningnews/main6059625.shtml. Retrieved January 6, 2010. 
  92. "Jordan Now Under Gun Following Suicide Bombing". January 6, 2010. http://www.thejewishweek.com/news/international/jordan_now_under_gun_following_suicide_bombing. Retrieved January 6, 2010. 
  93. Saletan, William (January 11, 2010). "Traitor, Bomber, Soldier, Spy: Stop crying "terrorism" every time we're attacked". http://www.slate.com/id/2241145/. Retrieved January 16, 2010. 
  94. Kendall, Paul (February 14, 2013). "Zero Dark Thirty: fact vs fiction". Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/9869992/Zero-Dark-Thirty-fact-vs-fiction.html. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 

Statements[edit | edit source]

Media reports[edit | edit source]

Memorials[edit | edit source]

Further reading[edit | edit source]

Coordinates: 33°20′20″N 69°57′18″E / 33.339°N 69.955°E / 33.339; 69.955

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.