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The following units and commanders of the U.S. and Mexican armed forces fought in the battle of Cerro Gordo from April 17–18, 1847 during the Mexican-American War. The U.S. 1st Division and 1st Brigade, 3rd Division remained in the rear at Veracruz.

United States[]

Army of Invasion: MG Winfield Scott

Headquarters[1]

  • Acting Inspector General: Lt. Colonel Ethan Allen Hitchock
  • Chief of Engineers: Major Smith
  • Chief Topographical Engineer: Major William Turnbull
  • Chief Quartermaster: Captain Allen
Division Brigade Regiments and Others

2nd Division[2]
     MG David E. Twiggs

     Asst. Adjutant General:
    1st Lt. William T. H. Brooks

1st Brigade


   Col William S. Harney

2nd Brigade


   Col Bennet Riley

Artillery
  • Light Battery: Captain Francis Taylor
  • Rocket and Howitzer Battery: Major George H. Talcott[3]

3rd "Volunteer" Division
     MG Robert Patterson

     Asst. Adjutant General:
    1st Lt. William H. French

2nd Brigade


   BG Gideon J. Pillow w Apr 18
   Colonel William B. Campbell

  • Independent Company of Kentucky Infantry: Captain John Stuart Williams[4]
  • 1st Pennsylvania Infantry: Colonel Francis M. Wynkoop
  • 2nd Pennsylvania Infantry: Colonel William B. Roberts
  • 1st Tennessee Infantry: Colonel William B. Campbell
  • 2nd Tennessee Infantry: Colonel William T. Haskell
3rd Brigade


   BG James Shields w Apr 18
   Colonel Edward D. Baker

  • 3rd Illinois Infantry: Colonel Ferris Foreman
  • 4th Illinois Infantry: Colonel Edward D. Baker
  • 2nd New York Infantry: Colonel Ward B. Burnett

Mexico[]

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

Division Brigade Regiments and Others

Division of the East

Ampudia Brigade
  • 3rd Infantry
  • 4th Infantry
  • 5th Infantry
  • 11th Infantry
Vasquez Brigade
  • 1st Light Infantry
  • 2nd Light Infantry
  • 3rd Light Infantry
  • 4th Light Infantry
Juvera Cavalry Brigade
  • 5th Cavalry
  • 9th Cavalry
  • Morelia Cavalry
  • Coraceros Cavaalry
Rangel Brigade
  • 6th Infantry
  • Grenadiers of the Guard
  • Libertad Militia Battalion
  • Galeana Militia Battalion
Pinzon Brigade
  • Atlixco Militia Battalion
  • Zacapoaxtla Militia Battalion
  • Matamoros and Tepeaca Militia Battalion
Arteaga Brigade
  • Puebla Active Battalion
  • National Guard Battalion
Canalizo Cavalry Division
  • Jalapa,Chalchicomula& Orizava Squadrons

As Actually Deployed[]

  • Right- Gen. L. Pinzon -5th Infantry, Atlixco Battalion (total 500 men)and one Art. Battery (7 guns)
  • Center-Navy Capt. B. Araujo- Libertad (400 men),and Zacapoastla (300 men) and one Art. Battery ( 8 guns)
  • Left-Col. Badilo -Jalapa, Coatepec and Teusitlan National Guard Companies (250 men) and one Art. Battery ( 9 guns)
  • Camp of Matamoros-Gen. Jarero- Matamoros and Tepeaca Battalions (450 men) and one gun

Battery on the road-Gen.br. R. Diaz de la Vega-6th Infantry (900 men), Grenaderos Battalion (460 men) and one Art. Battery ( 7 guns)

el Telegrafo(hill)-Gen.br. C. Vasquez, Col. Lopez Uraga, Col R.Palacios (artillery)-3d Infantry (Col. Azpeitia 100 men) and one Art. Battery (6 guns)

Reserve in Camp at Cerro Gordo- Gen.div. A. Lopez de Santa Ana-1st, 2d, 3d (Gen. Banenili) & 4th Light (Ligero) ( 1,700 men), and 4th (Col. Lopez Uraga) & 11th Line (780 men).Artillery reserve (probably one battery of 5 guns),general park, hospital, baggage etc.

Cavalry at Coral Falso-Gen. V. Canalizo -Hussars Squadron, 5th & 9th Line Cavalry, Morelia & Coraceros Regiments, Jalapa, Chalchicomula and Orizava Squadrons. (Juvera and Canalizo Brigades?)

Note: -1.) Manuel Balbontin, a Mexican artillery officer during the war (La Invasion Americana 1888) does not cover the battle.

     -2.) Mexican Artillery batteries usually had 4 guns. Batteries with larger guns had fewer than this. Guns were grouped together by size, i.e. a battery of 4 four pounders ( 4-4 lbs.), or a battery of 3 twelve pounders ( 3-12 lbs.) A total of 43 guns would indicate about 11 batteries. Col. L. Palacios was killed while commanding artillery. Naval Capt P. Ruiz y Baranda, Naval Lt. F. Fernandez, and Capt. V. Arguelles and Lts. M. Camacho, B. Arnable & J. R. Cobarrubias were all captured commanding artillery. Naval Capt. Godinez and artillery officers Malagon and Olzinger were also present.Battery commanders? Naval Capt. Araujo, above was probably a battery commander also. Or, about ten battery commanders. 
      -3.) GMT Games (unsure of sources) posits Pinzon with 7 guns (1- 12 lbs., 2-8 lbs. and 4- 4 lbs. about two batteries),  Araujo with 8 guns ( 4- 8 lbs. and 4- 4 lbs. about two batteries), Badillo with 9 guns ( 3- 8 lbs. and 6- 4 lbs. about two batteries), Diaz with 7 guns (4- 16 lbs. and 3- 8 lbs. about two batteries) Vasques with 4 guns ( 4- 4 lobs. one battery), Jarero with 5 guns ( 1- 8 lbs. and 4- 4 lbs. about one battery). Or about ten batteries.

References[]

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